abstract book - Global Conference on Global Warming-2017

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TÜB‹TAK The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey



ABSTRACT BOOK ISBN 978-605-89885-0-7

July 6 - 10, 2008 Dedeman Hotel, ‹stanbul, Turkey

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS ISBN:978-605-89885-0-7


X. Li (Canada) R. Lofstedt (UK) P. Lund (Finland) D.J.C. MacKay (UK) A.F. Miguel (Portugal) T. Oki (Japan) R.K. Pachauri (India) H. Paksoy (Turkey) A.H. Reis (Portugal) A. Riedacker (France) M.A. Rosen (Canada) T. Sawa (Japan) D. Schaffer (Italy) D. Schmidt (Germany) Z. Sen (Turkey) K. Simeonova (Germany) H.B. Singh (USA) J. Speight (USA) H. Tezel (Canada) M. Tiris (Turkey) G. Tsatsaronis (Germany) J. Veizer (Canada) T.N. Veziroglu (USA) S. Weart (USA) J. Yan (Sweden)

Conference Chair:I. Dincer Conference Co-Chairs: T.H. Karakoc A. Hepbasli Technical Chair: A. Midilli Chief Secretary: S. Gunduz Conference Chair Assistant: C.O. Colpan  Organizing Committee I. Dincer T.H. Karakoc A. Hepbasli A. Midilli S. Gunduz C.O. Colpan M.T. Balta A.M. Colpan A. Kilic A.F. Miguel B. Reddy A.H. Reis A.D. Sahin Official Conference Organizing Company: SLS Tourism Congress Organization Services

Contact Addresses Principal Contact I. Dincer Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2000 Simcoe Street North Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4 Office: UA 3023 E-mail: [email protected] Tel: (905)721.8668 ext. 2573 Fax: (905)721.3370

International Advisory Board A.O. Arnas (USA) M. Bahadir (Germany) T. Barker (UK) Y. Cengel (USA) H.T. Dimitriou (UK) R.B. Duffey (Canada) J.C. Duplessy (France) A. Elkamel (Canada) N. Ghaddar (Lebanon) P. Grammelis (Greece) G.R. Grob (Switzerland) F. Hamdullahpur (Canada) G.P. Hammond (UK) P.G. Harris (Hong Kong) H. Imai (Japan) I.S.F. Jones (Australia) S. Kakac (USA) C. Koroneos (Greece) H. Kwak (Korea) I.B. Kilkis (USA)

Conference Organizing Secreteriat Y.O. Tanriverdi SLS Tourism Congress Organization Services Fahri Gizden Sok No: 4/4 Gayretepe Istanbul, Turkey Telephone: +90 (212) 347 65 00 (pbx) Fax: +90 (212) 347 65 05 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.slsturizm.com.tr 3

PREFACE Global warming is considered an average increase in the Earth’s temperature due to greenhouse effect as a result of both natural and human activities. In common usage, "global warming" often refers to the warming that can occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities. e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and fluorinated gases, which act like a greenhouse around the earth, trapping the heat from the sun into the earth’s atmosphere and increasing the Earth’s temperature. Catasrophic events around the world have brought a desperate picture to forefront! The Global Conference on Global Warming 2008 (GCGW-08) was initiated to bring all disciplines together for local and global solutions to combat global warming. It is a multi–disciplinary global conference on global warming (and climate change), not only in engineering and science but also in all other disciplines (e.g. ecology, education, social sciences, economics, management, political sciences, and information technology). It covers a broad range of topics on energy and environment policies, energy resources, energy conversion technologies, energy management and conservation, energy security, renewables, green technologies, emission reduction and abatement, carbon tax, sustainable development, pollution control and measures, policy development, etc. The GCGW-08 has received considerable international attention from around the world. The total number of abstracts received was 362, of which 168 were accepted for presentation in the conference. The GCGW08 also features 9 keynote addresses by the leading authorities in the area. Furthermore, there are several panel sessions on global warming issues. The conference provides an exciting technical program encompassing a wide range of topics ranging from global warming modeling to ecosystem and biodiversity. As we are all aware, the efforts required in organizing and holding this kind of Confernce are extensive. First, I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere appreciation to my co-chairs, Professors Hikmet Karakoc and Arif Hepbasli, my technical chair, Dr. Adnan Midilli, my chief secretary, Dr. Suleyman Gunduz, and my assistant, Mr. Can-Ozgur Colpan, as well as other organizing committee members for their exemplary efforts. Second, I would like to thank our Conference Organizing Company SLS and its team who has done remarkable job. Third, my special thanks go to the organziers of specialized sessions, panel discussion sessions, forums and specialized sessions. Fourth, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to the organizing bodies and sponsors. Last, but not least, I acknowledge my gratitude to the GCGW-08 keynote speakers, authors, session chairpersons and attendees, whose contributions and efforts have made this great success possible. Dr. ‹brahim Dinçer GCGW-08 Conference Chair


ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF SUPPORT The GCGW-08 Organizing Committee expresses its sincere appreciation to the following cooperating organizations: • American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. • Anadolu University • Carleton University • Clean Energy Research Institute, University of Miami • Ege University • International Association for Green Energy • International Association for Hydrogen Energy • International Clean Energy Consortium • International Society for Low Exergy Systems in Building • International Sustainable Energy Organisation for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency • Nigde University • The Energy and Resources Institute • TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) • University of Ontario Institute of Technology Also, special thanks for the support received from the following sponsors: • TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) • Is›san Is›tma ve Klima Sanayi A.fi. • Viessmann Is› Teknikleri Ticaret A.fi. • Zeytinburnu Belediyesi • Eminönü Hizmet Vakf› • LC Waikiki • Turkish Water Foundation • Yapi-Endustri





SUNDAY, JULY 6, 2008 10:00-19:00

Registration and Setup for Exhibition

MONDAY, JULY 7, 2008 Room: Ballroom 8:30-9:15

Chair: M.A. Rosen Opening Remarks Prof. Ibrahim Dincer, Conference Chairman Prof. Garry Polonsky, Founding President, UOIT Dr. Kadir Topbas, Mayor of Istanbul (TBC) Mr. Muammer Guler, Governor of Istanbul (TBC) Prof. Veysel Eroglu, Minister of Environment and Forestry (TBC) Mr. R. Tayyip Erdogan, Prime Minister of Turkey (TBC) Dr. Abdullah Gul, President of Turkey (TBC)


Chair: G. Polonsky Keynote Address-1 New knowledge on climate change: Imperatives for action

R. K. Pachauri

Keynote Address-2 Global and Sectoral Mitigation Potentials to 2030 and the Carbon Price: Towards Decarbonising the Global Economy 10:10-10:30

Refreshment Break


Chair: G.R. Grob Keynote Address-3 A Low Carbon Society Scenario towards 2050 and Their Economic Consequences Keynote Address-4 Global Warming Reduction through Ocean Carbon Storage


Lunch Break


Session: Climate Change Impacts Chair: D.J.C. MacKay

377 447 548 550 576 590

T. Barker

T. Sawa I. S. F. Jones Room A: Pinar 1

Optimal Paths of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Under Certainty and Uncertainty T. Felgenhauer Decentralised Versus Centralised Systems – Or Fighting Fire With Fire? A Review Of Australian Responses To Its Climate Induced Urban Water Crisis J. Warnken, C. Guilding Early Detection Of Climate Change Impact On Agriculture An Israeli Case Study N. Kliot Planning for the Impacts of the Caspian Sea Level Rise and Climate Change in the North of Iran Y. Filizadeh, K. Zolfinejad, H. R. Islami Climate Change Impacts On Regional Maize Yields And Possible Adaptation Measures In Argentina, M. I. Travasso, G. O. Magrin, G. R. Rodríguez, S. Solman, M. Núñez The Synergistic Effects Of Adaptation To Climate Change On Local, Subregional Level M. Csete 8

MONDAY, JULY 7, 2008 14:00-16:00

Session: Energetic and Environmental Issues-I Chair: E. Entchev

Room B: Pinar 2


Environmental Assessment Of Solar Heating And Cooling Systems In Kuwait Climate A.A. Ghoneim, K.M. Kandil , A.M. Mohammedein, I.M. Kadad


Optimization Of Chilled Ceiling Displacement Ventilation Control System Strategies N. Ghaddar, K. Ghali, M. Mossolly, L. Jensen


A Window Energy Rating System For Typical Office Buildings In Hong Kong C. Tian, T. Chen, H. Yang


Sustainable H/C Systems For Chicken Farms In Syria M. Kharseh, B. Nordell


Marnoch Engine Performance For Multiple Pressure Vessel Configurations I. Marnoch, G. Naterer, M.A. Rosen, J. Weston


Effect Of Operating Conditions And Feedstock On CO2 Emissions Of An Igcc Power Generation System N.V. Gnanapragasam, B.V. Reddy, M.A. Rosen


Session: Human Health Issues-I Chair: K. Simeonova

Room C: Pinar 3


The Impact Of Urban Traffic On Fine Particulate In Zagreb (Croatia) I. Herljevic, I. Hrga, D. Puntari


Health Impacts Of Heat Waves Of 2007 In Hungary - Background And Experiences A. Paldy, J. Bobvos


Approaches On H5N1 Avian Influenza Spreading In Relation With Human Health Risk M. Popa, D. CurflEu, D. Sîrbu, O. Ghiran


Education And Training For Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak D. Sirbu, M. Popa, D. Curseu, M. S. Popa, O. Ghiran


Potential Impact Of Global Climate Change On Pandemic Influenza Risk D. Curseu, D. Sirbu, M. Popa, I. Stoian


Indoor-outdoor Aerosol Concentrations In Two Portuguese Cities And The Global Warming Scenario A. F. Miguel, A. H. Reis, M. Melgão


Refreshment Break 9

MONDAY, JULY 7, 2008 16:20-18:20

Session: Global Warming Models - I Chair: J. Warnken

Room A: Pinar 1


Sustainability RisK Management-based Approach To Global Warming: “Cgw Model” A.K. Yilmaz, H. Karakoc


Crop Yield And CO2 Fixation Monitoring In Asia Using A Photosyntheticsterility Model With Satellites And Meteorological Data D. Kaneko, T. Kumakura, P. Yang


Comparison Of Stationary And Non-stationary Extreme Value Models In Climate Change Studies J. Kysely, J. Picek, R. Beranova


Calculation Of Global Solar Radiation Based On Cloud Data For Major Cities Of South Korea H. Yoo, K. Lee, S. Park, K. Noh


Coal And Fuel Burning Effects On The Atmosphere As Mediated By The Atmopsheric Electric Field And Galactic Cosmic Rays Flux A. H. Reis, C. Serrano


Blocking Sun With Orbiting Balloons C. Park


Session: Ecosystem and Biodiversity - I Chair: I.S.F. Jones

Room B: Pinar 2


The Relationship Between Plant Diversity And Physiographic Factors In Ghalarang Protected Area, Ilam, Western Iran H. Poorbabaei, M. Heydari, A. Najafifar


Coastal Upwelling Variability Along The Southwest Coast Of India – Global Warming K. M. Krishna


Life On Earth From Singlecellular Organisms To Multicellular Organisms Impact Of Global Warming On Life K. Gupta


Bioclimatic Evaluations In The Mountainous Ecosystem Of Dajt-tirana H. Mankolli


Ecological Effects Of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr And Its State In Phytoplanktonic Algae And Zooplanktonic Organisms In Abant Lake –Turkey T. Atici, A. Altindag, S. Ahiska, O. Obali


Phenological Adaptation Of Cereal Weeds To Climate Variations F. Mohamed and B. Mustapha 10

MONDAY, JULY 7, 2008 16:20-18:20

Session: Chemical Aspects-I Chair: L. Karlin

Room C: Pinar 3


The Effect Of Oxidative Medium For Decreasing Of Sulfur&Mineral Matter Of Çan Lignite J. Gülen


Characterization Of Metal Plating Sludge To Identify It’s Environmental Risky Ö. Dere, M. Sari, A. Kanturk, S. Piskin


H2SO3 Leaching Characteristics Of Toxic Metals Recovery From Plating Sludge Ö. Dere, A. Kanturk, M. Sari, S. Piskin


The Biosorption Kinetics Of Cu(Ii) By Ulothrix Zonata From Aqueous Solutions E. Malkoc, Y. Nuhoglu


The Effect Of Reductive Medium For Decreased Of Undesired Parts Of Çan Lignite J. Gülen



From CO2 To Algae To Fuel - An Integrated Process Engineering Approach G.M. Forde, A. Hoadley, P. Webley, X. D. Chen, K.W. Chua, L.M.Ang, G.C. Gardner, J. Wajchman, N. Mohemani Welcoming Reception


TUESDAY, JULY 8, 2008 8:30-10:10

Chair: T. Barker Keynote Address-5 The Global Transition to Sustainable Energy

Room A: Pinar 1 G.R. Grob

Keynote Address-6 Combating Global Warming via Non-Fossil Fuel Energy Options 10:10-10:30

Refreshment Break


Session: Renewable Energy Sources And Carbon Mitigation-Their Impact On Global Warming Chair: C. Koroneos

M. A. Rosen

Room A: Pinar 1


Factors Affecting Global Warming: Environmental Impact Of Solar Cooling And Solar Steam Generation L. Colak


Capacity Of Underground Water Pumping Using Wind Energy Conversion Systems At Dhahran, Saudi Arabia A.Z. Sahin, A. Bolat, A. Al-ahmari


Global Warming: Desert Heat Collection And Conversion Into Electricity M.M. Elarbash


Biofuels Technology Platform Of Thessaly, Greece S. Bezergianni, V. Kazantzi


Role Of Renewable Energy In Sustainable Development A.S. Joshi, I. Dincer, B.V. Reddy


Steam Network Optimization By Utilizing Biomass And Solar Energy Sources In An Oil Refinery M.H. Panjeshahi, S. Perry, L. Ahmadi


Session: Sustainable Energy And The Environment -I Chair: H. Yoo

Room B: Pinar 2


Towards Green Construction For Reducing Global Warming A.M. Yadghar


Effect Of Clean Energy On The Sustainable Development Of Rural Areas H.R. Sharifan, J. Farzadmehr, N. Banan


A Strategic Program To Reduce Greenhouse Gases Emissions Produced From Food Industry A. Kilic, A. Midilli And I. Dincer


Architectural Approaches Of Global Warming With Recent Developments From Turkey And Other Countries P. Y›ld›z


Sustainable Practices In Malaysia: Are We Ready For It? N. Z. Abidin


Environmental Education And Training In The Russian Federation Within The Framework Of Bologna Process L. Karlin, L. Savelyev 12

TUESDAY, JULY 8, 2008 10:30-12:30

Session: Greenhouse Gases And Air Pollution Chair: A.M. Colpan

Room C: Pinar 3


Nitrous Oxide Emission From Agricultural Practices In Japan S. Mishima, H. Akiyama, K. Yagi


The Clusterization Of Greenhouse Gases, The Antugreenhouse Effect A.Y. Galashev, O.R. Rakhmanova, V.N. Chukanov


The Relationship Between Air Pollutants And Some Meteorological Parameters In Erzurum, Turkey S. Ocak, F.S. Tural›oglu


Life Cycle Assessment Studies On Green House Gas Reduction Opportunities In Indian Integrated Steel Sector A. Bandopadhyay


Multimedia Pollutant Sources, Their Effects To Environment And Waste Management Practice In Turkish Shipyards U. B. Celebi, F. T. Akanlar, N. Vardar


CO2 Emission To Atmosphere And Biological Scaling Laws A. F. Miguel


Lunch Break


Session: Project Based Mechanisms And Post-Kyoto Chair: H. Imai

Room A: Pinar 1


The Impact Of Ex-ante Versus Ex-post Cdm Baselines On A Monopoly Firm J. Akita, H. Imai, H. Niizawa


Baseline-and-credit Mechanism And Post-2012 H. Niizawa


Emission Market At The End Of The Commitment Period I. Haruo, I. Ryosuke


Unilateral Climate Change Mitigation, Carbon Leakage And Competitiveness: An Application To The European Union T. Barker, S.S. Scrieciu


Addressing Urban Air Quality And Global Climate Change: International Experience With Transportation M. Labriet, N. Caldés, L. Izquierdo


Implications Of Ratification - What Will Be The Role Of Turkish Voluntary Market If Turkey Ratifies Kyoto? A.S. Özçelik 13

TUESDAY, JULY 8, 2008 14:00-16:00

Session: Sustainable Energy And The Environment -II Chair: A.H. Reis

Room B: Pinar 2


Environmental Effects Of Integrating Renewable Energies In Process Industries M.H. Panjeshahi, S. Perry, L. Ahmadi


Influence Of Operating Parameters And Associated CO2 Emissions With Surface Retorting Of Jordanian Oil Shale J.O. Jaber


Industries Flaring Control K.K. Nowaishi, F. Al-khaldi, M.S. Ba-Shammakh, M.A. AlAbdulmoghni


Using Dry Ice To Treat The Global Warming H.M. Ismael, N.R. Abdulghani, D.R. Abdulghani, R.H. Kareem


Environmental And Economic Issues From Changing A Major Fuel Type As Energy Resources In An Industrial City, Korea B. Lee, K. Kim


Carbon Sequestration: A Methods Comparative Analysis C. J. Koroneos, D. C. Rovas


Session: Global Warming: Policies And Challenges Chair: S. Kocabiyik

Room C: Pinar 3


Framework Of Textiles Manufacturing Index Y. S. W. Sophie, C. K. P. Stephen


Global Warming, Decisive Factor Of Uniformity Seasons M. Ciobanu, M. Ciobanu, M. Mazilu


Global Warming Avoided Emissions With The Adoption Of Biofuel Policies In Spain Y. Lechón, H. Cabal, N. Caldés, M. Santamaria, R. Sáez


Engineering Challenges And Opportunities Of Northern Passage In The 21St Century G. Inci


Global Warming: Is A New Threat? A. Emino¤lu


Refreshment Break


TUESDAY, JULY 8, 2008 16:20-18:20

Session: Ecosystem and Biodiversity - II Chair: N. Caldes

Room A: Pinar 1


Warming Tendency In The Eastern Mediterranean Basin And Its Influence On Culex Pipiens Population Abundance And On The Probability Of West Nile Fever Outbreaks (Israeli Case Study: 2000-2005) S. Paz


Discovery Of Antimatter Solving Global Warming M. A. A. Elkholy


Global Warming And Wheat Production In Argentina G. O. Magrin, M. I. Travasso, G. R. Rodríguez, S. Solman, M. Nuñez


Cyanobacteria For Mitigating Methane Emission From Submerged Paddy Fields U. Mishra, S. Anand


Quantifying Carbon Sequestration In A Prosopis Cineraria - Dominated Desert Of The Uae T. Ksiksi, O. Binhajraf


Evaluation Of Drought Changes In Isfahan Province M. R. Yazdani, J. Khoshhal, A. Honarbakhsh, M. Azad


Session: Hydrogen Production and Fuel Cells – I Chair: F. Dogan

Room B: Pinar 2


Environmentally-benign Nuclear-based Hydrogen Production Through A Copper-chlorine Thermochemical Cycle M.F. Orhan, I. Dincer, M.A. Rosen


A Parametric Study On Exergetic Aspects Of Hydrogen Energy In Reducing Fossil Fuel Consumption A. Midilli, I. Dincer


Reduction Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Using Various Thermal Systems In A Landfill Site C.O. Colpan, I. Dincer, F. Hamdullahpur


Hybrid Solar-hydrogen Systems For Better Environment And Sustainability A. Yilanci, I. Dincer, H. K. Ozturk


Environmentally-benign Hydrogen Production From Ammonia For Vehicles C. Zamfirescu, I. Dincer



Panel Discussion Session: Climate Change Vulnerability of Water Resources and Mitigation Chair: Z. Sen

Room C: Pinar 3

Climate Change Vulnerability of Water Resources and Mitigation Z. Sen Panelists: Hydraulics and Water Resources Department, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey A. Uyumaz M. Kadioglu Meteorology Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey N. Agiralioglu Chairman of 5. World Water Forum 2009 and Hydraulics and Water Resources Department, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

M.E. Birpinar Istanbul Provincial Environment Director, Yildiz Technical University, Turkey 19:30-23:00

Banquet and Awards Ceremony 15

WEDNESDAY, JULY 9, 2008 8:30-10:45

Chair: H.L. MacLean

Room A: Pinar 1

Keynote Address-7 Sustainable Energy - without the hot air

D.J.C. MacKay

Keynote Address-8 Game Analysis of Kyoto and Post-Kyoto Schemes

H. Imai

Keynote Address-9 UNFCCC Process to Combat Global Warming and the Outcomes from the Bali Conference 10:45-11:00

Refreshment Break


Session: Sustainable Thermal Management for Better Environment Chair: M. Arik

K. Simeonova

Room A: Pinar 1


Energy Efficienct Solid State Lighting And Thermal Management For A Sustainable Future M. Arik, A. Setlur


Sustainable Energy For Transportation Applications R.L. Evans


Building Bridges; Integrated Approach For Sustainable Development Through Positive Impact Programming T. Goldberg


A Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Perspective On Liquid Fuels From Canadian And U.S. Unconventional Fossil Sources J.M. Mckellar, A.D. Charpentier, J.A. Bergerson, H.L. Maclean


Embodied Carbon: The Concealed Impact Of Residential Construction G.P. Hammond, C.I. Jones


Session: Water Resources and Management Issues Chair: T. Sawa

Room B: Pinar 2


Daily Pan Evaporation Estimation Using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems E. Dogan, M. Sandalci, M. Gumrukcuoglu


Impacts Of Climate Change On Water Resources In Saudi Arabia F. M. Al Zawad


Effects Of Water Management On Methane Emission From Rice Fields By The Revised Dndc Model K. Smakgahn


North –South Gap In Wastewater Management, A Comparison Study For Germany And Jordan M. Barjenbruch, K. Alzboon


Effects Of Water Management Works In Tarnave River Basin, Romania M. Voda, V. Sorocovschi, R. Ratiu 16

WEDNESDAY, JULY 9, 2008 11:00-12:30

Session: Thermal Energy Storage Chair: H. Paksoy

Room C: Pinar 3


Feasibility Study, Implementation And Performance Evaluation Of A Themal Energy Storage System M.E.S. Farahani


Solar Thermal Energy Storage For House Heating Through Libr / H2O Absorption Process: Preliminary Energy Evaluation L.P. Nolwenn, L. Lingai, H. Liu


Global Warming Is Global Energy Storage B. Nordell, B. Gervet


CO2 Mitigation With Thermal Energy Storage H. Paksoy, H. Evliya, fi. Abac›, M. Mazman, Y. Konuklu, B. Turgut, Ö. Gök, M. Y›lmaz, S. Y›lmaz, B. Beyhan


Techno-economic And Environmental Aspects Of A Hybrid Pv–Diesel–Battery Power System For Remote Farm Houses E. Akyuz, Z. Oktay, I. Dincer


Lunch Break


Session: Global Warming Models-II Chair: J. Bartholy

Room A: Pinar 1


Temperature Variations And Their Effects On Rainfall In Nigeria, West Africa: 1971-2003 I. Osita


Comparison Of Detected Trend And Expected Change Of Extreme Climate Indices In The Carpathian Basin By The End Of This Century R. Pongracz, J. Bartholy, P. Szabo, G. Gelybo


Analysis Of Regional Climate Change Modeling Experiments For The Carpathian Basin J. Bartholy, R. Pongracz, C. Torma, I. Pieczka, P. Kardos, A. Hunyady


Climate Variability, Climate Change And Extreme Weather Events Over India O.S.R.U. Bhanu Kumar, S.Ramalingeswara Rao


Geomagnetic Procurser Of The Increasing Earth’s Temperature T. Rabeh


The Great Season Climatic Oscillation And The Global Warming A. Boucenna 17

WEDNESDAY, JULY 9, 2008 14:00-16:00

Session: Energetic And Environmental Issues-II Chair: K. Alzboon

Room B: Pinar 2


Yields Analysis And Environmental Evaluation Of Combined Photovoltaic-Thermal Collector In Kuwait Climate A.A. Ghoneim, M.Y. Aljanabi, A.Y. Al-hasan, A.M. Mohammedein


Natural Fluids As An Alternative Refrigerant To Vapor Compression Refrigeration System M.A. Sattar, R. Saidur, H.H. Masjuki


Effect Of Wind Blown Sand And Dust On Photovoltaic Arrays- Model And Solution A. Assi


The New Method For Distributed Cooling Water System Design For Wastewater Temperature Reduction A. Ataei, M. Gharaie, E. Panjeshahi


Application Of Ozone Treatment And Pinch Technology In Cooling Water Systems Design To Water And Energy Conservation A. Ataei, M. Gharaie, R. Parand, E. Panjeshahi


Co-firing Solid Recovered Fuels (Srf) With Browncoal In Large Scale Pulverised Fuel Power Plants – A Simulation Approach M. Agraniotis, P. Grammelis, E. Kakaras


Session: Exergy- I Chair: S. Paz

Room C: Pinar 3


A New Approach For Thermo-economics Analysis Of The Industrial Processes Z. Sogut, Z. Oktay, H. Karakoc


Exergetic Analysis Of A Micro-turbine/Orc Combined Cycle M. Yari, H. Shaker, A. Zarin


Exergetic Performance Comparison Of Various Type Geothermal Power Plants M. Yari, A. Zarin, H. Shaker


Application Of Exergy Analysis In Performance Evaluation Of Cooling Tower M. H. Panjeshahi, A. Ataei, M. Gharaie


Investigation Of Efficiency In A Cross-flow Heat Recovery Unit Equipped With Cdlvgs I. Kotcioglu, S. Cal›skan, E. Manay


Exergy Analyses Of Drying Of Broccoli Florets in a Heat Pump Conveyor Dryer N. Colak, M.T. Balta, F. Icier, E. Kuzgunkaya, A. Hepbasli, Z. Erbay 18

WEDNESDAY, JULY 9, 2008 16:00-17:00

Poster Sessions And Refreshment Break (The Poster Presenters Are Requested To Present By Their Posters To Explain The Work During This Poster Session. The Posters Should Be Set Up Between 08:00H And 08:30H And Should Remain Up The Entire Day Until 18:00H.)


Visible Light Degradation Of Orange Ii Using Multiple Configurations Of Heterojunctions Based On Cupper/TIO2 N. Helaïli, Y. Bessekhouad, A. Bouguelia, M. Trari


Alumina Porous Membrane Synthesis And Caracterization N.Agoudjil, Z.Malek, T.Benkacem, A.Larbot


Global Warming: A New Perspective R. Arya


CO2 Reforming Of Methane To Syngas Over Hydrotalcites Derrived Catalysts Z. Abdelssadek, F. Touahra , K. Bachari, A. Saadi, O. Cherifi, D. Halliche


Methanol Oxidation Catalyzed By Phosphomolybdic Polyoxometallate Keggin Type L. Dermeche, R. Thouvenot, S. Hocine, C. Rabia


Effect Of Cadmium And Mercury On Human Health And Environment Z. Hank, S. Boutamine, M. Meklati


Lead And Tin Human Health And Environmental Effects S. Boutamine, Z. Hank And M. Meklati


Geographical Diversity And Chemical Composition Relationships Among Cedrus Species In Natural Forest L.Boudarene, A.Baaliouamer


Improvement Of Biofuel Ethanol Recovery Using The Pervaporation Separation Technique N. D. Hilmioglu


Application Of Pervaporation For Treating Mtbe-contaminated Water/Wastewater N. D. Hilmioglu, A.E. Yildirim, S. Tulbentci


Impact, Vulnerability And Inuring To The Climate Changes M. Mirela, B. Gabriela, C. Mariana


Chemical Characteristics And Source Reconciliation Of Organic Aerosols In Algiers City Area N. Yassaa, R. Ladji, A. Cecinato, B.Y. Meklati 19

WEDNESDAY, JULY 9, 2008 393

Biogenic Emission And Essential Oils Of Some Eucalyptus Species: A Comparison Study Y.Foudil-cherif, N. Yassaa, B.Y.Meklati


A Study Of Malathion Degradation In Triticum Durum Wheat Species Growing In Algeria O. Dalila, B. Samira, B. Aoumeur


Light- Induced Transformation Of Carbendazim In Water A. Boudina, C. Emmelin, A. Baaliouamer, M.F. Grenier-loustalot, J.M Chovelon


Steam Reforming Of Methane Over Nickel Aluminium Catalysts With High Al/Ni Ratio N. Salhi, C. Petit , A. Kiennemann


Partial Exchange Of The Alkaline Cation In The Layered Niobate N. Belmokhtar, R. Nedjar, H. Rebbah


CO2 Hydrogenation To Methanol On Cu-ZrO2 Catalysts F. Bali, L. Jalowiecki-Duhamel


Surfactant Degradation By Means Of Peroxi – Electrocoagulation E. Yüksel, A. Sengil


Estimating Landfill Methane Emissions: An Application Of The Ipcc’s Waste Models For A Specific Site From Romania M. Petre, D. L. Movileanu, E.M. Minea, C. Patraflcioiu


Costs And Investments Forecast Regarding The Environmental Protection In Romania During 2007 – 2013 D. L. Movileanu, C. L.I. Onutu, M. Petre


The Novel Method For Preparation Of K4Nb6O17 W. Ouagagui, R. Nedjar, H. Rebbah


Short Course: Global Warming in the Context of Teaching of Thermodynamics Chair: A.F. Miguel

Room A: Pinar 1

Lecturer: O. Arnas 17:00-19:00

Session: Chemical Aspects-II Chair: A. ElKamel

Room B: Pinar 2


CO2 Absorption In A Mini-module Membrane Contactor G. Pantoleontos, S.P. Kaldis, D. Koutsonikolas, P. Grammelis, G.P. Sakellaropoulos


Biodiesel Production From Microalgae Over Heterogeneous Catalysts M. Tuncer, E.S. Umdu, E. Kursat, G. Yilmaz, Y. Durmaz, S. Gokpinar, E. Seker


Purification Process Of The Effluents Containing Heavy Metals. Application Of The Systemes Cadmium And Chromium F. Hassaine-Sadi, L. Sadoun, H. Bouchabou 20

WEDNESDAY, JULY 9, 2008 504

Removal Of Cu+2 And Ni +2 From Aqueous Solution By Algerian Clay Materials S. Dib, A. Khouider, M. Boufatit


CO2 And SO2 Capture Capability Of Two Greek Limestones Under Fluidized Bed Combustion Conditions P. Basinas, P. Grammelis, J.R. Grace, C.J. Lim, G. Skodras, E. Kakaras, G.P. Sakellaropoulos


Session: Forestry Chair: N. Kliot

Room C: Pinar 3


The Changing Effect Of Microclimatic Conditions On The Soil Process In The East-european Forest-tundra A. V. Pastukhov


Stand Structure And Spatial Pattern Of Sweet Chestnut (Castanea Sativa L.) Trees In The Guilan Forests, North Of Iran H. Poorbabaei


India’s First Forestry ( A & R) Project Under Cdm Against Global Warming M.S.Haque, K.G.Karmakar


Impact Of Global Warming On Trees N. Khan, N. Abas, N. Mariun


Deforestation: Environment Challenge And Sustainable Development R. Agrawal, G. Vashistha, R. Mutha


Investing The Effect Of Forest Stand Volume On Soil Surface Erosion By Geographic Information System (GIS) H.R. Maskani, A. Meraji


Thursday, July 10, 2008 8:30-10:10

Session: Sustainable Energy And The Environment - III Chair: W. Bowers

Room A: Pinar 1


Emission Characteristics Of Diesel Engine Powered Cogeneration Systems A. Abusoglu, M. Kanoglu


The Environmental Effect Of Spray Dryers Used In A Cogeneration System Y. Yoru, T.H. Karakoc, A. Hepbasli


The Passive Solutions For The Reduction Of Energy Cooling In The Buildings E H. Bouguerra, A. Hamid, N. Retiel


Optimization Of Specific Fuel Consumption Of Hydrogen In Commercial Turbofans For Reducing Global Warming Effects T.H. Karakoc, O. Turan


Rational Determination Of Design Weather Data For Reduction Of Energy Use In Air-Conditioning T. Chen, Z. Yu


Session: Power Plants Chair: P. Grammelis

Room B: Pinar 2


Technical - Economical Assessment Of So3/So2 Removal From Acid Sulphoric Plants In A Petrochemical Industry And Converting It To Ammonium Sulfate F. Atabi, A. Ataei, S. Shafizadeh


A Computer-aided Unified Approach For Selecting CO2 Control Technologies: Application To Power Plants And Refining Processes M. Ba-Shammakh, A. Elkamel


Robust Optimization For Power Systems Under Uncertainty With CO2 Mitigation Considerations F.Chui, A. Elkamel, M. Ba-Shammakh


Industrial Plant Design For Innovative In Situ CO2 Capture Technology For Solid Fuel Gasification E. Kakaras, A. Doukelis, P. Klimantos, A. Koumanakos, N. Koukouzas


Estimating The Effect Of Changing The Number Of World Power Plants On Global Climate Using The Model Edgcm S. Ebrahimi, V. Goldberg, Ch. Bernhofer


A Multi-period Optimization Model For Energy Planning With CO2 Emission Consideration H. Mirzaesmaeeli, A. Elkamel, P.L. Douglas, E. Croiset 22

Thursday, July 10, 2008 8:30-10:10



Session: Exergy - II Chair: N. Ghaddar

Room C: Pinar 3

Exergy Analysis Of Second Generation Micro Heat Sinks A. Koflar Evaluation Of Using Alternative Fuels In Si Engines By Means Of Exergy Analysis I. Sezer, I. Alt›n, A. Bilgin


Energy And Exergy Analysis Of A Powder Detergent Unit G. Bektafl, F. Balkan


Energy And Exergy Analyses Of The Power Plant At Eregli Iron And Steel Factory T. Adanir, T. Ozdemir


Analysis Of Energy And Exergy Use And Environmental Impacts In Space Heating, An Application Z. Utlu


Thermodynamic Analysis Of Triple Effect Absorption Refrigeration Systems A.H. Aghdam, S.M.S. Mahmoudi


Refreshment Break


Session: Hydrogen Production And Fuel Cells - II Chair: B.A. Nordell

Room A: Pinar 1


Modeling And Simulation Of Anode-supported Sofc By Using Cfd Commercial Software M.E.Youssef, T. Lim, R. Song, S. Lee, D. Shin


Clean Coal Technologies Coal-based Hydrogen Production With CO2 Capture A. Smolinski


Fuel Cell And Hydrogen Transportation Test Bed Development At The Missouri University Of Science And Technology F. Dogan, S.E. Grasman, J.W. Sheffield


Simulation, Design And Economic Analysis Of Hydrogen Production From Biomass M. Ba-Shammakh, A. Elkamel


Innovative Catalytic Materials For Hydrogen Production M.S. Elouchdi, L. Cherif, R. Bachir, A. Choukchou-braham, S. Merad-Bedrane


Thursday, July 10, 2008 10:30-12:30

Session: Human Health Issues-II Chair: M. S. Haque

Room B: Pinar 2


Poverty, Environment And Economic Growth-confrontations And Inevitable Nexus H. E. Osman, I. Yukio


Impact Of Global Warming And Climate Change On Poverty And Women In India D. Mukhopadhyay


Effects Of Global Climate Change On Poverty And Solution Suggestions fi. Atak, M. Erdogan, A. Yonten


Airborne Ragweed Pollen Concentration In Zagreb, Croatia 2005-2007 I. Hrga, I. Herljevic, B. Stjepanovic, D. Puntaric


The Effects Of Air Pollution On Human Health And Other A Live Creatures N. Banan, F. Kafilzadeh, H. R. Sharifian


Session: Global Warming And Turkey Chair: M. Tiris

Room C: Pinar 3

Panelists: M. Karaca, Head of the Marine and Climate Sciences Department, Istanbul Technical University, Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences H. Nuzhet Dalfes, Head of the Ecology and Evolution Department, Istanbul Technical University, Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences M. Sahin, Head of Air Quality Management Department, General Directorate of Environmental Management, Ministry of Environment and Forestry 12:30-14:00

Lunch Break


Session: Energetic And Environmental Issues - III Chair: J. O. Jaber

Room A: Pinar 1


The Prediction Of Environmental Wave-induced Loads On Cylindrical Structures S. Kocabiyik, L.A. Mironova, O.I. Gubanov


Time Dependent Turbulent Flow And Heat Transfer Characteristics In Plate-fin Type Cross-flow Heat Exchanger I. Kotcioglu, E. Manay, S. Cal›skan


Modeling Effect Of Chemical Fertilizer Applications On Methane Emission From Rice Fields K. Smakgahn


Residential Solar Power Generation Systems For Better Environment C. Zamfirescu, I. Dincer, T. Verrelli, W.R. Wagar


Improvement Of Physical, Chemical And Mechanical Properties Of Construction Material With Using Of Steel Slag A. Heidarizhaleh, E. Mozaffari, M. Ashtiani


Fuel Consumption Effect Of Commercial Turbofans On Global Warming O. Turan, T.H. Karakoc 24

Thursday, July 10, 2008 14:00-16:00

Session: Energy Conservation Chair: A. Z. Sahin

Room B: Pinar 2


Performance Evaluation Of A Modified Vapor Compression Refrigeration System Using R134A Instead Of R12 A. Rostamzadeh, S.M.S. Mahmoudi


Thermodynamic Analysis Of Carbon Sequestration Methods In Lignite Power Plants K.J. Christopher, S. Christos, R. C. Dimitrios


Energy Analysis And Associated Ghg Emissions Of The Residential Sector In Jordan J.O. Jaber, A. Al-ghandoor, R.H. Fouad


Investigation Of Effect Of Geothermal Absorption Cooling System On Global Warming C. Coskun, Z. Oktay, I. Dincer


Energy Saving Potential Of Transcritical CO2 Cooling Systems With An Expander A.E. Ozgur, H.C. Bayrakci, H. Cetin

14:00-15:00 809


Forum: How Can we Make Buildings Greener? I Chair: B. K›lk›fl How Can we Make Buildings Greener? B. K›lk›fl With free discussion with audience Session: Global Warming: Policies and Challenges –II Chair: H. Niizawa


Climate Change And Turkey E. Türkmeno¤lu


Energy In Egypt: Current Status And Future Prospects A. Hafez, M. Khedr, M. Bad ,K. Elkhatib, H. Gaddala, S. Alhallag, F. Teymour


The Inundations In Romania, Consequence The Climate Changes M. Ciobanu, G. Demian, M. V. Ciobanu


Closure: Closing Remarks In Room A: Pinar 1





:: Paper No: GCGW-KP02 :: Global and Sectoral Mitigation Potentials to 2030 and the Carbon Price: Towards Decarbonising the Global Economy Terry Barker Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation research (4CMR) Department of Land Economy University of Cambridge 19 Silver Street Cambridge, CB3 9EP UK Mitigation potentials are clearly related to mitigation costs and both are key concepts for the analysis of policies for decarbonising the global economy. We need clear definitions of mitigation potentials, the barriers in achieving the potentials and the costs of reducing the barriers and the emissions, for both engineering and economic analysis of policies and a common agreement between disciplines to avoid semantic discussions. Agreement about the definitions of potentials was fundamental in IPCC AR4 WG3 Chapter 11 synthesis of results from bottom-up and top-down models and studies of GHG mitigation. The paper will cover the main definitions of mitigation potentials, namely 1) Market potential, 2) Enhanced market potential (when barriers can be removed at very low costs) 3) Economic potential defined for a carbon price, the usual meaning, 4) Technical potential and 5) Physical potential. It will also cover what is meant by the carbon price and the shadow price of carbon, the social cost of carbon and how these concepts are inter-related. The presentation will cover the estimated sectoral mitigation potentials to 2030 given in AR4 at different carbon prices and the problems of aggregation of bottom-up engineering studies. Some comments will be given on the comparison of top-down estimates with bottom-up estimates, and the key messages from AR4 for policies to 2030 towards decarbonising the global economy.

:: Paper No: GCGW-KP03 :: A LOW CARBON SOCIETY SCENARIO TOWARDS 2050 AND THEIR ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES Takamitsu Sawa Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyoku, Kyoto, JAPAN 606-8501 In order to avoid more disastrous climate change impacts it is necessary to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by half by 2050. To attain this purpose industrialized countries are obliged to reduce CO2 emissions by 70 to 80% by 2050, while developing countries are obliged to reduce CO2 emissions by 20% on the whole. First of all I will present on what kind of international framework is expected after Kyoto Protocol; second, what kind of international cooperation is necessitated to attain the target in 2050; third, what kind of innovative technologies are feasible to be developed up to 2050; fourth, what kind of socioeconomic reforms are necessary to reduce CO2 emissions. In conclusion, I will propose the roadmap to low carbon society scenario 2050. 28

:: Paper No: GCGW-KP04 :: GLOBAL WARMING REDUCTION THROUGH OCEAN CARBON STORAGE Ian S. F. Jones University of Sydney, Ocean Technology Group, J05, University of Sydney, 2006, Australia The ocean is a large sink of the carbon dioxide released as a result of fossil fuel burning. This paper examines the impact of methods that might be used to increase this uptake of carbon dioxide by the ocean and the effect this will have on ocean alkalinity. There are three sequestration strategies for the ocean: direct injection, deliberate changes in alkalinity and ocean enrichment. Direct injection of carbon dioxide involves capture of the carbon dioxide while the other two approaches relies on natural processes to take the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Under the ocean enrichment strategy, limiting nutrients such as iron or macronutrients are supplied to the photic zone over deep water. Alternatively the deep water nutrients can be pumped to the surface to support grater phytoplankton growth.

Paper No: GCGW-KP05 :: THE GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY Gustav R. Grob ISEO, ISO, ICEC, CMDC , POB 200, CH-1211 Geneva 20 Developed nations and countries in transition need effective sustainable energy policies to secure longterm energy supplies and to cope with the problems of global warming, biosphere degradation, spiraling health cost and the national balance of payments. Greenhouse gases must be curbed much more and beyond the 2012 Kyoto protocol goal to reduce global warming, causing rising sea levels, flooded coastal areas and ocean islands, lost mangroves and wetland biotopes, melting glaciers and ice poles, ruined ski resorts, riverside inundations and land slides. The common goal must be better national policies and legislation for sustainable energies by enforcing the polluters-pay cost accounting principle, enabled by the international standard ISO 13602-1 - Methods for analysis of technical energy systems, and the ISEO Global Energy Charter for Sustainable Development. ISO and IEC provide the necessary international standards as practical tools for the determination and eradication of environmental damages and health problems by clean energy systems. In order to fulfil this historic task efficiently and speedily, following subjects must be dealt with: Enforcement of the energy analysis, statistics and forecasting standards of ISO and intensified world-wide action in following areas: Hydropower (small, medium, large and pumping); wind power generation and pumping; biomass (solid, liquid, gaseous, energy from waste); geothermal energy; solar (PV, heat, drying, solar architecture, solar air conditioning and pumping, sterling engines); ocean power; clean fuels for heat and electricity production and energy storage; heat pumps and cogeneration; low and zero energy architecture; clean, sustainable transportation; muscle energy; energy efficiency (insulation, lighting, leaner vehicles, car pooling); education, responsible human behavior; easier and cheaper project financing; intensified sustainable energy R&D; better environmental and clean energy laws; globally enforced sustainable energy policies. 29

:: Paper No: GCGW-KP06 :: COMBATING GLOBAL WARMING VIA NON-FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY OPTIONS Marc A. Rosen Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science University of Ontario Institute of Technology Oshawa, Ontario,L1H 7K4, Canada Non-fossil fuel energy options are needed to help humanity combat climate change. Such energy options reduce or eliminate emissions of greenhouse gases and thusoften form the basis ofsustainable energy solutions. Non-fossil fuel energy options arediverse, ranging from renewables likesolar, wind, geothermal,hydropower, biomass, ocean, tidal andwave energy, through to nuclear energy. The latter may not be a renewable resource, but it avoids greenhouse gas emissions and thus contributes to efforts to avoid climate change. Renewable energy resources arenormally free of greenhouse gas emissions, although some like biomass can lead to such emissions if not managed carefully. In addition, high efficiency is needed to allow the greatest benefits to be attained from all energy options, including non-fossil fuel ones, in terms ofclimate change and other factors. Efficiency improvementsefforts havemany dimensions, including energy conservation, improved energy management, fuel substitution, better matching of energy carriers and energy demands, and more efficiency utilization of both energy quantity and quality. The latter two concepts are best considered via the use of exergy analysis, a thermodynamic tool based primarily on the second law of thermodynamics. A case study is considered involving the production of hydrogen from non-fossil energy sources via thermochemical water decomposition. This process, which is still undergoing development,is mainly driven by thermal energy, and is anticipated to be usable for largescale hydrogen production. In thermochemical hydrogen production, a series of complex chemical and other processes occur, with the net result being the splitting of water into hydrogen andoxygen.Most preliminary designs of thermochemical hydrogen production processes are based on nuclear energyand solar energy, thus providing different types of non-fossil fuel options for combating climate change.

:: Paper No: GCGW-KP07 :: SUSTAINABLE ENERGY -WITHOUT THE HOT AIR David J.C. MacKay Department of Physics, University of Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, 19 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom How easy is it to get off our fossil fuel habit? What do the fundamental limits of physics say about sustainable energy? Could a typical 'developed' country like Britain live on its own renewables? The technical potential of renewables is often said to be 'huge' - but we need to know how this 'huge' resource compares with another 'huge': our huge power consumption. The public discussion of energy policy needs numbers, not adjectives. In this talk I will express power consumption and sustainable production in a single set of personal, human-friendly units. Getting off fossil fuels is not going to be easy, but it is possible. 30

:: Paper No: GCGW -KP08 :: GAME ANALYSIS OF KYOTO AND POST-KYOTO SCHEMES Haruo Imai Kyoto Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University Sakyo, Kyoto Japan, 606-8501  Kyoto protocol, put in force in Feb. 2005, is criticized from both sides, those demanding a stricter target for GHG (green house gas) emission reduction on the one side, and those claiming for more flexible and comprehensive controls of the emission on the other side, for its modest target and narrow coverage. Even though its value could be that of a mere precedent and experimentation, Kyoto protocol includes very special experimentation to assist the world wide cooperation for a mitigation of climate change, i.e. the introduction of three mechanisms, emissions trading, joint implementation, and clean development mechanism (CDM). Together, they are called Kyoto mechanisms. Evaluation of mechanisms is one important role of microeconomics and the game theory is a major tool for it. We shall scrutinize these mechanisms from such viewpoint. A special attention is placed on CDM, as it is the novel mechanism introduced by Kyoto protocol, and gives a unique link between Annex I nations (mostly developed countries) and non-Annex I nations (mostly developing countries). Next, we examine some of the currently proposed schemes after 2013, the post Kyoto schemes. One of the chief issues is the possibility of making a comprehensive agreement including both the USA and large developing countries with rapidly increasing emission levels of GHG like China and India. Adding to these, not only the proposed schemes themselves, but the process of negotiation itself inspired several researches in cooperative game theory and in particular, coalition formation theory. We shall touch upon this issue separately, and examine how successfully they predicted the outcome leading to Kyoto, retrospectively. Finally, we end our discussion with a brief consideration over the underlining normative argument concerning these schemes.


: Paper No: GCGW- KP09 :: UNFCCC PROCESS TO COMBAT GLOBAL WARMING AND THE OUTCOMES FROM THE BALI CONFERENCE Katia Simeonova United Nations Climate Change Secretariat, Bonn, Germany Martin Luter King Strasse 8, D-53175 Bonn Germany Climate change is a global problem in its cases and sequences and involves complex interactions between climatic, environmental, economic, political, institutional, social and technological processes and systems. Therefore, it requires a global responses that could be achieved through international co-operation. In recognizing the need for international co-operation in addressing climate change, practically all UN memberstates adopted in 1992 the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Convention entered into force in 1994 and its Kyoto Protocol entered into force in 2005. The UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol are the first and very important step in the international effort to combat climate change, but they are not enough to achieve stabilization of the greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere at safe levels that would prevent dangerous human-induced interference with climate system. At the Climate Change Conference in Bali in December 2007, Governments recognized that an enhanced response to climate change is needed. The Bali Action Plan envisages a two years negotiation process that will lead to an enhanced action on climate change around the four key building blocks: mitigation, adaptation, technology and finance. The outcome from these negotiations could provide a new framework for an enhanced action on climate change at the international and national level, that could bring about significant greenhouse emission reductions, could facilitate transfer of new environmentally friendly technologies from industriliazed to developing countries, could accelerate market penetration of emerging technologies such as carbon capture and storage, could facilitate adaptation to climate change impacts, in particular in developing and least developed countries, and could ensure that sufficient financial incentives and tools are provided to developing nations to facilitate their action on climate change.


:: Paper No: GCGW-27 :: FROM CO2 TO ALGAE TO FUEL - AN INTEGRATED PROCESS ENGINEERING APPROACH Gareth M. Forde1, Andrew Hoadley1, Paul Webley1, X. Dong Chen1, Krystle W. Chua1, LiM.Ang1, Genevieve C. Gardner1, Jonathan Wajchman1, Navid Mohemani2 1

Dept Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia. Biomax, Smorgon Fuels Pty Ltd, 9 - 11 Maria Street Laverton North, Victoria 3026, Australia.


This project integrates the biosequestration of flue gas using algae which is then used as a feed stock for the creation of biodiesel. Moreover, this work has particular relevance to the burning of fossil fuels for electricity - in particular coal which is one of the cheapest yet most polluting of energy sources. Other examples of CO2 producing industries that can make use of this technology are smelters, formaldehyde production, mining, breweries and the cement industry. This project also investigates water purification methods and new livestock feed additives which can help reduce the effects of drought on food producers in rural and regional areas. Advantages of biodiesel include up to 78 % less green house gas emissions compared to fossil fuel sources, a sulphur content of less than 5 ppm, significant improvement in lubricity enabling a reduction in engine wear, zero aromatic content (toluene and benzene), significant reduction in particulates (soot) and hydrocarbons, non toxic and biodegradable, fully degraded from a waterway environment within approximately 28 days. The bioreactor design was performed by the GreenFuel Technologies Corporation.


:: Paper No: GCGW-70 :: EVALUATION OF USING ALTERNATIVE FUELS IN SI ENGINES BY MEANS OF EXERGY ANALYSIS Ismet Sezer, Ismail Altın, Atilla Bilgin Mechanical Engineering Department, Karadeniz Technical University 61080 Trabzon, Turkey In the presented study, the use of alternative fuels in SI engines has been investigated theoretically by means of exergy analysis. For this purpose, a two-zone, quasi-dimensional thermodynamic cycle model was developed and used. Cycle simulation contains compression, combustion and expansion processes. Intake and exhaust processes are computed by a simple approximation method, as well. Combustion period is simulated as turbulent flame propagation process. Principles of the second law are applied to cycle model to perform exergy (or availability) analysis. A computer code was written in FORTRAN language for numerical calculations. In the software, firstly thermodynamic states of cylinder content such as pressure, burned and unburned gas temperatures, wall heat transfer and apparent heat release, work etc., were computed. The exergetic terms such as irreversibilities, thermomechanical exergy, fuel chemical exergy and total exergy were calculated by using the previous computed thermodynamic data. In the exergy analysis, effects of the using alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol, natural gas and LPG on exergetic terms are investigated. Additionally, the energy based efficiency and the exergetic efficiency (effectiveness) were calculated. The results of the study show that the selected alternative fuels affect considerably variations of exergetic terms. Irreversibilities i.e. decrease for gas fuels (natural gas and LPG), while they slightly increase for oxygenated fuels (methanol and ethanol) compared to gasoline. On the other hand, exergy transfer with work increases for methanol ethanol and LPG in compared with gasoline. Natural gas gives lower exergy transfers with work than gasoline. Oxygenated fuels have higher values than gasoline and gas fuels have closer values to gasoline in terms of brake specific fuel consumption.



Department of International Studies, The Univ. of Tokyo 2 Institute of Oriental Studies, The Univ. of Tokyo.

The focus of this paper will be around such assumption, by classify all Sub-Saharan African (SSA) economies by both endowment (Oil/non-oil) and geographical location (coastal/ landlocked) and utilizing cross-sectional and panel dataset for 44 SSA countries we seeks to understand the spatial variation of cross-country poverty according to the variation of environmental resource degradation following the theory of global warming, how the inclusion of a number of spatial variables helps to postulate our poverty equations and the spatial linkages between poverty and environmental features. These results contradicted to some theories totally objected to the global warming phenomenon as being caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas increase. Moreover, we attempt to test for the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis through multivariate OLS regression models. On theoretical side, the literature that is relevant to this topic comes from two main sources. One set of papers investigates the effects of climate and changes in climate on the economy. The climate variables they track are typically precipitation and temperature. Focusing on changes in temperature and in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, another set of papers in the literature tries to measure the effects of global warming on the economy. The present study contributes to this literature in two folds 1) by looking at the effects of geographical location using dichotomized patterns of growth (categorization) mentioned above, spatial regression estimators suggest that highly effected countries by environmental resource degradation are those which are high oil exporters, those highly in debt and geographically handicap and high rate of poverty and 2) intensifying on certain economic growth variables effects SSA poverty has strong independent effect on the theory of global warming, our prediction is increases on environmental resources degradation yield on reduction on growth and increases on poverty along the line. Given the inevitable relationships between poverty and environment, the paper concludes by suggesting the inclusion of poverty reduction concerns in environmental policies.



FacultyofChemistry,U.S.T.H.B.,BP 32,16111,El-Alia,Algiers,Algeria 2 National Veterinary School, BP 161-El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria

Cu2O/TiO2, Cu/Cu2O/TiO2 and Cu/Cu2O/CuO/TiO2 heterojunctions were prepared and studied for their potential use as photocataslysts able to induce high performance under visible light. Orange II was used as representative dye molecule. The effect of the amount and composition of the photosensitizers toward the activation of TiO2 was studied. In each case, the global mechanism of Inter Particle ElectronsInjection (IPEI) was discussed. The highest photo catalytic activity was observed for the cascade heterojunctionCu/Cu2O/CuO/TiO2 in both Visible (t1/2 = 36 min,k= 13610min) andUV-Visible (t1/2 = 4min,k=1342 10min). In this case, the high performance was attributed firstly to the electromotive forces developed under this configuration in which CuO bands energy mediate the electrons transfer from Cu2O to TiO2. The formation of mono bloc sensitizer also account for the decrease of the probability of charges lost. Finally, it was demonstrated that —Cu2O/CuO “governthe capability of the cascade heterojunction and Cu do not acts a significant role regardless the efficiency.


:: Paper No: GCGW-217 :: ALUMINA POROUS MEMBRANE SYNTHESIS AND CARACTERIZATION N.Agoudjil1, Z.Malek1, T.Benkacem1, A.Larbot2 1

laboratoire de physico-chimie des matériaux et environnement Faculte de Chimie usthb bab ezzouar alger algerie 2 Laboratoire des Materiaux Membranaires. CNRS

Since the beginning of the seventies the contraints imposed by the cost of energy and raw materials have led to the optimisation of the processing and recycling of industrial liquids and gases:as a result there is a great demand in many fields for separation processes that are efficient,reliable and inexpensive ,this is where filtration techniques find a place.Among these, micro-and ultra-filtration have gained an important place in a large number of industries,there are, in particular, the agro-food, waste water treatment ,gas separation and the engineering industries. Inorganic porous membranes are indispensable for certain applications due to their special properties: very resistant to a wide variety of solvents and are quite stable at hard operating conditions. Sol-gel process is the way to obtain an inorganic structure which will become a ceramic porous layer after a thermal treatment .This technique can be used to produce layers at a lower temperature than the conventional powders (greater than 1000°C ). Alumina membranes were prepared using commercial boehmite as a precursor; nitric acid was the peptizing agent.The peptisation step is essential to obtain a stable sol and an homogeneous membrane morphology. Sol stability depends on pH value and electrolyte concentration.The effect of pH on the gel permits the establishment of the optimal working conditions for obtaining homogeneous sols with rapid gelation of the deposited films.The whole chemical reactions and experimental conditions influence strongly structural, morphologic characteristics of solid phase. The deposit thin membrane layers on a porous support has been realized with a sol prepared with the destabilisation of colloidal solution process.This is possible by infiltrating a low viscosity sol or by direct coating onto an ultrafiltration layer. We have choosen to study Al2O3 oxide for the interest which may bring in the domain of inorganic membranes chemical and mechanical high resistance. The structural characterization was studied by differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy , X-ray diffraction. The textural characterization by nitrogen adsorption-desorption allowed us to observe the variation of surface area ,porous volume and pore diameters according to temperature. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed homogeneous layers without cracking. Good preparation conditions permitted us the obtention of homogeneous alumina membranes.



Biology Department – College of Science – UAE University PO Box 17551 Al-Ain UAE, Biology Department – College of Science – UAE University PO Box 17551 Al-Ain UAE.

Prosopis cinerea is the largest desert tree of the region and constitutes a key species for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) rangelands. It promotes biodiversity and improves soil characteristics. The tree’s effect on the soil surrounding its trunk constitutes an important aspect of the ecology of these desert ecosystems and good forage source for many wildlife and livestock species in the region. The present study will, therefore, shed some light on the effect of P. cineraria on soil carbon sequestration. The study area was located in the Emirate of Sharjah on the eastern coast of the UAE. A total of 15 stands, representing 3 different tree sizes (ie. small less than 2 m; medium around 5 m; and large more than 5 m) were identified. 4 sandy soil samples were collected around each tree. Two samples were collected directly from under the tree and the other two samples were collected from the area beyond the canopy cover. Percent soil carbon varied between the various tree sizes and was also affected by the position under P. cineraria canopy. Large P. cineraria individuals had the highest percentage of soil carbon (6.46 percent) when compared to the other 2 tree sizes. Suggesting that large and medium P. cineraria trees are contributing to the overall input of soil carbon and therefore improving soil carbon sequestration. More substantial efforts are to be implemented in the UAE to increase P. cineraria plantations, as they constitute a crucial component of the health of desert ecosystems. The urgency of the actions stems from the need for long periods, up to 30 years, for the P. cineraria trees to reach a crown diameter of at least 5 meters.

:: Paper No: GCGW-235 :: THE EFFECT OF OXIDATIVE MEDIUM FOR DECREASING OF SULFUR&MINERAL MATTER OF ÇAN LIGNITE Jale Gulen Yıldız Technical University Chemical Engineering Department (34210) Davutpasa-Istanbul/TURKIYE H2O2 solution was chosen as an oxidative medium for decreasing sulfur and mineral matter of Çan lignite. At the beginning, the sample was ground sieved to pass 0.250 μm. It was stirred 50 ml H2O2 of 5% for 20 minutes. Then, that sample was washed with distilled water and dried in the autoclave at 105 ºC. Later, it was treated with 50 ml aquatic asidic solutions of HNO3, HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4, HCOOH and HF of 5 % for 20 minutes, seperately. The solution was filtered through the blue ribbon filter and dried in the autoclave at 105°C. The sulfur and ash analyses of these demineralized sample were done according to ASTM standards. The calorific values were determined with IKA C4000 bomb calorimeter. FTIR and Xray analyses were taken for observing the effects of chemical solutions. 38

:: Paper No: GCGW-245 :: THE CHANGING EFFECT OF MICROCLIMATIC CONDITIONS ON THE SOIL PROCESS IN THE EASTEUROPEAN FOREST-TUNDRA Alexander Pastukhov Under the conditions of cold humid climate of the European North-East, the soil processes depend sharply on the bioclimatic changes. In the forest tundra, biocenoses change spatially within a few tens of meters, controlling and creating contrasting soil cover. In other words, clear transition from one order of soils to another, from tundra to podzolic soil processes can be observed. The soils without morphologically pronounced surface gleyzation prevail under tundra vegetation on the hilltops and the leeward slopes. The morphologically pronounced surface gley horizon with reddish oxidized margins is fragmentary with weak gleyzation. A litter is immediately underlain by an Albic (Podzolic in Russian terms) horizon occurring in small lenses. In the upper part of these soils the features of cryoturbation take place. The middle part of the soil profile is represented by a structured cryometamorphic horizon. In the lower part of the soil (6070 cm depth) a coarse loamy deposit gives way to a finer loam. This is manifested in a decrease of silt content. In accordance to “Soil Classification of Russia” (2004) these tundra soils correspond to the Type of Organo-Cryometamorphic soils and Cryometamorphic Gleyzems in the case of surface gleyzation presence. On the lee slopes under a spruce-birch growth, snow cover depth increases, cryoturbation processes begin to weaken, and hereupon, the soils dominate there which have a rather well expressed bleached and slightly gleyed eluvial horizon and an iron-illuvial horizon (enriched by oxalate-extractable iron). The latter gradually turns to structured cryometamorphic horizon with fine granular structure. As in tundra soils, a coarse loamy deposit gives way to a finer loam at 60-70 cm depth. Texture differentiation is practically absent within the upper fine loamy part of these soils. In the lower part there is a cryogenic platy structure composed by a coarse granular angular soil structure. There are also weakly expressed cutanes. In accordance to “Soil classification of Russia” (2004), these taiga soils correspond to Type of Iron-Illuvial Svetlozems. To sum up, at the border of the climatic zones the nature of soil genesis is very dynamic. Soil processes development is directly related with even slight microclimate changes.


:: Paper No: GCGW-277 :: GLOBAL WARMING: A NEW PERSPECTIVE Ritesh Arya Arya Drillers, 405, GH7A, Sector 20, Panchkula, Haryana, India Lot has been said about global warming, various models projected and debated to show its importance in the present day. All these have actually made the issue more complex and confusing. Present paper is based on the observations made by the author during the drilling operations for providing sustainable water solutions based on developing groundwater resources in the various hydrostraigraphic zones identified by Arya,(1996) for the last 15 years in Himachal Pradesh and the high altitude, cold mountain, deserts of Ladakh in NW Indian Himalayas. The author tends to redefine global warming as phenomenon for transporting the weathered and eroded material which had been accumulated during the global cooling phase in the past. The agents can be biotic (man and living organisms) and abiotic (geological, geomorphologic, climatologic, planetary). The author also tends to introduce a biogeologic cycle which will explain in a very simple way the relevance of global warming in shaping the earth now and in future. The paper also discuses the fact that no phenomenon can be understood in isolation and the history and its cycle has to be understood to enjoy the concept in totality. Present paper will focus on these issues and try to touch the genesis of the problem in a very simple but scientific manner. Last but not the least the paper will end with an optimistic note “Global warming is natural, Enjoy it”.



Applied Sciences Department, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654, Kuwait. 2 Electronic Engineering Department, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654, Kuwait The main goal of the present work is to investigate the thermal and electrical yield of a combined photovoltaic-thermal collector in Kuwait climate. The collector test facility installed at the College of Technological Studies, in Kuwait, is adapted to carry out the measurements. A numerical model is developed to simulate the performance of the combined PVT collector. The well-known flat plate collector formulas have been modified to take into account the effects of adding PV cells. The performance measurements indicated that the combined photovoltaic-thermal collector produces a higher yield per unit area than a conventional thermal collector. The simulation results of the present work are found to agree well with the experimental data. The recovered heat energy from the hybrid PVT collector is expected to satisfy the needs of a family in a typical Kuwaiti house for domestic hot water load and electricity consumption (lighting and household appliances). Different photovoltaic-thermal collector areas and slopes were studied to maximize the annual energy generated by the combined PVT system. The maximum energy generation from the PVT collector corresponds to a collector slope of 25 (Kuwait latitude-5) and facing south (azimuth angle=0). Maximum energy production at angles less than location latitude is coincident with the fact that more solar energy is available in summer than in winter in Kuwait. The annual avoided CO2 emission at the optimum conditions is calculated to assess the environmental impacts of the combined photovoltaic-thermal collector. The annual avoided CO2 emission is approximately equals to 1.4 tonne/ year which confirms the environmental impacts of the combined photovoltaic-thermal collector in Kuwait climate.


:: Paper No: GCGW-281 :: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS IN KUWAIT CLIMATE Adel A. Ghoneim, Kandil M. Kandil , Adel M. Mohammedein, Ibrahim M. Kadad Applied Sciences Department, College of Technological Studies, Shuwaikh 70654, Kuwait The present study evaluates the environmental impact as well as the economic feasibility of solar heating and cooling systems in Kuwait climate. A typical Kuwaiti house with nominal space heating load, water heating load and cooling load has been considered to carryout the present work. The performance of hot water and the space heating systems are simulated using the transient simulation program (TRNSYS). The solar cooling system is assumed to have the capacity to deal with the associated cooling loads during the hottest weather of the year. A single effect lithium bromide water absorption chiller is adapted to provide air conditioning to the house. The absorption chiller model is based on a commercially available lithium bromidewater absorption chiller, Arkla model WF-36. The study is carried out using a conventional flat plate collector. The economic feasibility of the solar heating and cooling systems in Kuwait climate is assessed using the life cycle cost method. The results showed that the performance of the solar heating and cooling systems is satisfactory as gre at portions of the heating and cooling loads are achieved by the solar heating and cooling systems. The cost of energy unit for solar heating and cooling systems is found to be approximately 68% of the corresponding cost of the conventional fuel systems at the current fuel prices. The maximum energy generation from the solar heating and cooling systems is attained using a solar collector facing south (azimuth angle=0°) and having an optimum area of 38 m2. Also, an annual solar savings of about $1900 is achieved at these optimum conditions which confirm the feasibility of the solar heating and cooling systems in Kuwait climate. Finally, the annual avoided CO2 emission is evaluated at the optimum conditions to assess the environmental impacts of the solar heating and cooling systems. The annual avoided CO2 emission is approximately equals to 9.7 tonne/ year which confirms the environmental impacts of these systems in Kuwait climate.



Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Baskent University, Faculty of Engineering, Baglica Campus, Ankara, Turkey. 2Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Gazi University, Faculty of Engineering, Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey Energy is the prime source of human activities in all sectors of life. Traditionally fossil fuel has been the primary energy resource. Extensive fossil fuel consumption in almost all human activities led to some undesirable phenomena such as atmospheric and environmental pollutions. Consequently, global warming, greenhouse effect, climate change, ozone layer depletion and acid rain terminologies started to appear in the literature frequently. In this study a comprehensive account of medium temperature solar energy applications, such as solar cooling and solar steam generation, on global warming were discussed. During the summer, the demand for electricity greatly increases because of the extensive use of air-conditioning systems. This is a source of major problems in the country’s electricity supply and contributes to an increase of carbon dioxide emissions causing environmental pollution and global warming. On the other hand, vapor compression air conditioning systems have impacts on stratospheric ozone depletion because of the chlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants. The use of solar energy to drive cooling cycles is attractive since the cooling load is roughly in phase with solar energy availability. The main advantages of solar assisted refrigeration systems concern the reduction of peak loads for electricity utilities, the use of zero ozone depletion impact refrigerants, the decreased primary energy consumption and decreased global warming impact. Steam generation is the other most widespread thermal use of solar energy in industrial sectors, especially in textile industry where large amount of steam or hot water is required in dyeing process. Although conventional energy sources consequently have high environmental impacts, solar steam generation can not only be an economical choice but also can reduce the environmental impacts substantially.


:: Paper No: GCGW-293 :: THE BIOSORPTION KINETICS OF CU(II) BY ULOTHRIX ZONATA FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Emine Malkoc, Yasar Nuhoglu Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Atatürk University, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey The heavy and toxic metal contaminants to aqueous waste streams can cause serious water pollution problems being faced the world over. Biosorption of heavy metals is an effective technology for the treatment of industrial wastewaters. In this work, the kinetics of copper(II) biosorption by Ulothrix zonata from synthetic wastewater has been investigated using batch adsorption techniques. The biosorption kinetics of initial Cu(II) concentration, biomass concentration, pH and mixing rate were determined as a function of contact time. The batch sorption kinetics have been tested for a first-order reversible reaction, a first order and second-order reaction. The rate constant of adsorption for all these kinetic models have been calculated. The results indicated that the pseudo-second order kinetic model was fitted to the best correlation of the experimental data.

:: Paper No: GCGW-310 :: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLANT DIVERSITY AND PHYSIOGRAPHIC FACTORS IN GHALARANG PROTECTED AREA, ILAM, WESTERN IRAN Hassan Poorbabaei1, Mehdi Heydari2, Ali Najafifar3 1 Dept.of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resource, The university of Guilan MSc. student in Dept.of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resource, The university of Guilan, 3 A expert in Forest Research Institute, Ilam Division


The study was carried out in a part of Ghalarang protected area located in northwestern Ilam, featuring central Zagros forest ecosystems. The objective was to investigate the relationship between plant diversity and some physiographic attributes. The field data were collected using a number of 50 plots in a systematic randomized sampling. The factors including tree and shrub species type, number, and canopy coverage were recorded by measuring their small/large diameters in each plot. In order to record the grass species, the Whitaker’s nested plot method was applied. The results showed that there are 4 tree species, 3 shrubs, one bush species and 78 grasses in the study site. The family Asteraceae and the genus Euphorbia sp. form the most existing plants. Therophytes cover the most vegetative forms in the area. Plant diversity was the most in southern and southwestern and the lowest in western aspect. Moreover, plant richness was the most in southern and southwestern aspects. There was the most plant diversity and richness in the intermediate altitudes, while the high altitudes had the least diversity. The slope percentage had not a significant difference on plant diversity, richness and evenness. 44

:: Paper No. GCGW-311 :: CO2 REFORMING OF METHANE TO SYNGAS OVER HYDROTALCITES DERRIVED CATALYSTS Z. Abdelssadek1, F. Touahra1 , K. Bachari2, A. Saadi1, O. Cherifi1, D. Halliche1 1

Laboratoire de Chimie du Gaz Naturel, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, BP32, El-Alia, Alger, Algeria. 2 Centre de recherches scientifiques et techniques en analyses physico-chimiques (CRAPC), BP 248, Alger, 16004, Algeria.

Considerable attention has been paid to the catalytic reforming of CH4 with CO2 to synthesis gas (CH4 + CO2 _ 2CO + 2H2 ) in recent years. This reaction has very important environmental implications since both CH4 and CO2 contribute to the green house effect. They are also two of the most important abundant carbon-containing materials. Therefore, converting these two gases into a valuable synthesis gas may not only reduce atmospheric emissions of CO2 and CH4 , but also satisfy the requirement of many synthesis processes. In addition, the synthesis gas produced by this reaction has a high CO content, it is more suitable for the synthesis of valuable oxygenated chemicals then that produced by conventional steam reforming. Great efforts have been focused on the development of catalysts which show high activity and stability. Layered double hydroxides (LDH), are a class of synthetic two-dimensional nanostructured anionic clays catalysts. The catalysts obtained are characterized by ICP method, DRX, FTIR and BET methods. The data obtained from chemical analysis of the calcined catalysts confirmed that the n (M2+) / n(M3+) ratio is close to the intended value of 2. Room temperature FT-IR spectra were recorded in the range 4000– 400 cm-1 , on a Perkin Elmer spectrometer. Catalysts stability were carried out at 650°C and a 1:1 CO2 / CH4 feed ratio. It was found that performances of catalysts after 6 h in reaction indicates that within this period nor or little deactivation takes place over them: At 650 °C, the NiMgAL-HDL, NiMgLaLDH catalysts reach respectively 54.0%, 69.0%, of methane conversion versus 75.0% 79.3% respectively of CO2 conversion. However, Co- catalysts did not show any catalytic activity in these experiments conditions.



Laboratoire de Chimie du Gaz Naturel, Faculté de Chimie, BP32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger, Algérie. 2 Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Matériaux Moléculaires, Université Pierre et Marie Curie,4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05. Methanol is one of the most important chemical intermediates used in industrial chemistry. It is the starting reactant for the synthesis of various products (formaldehyde, methyl formate, dimethyl ether, dimethoxymethane). On the other hand, polyoxometallates and particularly those having the Keggin structure have been widely studied in acid and/or oxidative reactions as solid catalyst. The replacement of the conventional hazardous and polluting corrosive liquid catalysts by these materials is the crucial factor for offering strong option for efficient and cleaner processing. In this work, we report the methanol oxidation reaction at 260°C, in presence of Keggin–type modified ammonium salts of (NH4)xXyPMo12O40 formula with X= SbIII, BiIII or SnII. These solids were synthesized and characterized by BET method, XRD, 31P NMR, UV-Vis, Raman, IR techniques and thermal analysis (TGA and DTA). Oxidative methanol reaction over these heteropolysalts lead to formaldehyde, methyl formate, dimethyl ether, dimethoxymethane and carbon oxides as minor product. All salts present high activity with 90-95% of conversion. The distribution of reaction products depended of counter-cation nature, (NH4)1.12Sn0.94PMo12O4o, (NH4)2,.08Bi0.31PMo12O40 and (NH4)0.78Sb0.74PMo12O40 were selective to formaldehyde, dimethyl and methyl format respectively, (NH4)3PMo12O40 no substituted salt leads to dimethyl and methyl format with similar selectivity.


:: Paper No: GCGW-329 :: EFFECT OF CADMIUM AND MERCURY ON HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT Zakia Hank1, Sultana Boutamine2 and M’hamed Meklati3 1

U.S.T.H.B. Faculté de Chimie; BP 32 El Alia; Bab-Ezzouar 16111 Alger- Algeria U.S.T.H.B. Faculté de Chimie; BP 32 El Alia; Bab-Ezzouar 16111 Alger- Algeria 3 U.S.T.H.B. Faculté de Chimie; BP 32 El Alia; Bab-Ezzouar 16111 Alger- Algeria 2

Cadmium is a soft, toxic bluish-white . It is similar in many respects to but reacts to form more complex compounds. About three-quarters of cadmium is used in (especially batteries) and most of the remaining quarter is used mainly for , coatings and plating, and as stabilizers for and some many other uses. Human uptake of cadmium takes place mainly through food or tobacco smoke and other high exposures can occur with people who live near hazardous waste sites or factories that release cadmium into the air and people that work in the metal refinery industry. When people breathe in cadmium it can severely damage the lungs. This may even cause death. Other health effects that can be caused by cadmium are diarrhoea, stomach pains, bone fracture, reproductive failure and possibly even infertility, damage to the central nervous and the immune systems, psychological disorders and possibly DNA damage or cancer development. Metallic mercury is used in a variety of household products, such as barometers, thermometers and fluorescent light bulbs. The mercury in these devices is trapped and usually does not cause any health problems. However, when a thermometer will break a significantly high exposure to mercury through breathing will occur for a short period of time while it vaporizes. This can cause harmful effects, such as nerve, brain and kidney damage, lung irritation and eye irritation. This metal has, equally, a number of effects on humans, that can all of them be simplified into the following main effects: disruption of the nervous system, damage to brain functions, DNA and chromosomal damage, allergic reactions, resulting in skin rashes, tiredness and headaches and negative reproductive effects, such as sperm damage, birth defects and miscarriages. Damaged brain functions can cause degradation of learning abilities, personality changes, tremors, vision changes, deafness, muscle in coordination and memory loss. Chromosomal damage is known to cause mongolism. When these metals are rejected in nature; they cause many damages to environment and ecosystem.


:: Paper No: GCGW-330 :: LEAD AND TIN HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS Sultana Boutamine1, Zakia Hank2 and M’hamed Meklati3 1

U.S.T.H.B. Faculté de Chimie; BP 32 El Alia; Bab-Ezzouar 16111 Alger- Algeria. U.S.T.H.B. Faculté de Chimie; BP 32 El Alia; Bab-Ezzouar 16111 Alger- Algeria. 3 U.S.T.H.B. Faculté de Chimie; BP 32 El Alia; Bab-Ezzouar 16111 Alger- Algeria. 2

Lead is one out of four metals that have the most damaging effects on human health. It can enter the human body through uptake of food (65%), water (20%) and air (15%). For as far as we know, lead fulfils no essential function in the human body, it can merely do harm after uptake from food, air or water. Lead can cause several unwanted effects, such as: disruption of the biosynthesis of haemoglobin and anaemia, a rise in blood pressure, kidney damage, miscarriages and subtle abortions, disruption of nervous systems, brain damage, declined fertility of men through sperm damage, diminished learning abilities of children and behavioural disruptions of children, such as agression, impulsive behaviour and hyperactivity. Lead can enter a foetus through the placenta of the mother. Because of this, it can cause serious damage to the nervous system and the brains of unborn children. Tin is mainly applied in various organic substances. The organic tin bonds are the most dangerous forms of tin for humans. Despite the dangers they are applied in a great number of industries, such as the paint industry and the plastic industry, and in agriculture through pesticides. The number of applications of organic tin substances is still increasing, despite the fact that we know the consequences of tin poisoning. The effects of organic tin substances can vary. They depend upon the kind of substance that is present and the organism that is exposed to it. Triethyltin is the most dangerous organic tin substance for humans. It has relatively short hydrogen bonds. When hydrogen bonds grow longer a tin substance will be less dangerous to human health. Humans can absorb tin bonds through food and breathing and through the skin. The uptake of tin bonds can cause acute effects as well as long-term effects. Acute effects are: eye and skin irritations, headaches, stomachaches, sickness and dizziness, severe sweating, breathlessness and urination problems. Long-term effects are: depressions, liver damage, malfunctioning of immune systems; chromosomal damage, shortage of red blood cells and brain damage (causing anger, sleeping disorders, forgetfulness and headaches).


:: Paper No: GCGW-333 :: GEOGRAPHICAL DIVERSITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CEDRUS SPECIES IN NATURAL FOREST L.Boudarene and A.Baaliouamer Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (U.S.T.H.B.) Faculté de chimie, Laboratoire d’Analyse Organique Fonctionnelle, BP 32 El alia Bab Ezzouar, 16111, Algeria In this work , six(6) essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from three species of cedrus growing in six Mediterranean populations : bab chiker, ain kahla ( Morocco), (Djurdjura, Ouled Yacoub) Algeria, Paphos (Cyprus ),and Ain Zhalta( Lebanon). The GC and GC/MS analysis showed that the chemical composition of theses extracts were affected by the geographical diversity. The major components of essential oils from seeds of cedrus species were: pinene( 0.7 – 37.1 %), pinene ( 0.4 -16.6%), bornyl acetate (1.5 – 7.1%), trans pinocarveol (0.1 -5.1%), trans verbenol (0.3 -5.0%), terpineol (0.3 -1.9%), verbenone (0.2- 4.6%) and manool ( 6.9 -38.5%). The chemometric analysis of the data confirmed the intraspecific and interspecific variability of cedrus species.

:: Paper No: GCGW-336 :: THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF TRIPLE EFFECT ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS A. Hajizadeh Aghdam, S. M. Seyed mahmoudi Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tabriz University, Iran Energy and exergy analysis of triple effect series and parallel flow absorption refrigeration system with lithium bromide/water as working fluid pair is presented in this paper. Exergy loss, enthalpy, entropy, temperature, mass flow rate and heat rate in each component of the system are evaluated. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the absorber and generators heat loads and irreversibilities are more than the other components of the system. This is due to the heat of mixing in the solution, which is not present in pure fluids. Furthermore, a simulation program is written and used for the determination of the coefficient of performance (COP) and exergetic efficiency (E) of the absorption systems under different operating conditions. The results show that the COP of the system increase slightly when increasing the HTG and evaporator temperature. However, the exergetic efficiency of the system decreases when increasing the HTG and evaporator temperature for both series and parallel flow types. Also the results show a relative preference of parallel-flow in comparison with series-flow and show that the triple effect system has higher COP in comparison with double and single effect types. 49

:: Paper No: GCGW-347 :: IMPROVEMENT OF BIOFUEL ETHANOL RECOVERY USING THE PERVAPORATION SEPARATION TECHNIQUE Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu Kocaeli University Chemical Engineering Department Veziroglu Campuss, 410410 Izmit, Kocaeli, Turkey. The climatic impact of carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have become a major problem. The production of renewable biofuels from biomass has received increasing attention. Because of the economic and environmental benefits of fuel ethanol’s use it is considered one of the most important renewable fuels. In ethanol fermentations inhibition of the microorganism by ethanol limits the amount of substrate in the feed that can be converted. In a process high feed concentrations are desirable to minimize the flows. Such high feed concentrations can be realized in integrated processes in which ethanol is recovered by pervaporation from the fermentation broth as it is formed. The hybrid process is an attractive process to increase ethanol production economics and to decrease environmental pollution. The separaiton of alcohol from mixtures with ethanol produced by fermentation is usually carried out by distillation and the energy consumption is very high when azeotropic concentration is reached, which corresponds to 5% water in ethanol/water mixture. The pervaporation process provides an economical alternative to the existing distillation technique. A continous recovery of alcohol could be achieved by using the pervaporation process during fermentation, making the process more energy efficient. In this work, for the purposes of membrane material development for pervaporation; zeolite filled and unfilled cellulose acetate membranes were prepared. Zeolite types were 4A, 13X. The effect of incorporation of nano-sized zeolites prepared in a colloidal form in membranes was also investigated. From the sorption tests it is concluded that, ethanol/water azeotropy can be breaked by pervaporation.


:: Paper No: GCGW-348 :: APPLICATION OF PERVAPORATION FOR TREATING MTBE-CONTAMINATED WATER/WASTEWATER Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu1, Ahmet E. Yildirim2, Sema Tulbentci3 1

Kocaeli University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 41040 Kocaeli, Turkey. 2 Sem Ltd, Kadikoy, Istanbul, Turkey. 3 Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, Maslak, 34469, Istanbul, Turkey. The production and use of fuel oxygenates has increased dramatically since the early 1990s due to federal and state regulations aimed to improve air quality. Currently, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used oxygenate in gasoline. Widespread use of oxygenates in gasoline has been accompanied by widespread release of these materials into the environment. Treatment of MTBE from contaminated surface and groundwater supplies presents specific challenges due to the physicochemical properties of MTBE which depend strongly on its hydrophilic nature, and translate into a high solubility in water, very low Henry’s constant and very low affinity for common adsorbents. In this study innovative treatment technology – pervaporation - was applicated for separation MTBE from water/waste water through PEBA membrane. The sorption and pervaporation properties are examined for MTBE/water mixtures at room temperature. PEBA membrane exhibited high separation performances for the separation of MTBE from wastewater.

:: Paper No: GCGW-352 :: GEOMAGNETIC PROCURSER OF THE INCREASING EARTH’S TEMPERATURE Taha Rabeh National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt and Now in Lisbon University, Portugal The Earth's climate has always been changing since the ancient geologic Epochs. These changes are recorded and could be estimated from the fossiliferous records and the Sea fluctuations of these ages. The main target of this investigation is to study the possibility of using the magnetic field as precursor signal for the future changes in the temperature. We used in the analysis three different investigation methods with the long term geologic records for the fossils and sea fluctuations as well as magnetic data on consideration that the layer F of ionosphere transmits the solar radiations and plasma emissions to the Earth’s magnetosphere. The results deduced from about 100 years investigations prove that relation between the magnetic field and the temperature variations in term of 11-years solar cycle. The rate of the changing in temperature at Helwan, Egypt is about 0.0262 °C per year where it is about 0.05 °C per year in Coimbra, Portugal. The study of the climate changes along different geologic Epochs, show that one of the major effective factors is the Sea level as well as the solar radiation. The magnetic field can be used as a precursor signal for the smoothed variations of the Earth’s weather. 51

: Paper No: GCGW-356 :: DAILY PAN EVAPORATION ESTIMATION USING ADAPTIVE NEURO FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEMS Emrah Dogan1, Mehmet Sandalci1, Mahnaz Gumrukcuoglu2 Sakarya University, Civil Engineering Department, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya, Turkey Sakarya University, Environmental Engineering Department, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya, Turkey Daily pan evaporation has been shown to be an important variable in water resources management and planning. However, daily pan evaporation is difficult to measure accurately and consistently over longer time periods. The objective of this research was to develop adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to estimate daily pan evaporation using measured weather variables as inputs. Weather data from Yuvacik Dam station, consisting of 352 daily records (the year of 2006) were used to develop the models of daily pan evaporation. Various combinations of daily climatic data, namely air temperature, relative humidity, solar, radiation and wind speed, are used as inputs to the ANFIS so as to evaluate the degree of effect of each of these variables on daily E. Mean square error, average absolute relative error and coefficient of determination statistics are used as comparison criteria for the evaluation of the model performances. The ANFIS technique whose inputs are solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, gave mean square errors of 0.181 mm, average absolute relative errors of 9.590 % mm, and determination coefficient of 0.958 for Yuvacik Dam station (Kocaeli, Turkey), respectively. Based on the comparisons, it was found that the ANFIS model could be employed successfully in estimating the daily E.


Mechanical Engineering Department, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates 2 Turkish Airlines, Yesilkoy, Istanbul, Turkey 3 Industrial Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabaia

A statistical analysis of the capacity of ground water pumping by wind energy _conversion systems at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia was made. Experimental data of half-hourly _wind energy measurements for duration of 5 years (1995-2000) were used in the analysis. Seven different sizes of horizontal axis wind turbines were considered for the study. The wind turbines are of nominal power of 150, 250, 600, 800, 1000, 1300, and 2500 kW. Eight _different size of water pumps were considered for water pumping purposes that are operated _by the wind turbines. The sizes of the pumps considered were 45, 70, 90, 150, 225, 240, 275 and 550 GPM. The number of pumps that can be operated by the wind turbines as well as the daily water pumping capacities at the sites were analyzed. 52

:: Paper No: GCGW-359 :: BLOCKING SUN WITH ORBITING BALLOONS Chul Park Department of Aerospace Engineering, Kor ea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Daejeon, 305-701, South Korea Sun’s radiation power reaching Earth’s surface can be reduced by letting large balloons circle the Earth in orbits at approximately 1000 km altitude. These balloons, made of plastic films 1 mm in thickness, of a diameter of approximately 46 km, will weigh about 10,000 tons each. A balloon will consist of one hundred of 100 ton pieces. They are transported to the orbit piece by piece, and are assembled there into the spherical shape. They are kept inflated with the vapor pressure of potassium and the electrostatic forces. The inclination angles of these balloons with respect to the solar ecliptic plane can be varied from zero to 90 degrees, although efficiency is highest with the zero degree inclination. If zero degree inclination is chosen, twenty-three of these will reduce the average sun’s radiation by 0.01%. In the 1000 km orbits, which are stable and are populated only by space debris, these balloons will serve also to remove the debris.


American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon, 2 Beirut Arab University, Beirut Lebanon 3 Lund University, Sweden

This study is concerned with optimizing and comparing operation parameters for different control strategies of the combined chilled ceiling displacement ventilation (CC/DV) system subject to transient load using genetic algorithm in MATLAB. The control strategies included: 1) varying chilled ceiling temperature (base strategy), 2) varying displacement ventilation supply conditions, and 3) varying both chilled ceiling temperature and supply air conditions (multiple control variables). Simulation models are developed of thermal space response, chiller, cooling and dehumidification coil, a chilled ceiling panel, and chilled water circuit and the integrated models predicted system energy consumption, space vertical temperature gradient, space stratification height, and associated CC/DV system performance parameters subject to time-varying loads in the space. The optimization problem for each proposed control strategy of the CC/DV system operation is formulated based on energy consumption of system components. Appropriate constraints were incorporated to satisfy the space thermal model and insure that thermal comfort and indoor air quality conditions in the space are satisfied. The optimization problem is solved for a 24 hour repeated schedule in the space using genetic algorithm optimization scheme. The optimization scheme/model is applied to a transient case study with a peak load of 93 W/m2 in a room of 5 x 5m2 with two external walls exposed to Beirut typical day weather condition of the month of August. The optimal control strategy was obtained when simultaneously varying chilled ceiling, chiller supply water setting, and DV supply conditions. The optimal control strategy resulted in 15% energy savings compared to base strategy of varying the chilled ceiling temperature only and 10% energy savings compared to the second strategy of varying displacement ventilation supply conditions. 53

:: Paper No: GCGW-364 :: NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION FROM AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN JAPAN Shin-Ichiro. Mishima, Hiroko. Akiyama, Kazuyuki. Yagi National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences Kannondai 3-1-3 Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8604 JAPAN We estimated N2O emissions from 6 kinds of crops and 3 kinds of livestock every 5 years from 1985 to 2005. Total annual N2O emissions from agricultural activities were estimated as 44,241 Mg, 46,672 Mg, 42,176 Mg, 39,240 Mg and 37,620 Mg, in 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005, respectively. Direct plus indirect N2O emissions from crop production was highest in 1985 (17,644 Mg) and then declined until 2005 (12,088 Mg), because of a reduction in cultivated area and chemical fertilizer input per cultivated area. Paddy rice emissions (4,714 Mg) made up the highest proportion of total in 1985, then the proportion shift back to 3rd in 2005. Direct plus indirect emissions from livestock production peaked in 1990 (29,381 Mg), then declined until 2005 (25,532 Mg). In 1990, N2O emissions from cattle, pigs and poultry were 12,401 Mg, 6,608 Mg and 10,371 Mg, respectively, and their proportions of total emissions remained relatively constant during the period. N2O emissions per area cultivated was highest in 1990 (8,489 g ha1) then declined to 2005 (8,015 g ha-1). Emission from crop production declined steadily, because chemical N fertilizer input per cultivated area declined. However, this reduction did not desire for sustainable agriculture or low impact agriculture against environment, except for tea cultivation. Thus, livestock production was estimated as a more important contributor to N2O emissions in Japan than crop production and the quantity of emissions has increased in recent years. However, in Japan the focus of sustainable agriculture is on crop production practices, although only in terms of assessing the environmental impacts of materials cycling and soil health. N2O emissions could become one of the indices of sustainability and environmental impact. In Japan, many sustainable crop production practices to mitigate environmental impacts have been suggested and introduced, but more progress is needed in livestock husbandry, especially in pig and poultry production.


:: Paper No: GCGW-365 :: INNOVATIVE CATALYTIC MATERIALS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION M.S. El Ouchdi, L. Cherif, R. Bachir, A. Choukchou-Braham, S. Merad-Bedrane Laboratory of Catalysis & Synthesis in Organic Chemistry University of Tlemcen, Chemistry Department. BP 119 – 13000 Tlemcen, Algeria. One of the greatest revolutions in the 20th century is that of transport. Inventions of cars, trucks, and airplanes have created a new world that has become increasingly dependent on combustion of hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel. Major environmental global problems are due to emissions of pollutants from fuels combustion, such as NOx, SOx, particulate matter and greenhouse gases (CO2 , CH4 ,…). The present work is devoted to the study of ethanol catalytic steam reforming. The challenge is a high yield in hydrogen and a high selectivity towards CO2 . The reaction is classically carried out over transition metal catalysts supported on Al2O3, MgO, ZnO and SiO2. Our innovation consists in using mesoporous materials such as SBA-15, Al-SBA-15, CMK3 and mesoporous Alumina known for very interesting and large catalytic properties as supports for our metal catalysts. Cupper and nickel were used as active metal phase. The interest of our work is to obtain high activities under mild conditions. In fact, catalytic tests were carried out in gas phase at 300°C and atmospheric pressure. Ethanol and water were automatically injected with a constant velocity of 0.033 cm3 min-1 and a molar ratio ethanol/water = 1/3. Such operating conditions could be easily reproduced on-board. Catalysts were fully characterized using XRD, EM, TPR and metal loading analysis. Influence of the nature and the structure of the mesoporous support, the nature of the metal, the preparation way, the metal loading and catalysts pre-treatment was checked. A correlation between the materials' properties and catalytic activities will be suggested. All these results will be widely discussed during the presentation.

:: Paper No: GCGW-366 :: EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SECOND GENERATION MICRO HEAT SINKS Ali Koflar Faculty Member, Mechatronics Engineering Program, Sabancı University Sabancı University, Orhanlı, Tuzla, Istanbul, 34956 A parametric study of exergy efficiency over four micro pin fin heat sinks of different spacings and shapes was conducted. Exergy efficiency was used to evaluate the thermodynamic performance and the environmental impact. The effect of working fluid on exergy efficiency was also investigated using R-123 and water as working fluids. Exergy efficiencies were obtained to evaluate and compare the exergetic performances of the micro pin fin heat sinks at fixed mass flow rate, fixed pressure drop, and fixed pumping power. The results of exergy analysis were compared to the results of thermalhydraulic performance study of a past study. Micro pin fin heat sinks having better heat transfer performance rather than thermalhydraulic performance produced better exergy efficiencies, which means that denser configuration and flow separation promoting geometries resulted in higher exergy efficiencies and thus reduced environmental impact. Using R-123 instead of water enhanced the exergetic performance with a penalty of having lower heat transfer performance. 55

:: Paper No: GCGW-367 :: MODELING AND SIMULATION OF ANODE-SUPPORTED SOFC BY USING CFD COMMERCIAL SOFTWARE M.Elsayed.Youssef1, Tak-Hyoung Lim2, Rak-Hyun Song2, Seong-Bok Lee2, Dong-Ryul Shin2 1 2

Mubarak city for scientific research and technology application, Informatic institute, Egypt Korea institute of energy research (kier), p.o.box 103, yusong, Daejon 305-343, South Korea

In the present paper, a two-dimensional numerical model is defined, considering mass and charge balance as well as all the physical process in each component of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode-supported tube. Mass balance, Maxwell-Stefan equation is used at the cathode and anode in partial differential form. The moment equation Darcy’s law for studying the flow in porous media is used. Ionic and electronic current balance by using conductive media DC equation is applied. All above system coupled differential equations are solved using the finite element method using the chemical engineering module in FEMLAB software. The predicted I-V and I-P characteristics curves are verified by experimental data. Predicted fuel consumption and water production distribution as well as current density distribution are studied.

:: Paper No: GCGW-369 :: EFFECT OF WIND BLOWN SAND AND DUST ON PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAYS- MODEL AND SOLUTION Ali Assi Electrical Engineering Department, United Arab Emirates University, 71555 Al Ain, UAE As the word photovoltaic describes the light used to produce electricity, photovoltaic technology generates electricity from light. The greater the light intensity, the greater the flow of electricity, thus shading is critical. Minor shading can result in a significant energy reduction and periodical cleaning of PV generators seems to be necessary. In this research work an original method to reduce the effect of wind blown sand and dust on photovoltaic arrays is described. The proposed method is based on the use of small DC fans that can be attached to the solar module and help in reducing the dust accumulation on the surface of the module, hence improving its efficiency.


:: Paper No: GCGW-370 :: FEASIBILITY STUDY, IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A THEMAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM Mohammad Ebrahim Sarbandi Farahani Niroo Research Institute End of Poonak Bakhtari Blvd. Shahrak Ghods, Tehran, IRAN The storage of coolness has been used as a method of demand – side load management for more than half of century. Recently, because of high electricity costs during peak power period, cooling thermal energy storage has become an important target for load management strategies. In this paper presents the most important results of two projects titled as 1)“Feasibility study of applying cooling thermal storage systems in IRAN” and 2)“Design and development of an air conditioning thermal energy storage system”. In this regard at first the potential use of thermal energy storage as a cooling system for 12 case study buildings were investigated. The obtained results indicated that cool energy storage is very useful technology and it may apply very well to countries with rapid expansion electricity use such as IRAN. Furthermore cost-benefit analysis of cool storage system application in IRAN indicate that cool storage system in 75% of sample buildings have economical advantage with respect to existing conventional cooling systems. Following the aforementioned study, the second project was defined and started and eventually a cooling system based on ice storage was experimentally implemented for an office building. The equipment of this system is controlled in a manner that the whole system operates in one of the operation modes with regards to cooling load, time and date. For supervising this cooling system, a programmable logic controller has been selected and programmed for all the operation modes’ algorithms which continuously checks cooling load, time and date and based on these criteria initializes the proper operation mode and controls the system in the selected mode. Finally the performance of the implemented system is evaluated and in this regard the most important modifications which may improve the thermal energy storage performance are suggested.


:: Paper No: GCGW-373 :: IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER RESOURCES IN SAUDI ARABIA Faisal Macci Al Zawad1, Ahmet Aksakal2 1

Presidency of Meteorology and Environment Dammam 31911 Saudi Arabia King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Dhahran 31261 Saudi Arabia


In this paper, the impact of climate change in Saudi Arabia at the end of the 21st century has been investigated using a regional climate model called PRECIS (“Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies”), which was developed by the Hadley Center of British Met Office. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) A2 emission scenario was evaluated. Four types of boundary data were used: (i) 31-year (1960-1990) integration of HadAM3P, a 150 km resolution Hadley Center’s global atmospheric model data, (ii) 31-year (2070-2100) integration of HadAM3P consistent with the SRES A2 emissions scenario, (iii) 31-year (1960-1990) of ERA40 (1957-2001) reanalysis data derived from ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting), (iv) Historical meteorological data for weather stations covering Saudi Arabia, provided by Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME). Meteorological parameters considered in this study were surface temperature at 1.5 m, precipitation; evaporation, wind speeds at 10 m, and surface runoff in order to determine the impacts of climate change particularly on water resources of Saudi Arabia. The differences of surface evaporation from precipitation were calculated to identify the sensitive locations affected by the climatic change with respect to water resources. Six regions and thirty seven locations in Saudi Arabia were analyzed. The model results showed there is an increase of more than 4 degrees Celsius of the daily mean temperature over Saudi Arabia. The results also indicated that precipitation, winds, and evaporation varied. Substantial percentages increases in runoff are detected from 100 to 350 percents. This study also aimed to utilize GIS technology to compare the present and future climatic conditions by using the local meteorological data and advanced climate model output data.


:: Paper No: GCGW-377 :: OPTIMAL PATHS OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION UNDER CERTAINTY AND UNCERTAINTY Tyler Felgenhauer Progress Energy Graduate Fellow, UNC Institute for the Environment Doctoral Student, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Public Policy CB #3435, Abernethy Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3435, USA Tradeoffs between climate change mitigation and adaptation policies are explored under both certainty, and uncertainty with learning using a numerical two-period decision model. We first replicate a version of the AD-DICE climate model , which modifies the DICE model to incorporate climate change adaptation into the traditional optimization framework. Our model is then extended to include uncertainty over a probability distribution of expected climate sensitivities, and the implications for optimal mitigation and adaptation levels are then explored. In the certainty model runs, the results of previous studies that incorporate adaptation into the portfolio of climate change responses are largely confirmed. Modeling an uncertain climate sensitivity with the same expected value as under certainty leads to several insights: 1) before learning occurs, optimal levels of both mitigation and adaptation are lower under uncertainty than under certainty; 2) in this same early period, optimal mitigation and adaptation levels are most sensitive to the respective cost of each strategy, with the mitigation level more dependent on adaptation costs than vice versa; and 3) variance in climate sensitivity – a parameter with long-term effects – affects mitigation levels more than adaptation levels.



Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Matsue National College of Technology, 14-4, Nishiikuma-chou, Matsue, 690-8518 Japan. 2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata, JAPAN. 3 Loboratory of Resources Remote Sensing & Digital Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, 12, Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, Beijing 10081, P. R. CHINA

This study is intended to develop a model for estimating CO2 fixation in the carbon cycle and for monitoring grain yields using a photosynthetic-sterility model, which integrates solar radiation and air temperature effects on photosynthesis, along with grain-filling from heading to ripening. Grain production monitoring would support orderly crisis management to maintain food security in Asia, which is facing climate fluctuation through this century of global warming. The author improved a photosynthesis-and-sterility model to compute both the crop yield and crop situation index CSI, which gives a percentage of rice yields compared to normal annual production. The model calculates photosynthesis rates including biomass effects, lowtemperature sterility, and high-temperature injury by incorporating solar radiation, effective air temperature, the normalized difference vegetation index NDVI, and the effect of temperature on photosynthesis by grain plant leaves. A decision-tree method classifies the distribution of crop fields in Asia using MODIS fundamental landcover and SPOT VEGETATION data, which include the Normalized Vegetation index (NDVI) and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI). This study provides daily distributions of the photosynthesis rate, which is the CO2 fixation in Asian areas combined with the land-cover distribution, the Japanese geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS), and meteorological re-analysis data by National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The method is based on routine observation data, enabling automated monitoring of crop yields.


:: Paper No: GCGW-380 :: A WINDOW ENERGY RATING SYSTEM FOR TYPICAL OFFICE BUILDINGS IN HONG KONG Cheng Tian, Tingyao Chen, Hongxing Yang Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong SAR, China A window energy rating system (WERS) for commercial buildings in Hong Kong has been developed through systematical parametrical analyses with a great number of simulations using ADELINE/DOE2. A typical office building was used in simulation to reflect the average energy performance of windows installed in a commercial building. Four factors considered in this system are solar radiation, window heat conductance, infiltration and daylighting. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be demonstrated by the model. The WERS is presented by simple algebraic equations, which can be easily used to evaluate the average energy performance of windows. An application example given at the end demonstrates that the algebraic WERS can be easily applied to window energy analysis.


:: Paper No: GCGW-383 :: ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES FROM CHANGING A MAJOR FUEL TYPE AS ENERGY RESOURCES IN AN INDUSTRIAL CITY, KOREA Byeong-Kyu Lee and Kwang-Deok Kim Department of Civil & Environmental Eng., University of Ulsan,Ulsan 680-749, Korea The average sulfur oxides (SOx) concentrations in Ulsan, the largest industrial city of Korea, have significantly reduced since adapting the fuel regulation to limit sulfur content. However, its annual average level is still higher as compared other cities in Korea and advanced countries. Recently, most of countries have been faced a new energy crisis or large amount of energy expenditure. The environmental and energy situations in Ulsan has stimulated a study of the new energy options which includes change of a major fuel type from B-C oil of 0.3%S to high sulfur fuel with strict operation of DSFs. This study analyzed the environmental and economic issues related to the change of a major fuel type in an industrial city, Ulsan, Korea. The environmental problems, which would be faced by changing SOx emissions with the fuel change, and the solutions to overcome the problems are discussed. The first part of this study focused on the discussion of SOx emission increase, introduction need of high efficiency DSFs, additional increase of SO3 emission, white plume matters, risk increase of accident, matters by CO2 emission increase, consistency of energy policies, and control technologies which could be faced by increasing use of high sulfur fuel. The second part of this study dealt with the economy evaluation focusing on estimation of fuel costs, scenario analysis, and economy analysis of fuel change and control efficiency of SOx, and pollution loading into the atmosphere related to fuel types. This study also proposed 4 options which could be considered to solve current energy crisis and economic expenditure for industries. The first considered option was to use B-C oil of 4.0%S with strict operation of SOx control equipment, such as DSFs, with high control efficiency. The second option was to utilize coal with strict operation of air pollution control equipment. However, additional disposal costs of carbon dioxide and particulate matter additionally emitted with increasing coal use should be considered. In the natural gas option, construction for transport or supply systems to expand supply of NG was required. In the option of nuclear power energy some ways to overcome public resistance of the horrible accidents, which may occur in nuclear power plants, should be found.


:: Paper No: GCGW-384 :: IMPACT, VULNERABILITY AND INURING TO THE CLIMATE CHANGES Mazilu Mirela1, Bucfle Gabriela2, Ciobanu Mariana3 University of Craiova, University Centre of Drobeta Turnu Severin, str. Calugareni nr.1, Mehedinti, Romania The adverse effects of the climate changes caused or not by the human being are on the international politic agenda for more than a decade. All over the world the discussions on the climate changes are intensifying and heading new directions, with a larger opening. The climate changes were subject of the agenda of the most important regional and international meetings this year, many of these asking the ending with positive results of the U.N.O. Conference on Climate Changes that is taking place these days in Bali, between the 3rd and 14th of December 2007. The Bali Conference will give the possibility of getting involved in the future into the multilateral processes of climate change under the auspices of the United Nations and into the process of shaping a global approaching plan of the climate changes. The climate changes represent one of the major challenges in our century – a complex field about what we have to improve our knowledge and understanding in order to take immediate and correct actions for a lasting and efficient approach from the point of view of the costs and challenges in the climate changes field respecting the precaution and climate changes inuring principle. The inuring is a process which allows societies to learn to react to the risks associated to the climate changes. These risks are real and already present in many systems and essential sectors of the human existence – the hydrological resources, alimentary security and health. The inuring options are multiple and vary from the technical ones – protection against the water gown level or dwellings protected against the floods by being hanged up on pontoons – to the change of the behavior of the individuals, such as the reduce of the water or energy consumption and/or a more efficient consumption. Other strategies suppose: signaling systems of the meteorological phenomenon, improvements of the risk management, ways to assure and preserve the biodiversity in order to reduce the impact of the climate changes on the human beings, preservation and restoration of the underground shelters made for humans in order to protect them against the storms[1]. For Romania, the climate changes effects are multiple and alarming concerning the: ecosystems, human settlements, agriculture, water management etc., elements presented in detail within the article.


:: Paper No: GCGW-386 :: RATIONAL DETERMINATION OF DESIGN WEATHER DATA FOR REDUCTION OF ENERGY USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING Tingyao Chen and Zhun Yu Research Centre of Building Environmental Engineering Department of Building Services Engineering The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China A statistical method has been developed for the rational selection of sequences of the three coincident design weather parameters for proper determining the peak cooling loads. Equations for estimating cooling loads due to different weather parameters are first derived based on the radiant time series (RTS) method. This allows us to utilize the available thermal and optical properties of a building without the need for tedious regenerating these essential data again. The periodic transfer factors in the equations are then equivalently transformed to z-transfer coefficients. The model has been applied to the hourly weather records of 25 years in Hong Kong to generate the hourly cooling loads of buildings with any thermal lag. The full range of building designs has been covered in the cooling load simulation. Sequences of coincident design solar irradiance, dry-bulb and wet bulb temperatures have been rationally determined through statistical analysis of the computed cooling loads. Results indicate that horizontal solar irradiance computed with the method recommended by ASHRAE is always higher, 4% to 20%, than the measured value in different months. The peak cooling load generated with the design weather data selected by the traditional method based on the measured weather records is also always higher, 12% to 50%, than the results by the new method. This implies that air-conditioning equipment could be properly sized using the rational design weather data, which was significantly oversized by the current design weather data. Reduction of the equipment size would greatly reduce embodied energy use. Properly sized air-conditioning systems are expected to have higher part-lard energy efficiency and cost effectiveness.


:: Paper No: GCGW-387 :: STAND STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL PATTERN OF SWEET CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa L.) TREES IN THE GUILAN FORESTS, NORTH OF IRAN Hassan Poorbabaei Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, the university of Guilan, Someasara, P.O. Box 1144, Iran The aim of this study was to examine forest stand structure and spatial pattern of chestnut trees in the Guilan forests. 68 lozenge sample plots with 2500 m2 area were selectively taken of 9 chestnut sites. In each plot, diameter at breast height of all trees ≥ 10 cm and total height of whole trees were measured. To determine spatial pattern, distances of chestnut trees were measured using T-square method. In order to analyze spatial pattern, distance methods of T-square and Byth and Ripley were applied. Results indicated that the highest value of mean tree basal area was in the Malianbar site, and its lowest value was in Doroudkhan site. In addition, the highest and the lowest values of mean basal area of chestnut tree was obtained in the Visroud site and in Doroudkhan site, respectively. The highest value of basal area of chestnut dead tree was in the Visroud site and its lowest value was in Malianbar site. The highest percentage of chestnut dead trees (42.11 %) was gained in the Doroudkhan site, while its lowest value (5.88 %) was in Malianbar site. Number of whole trees per hectare and its height curves based on diameter breast height (DBH) were plotted, indicating that trees have irregular and uneven-aged structure. The spatial pattern of chestnut trees was found random in Galehroudkhan, uniform in the Kishkhaleh, and clumped in the Shafaroud, Visroud, Malelab, Doroudkhan, Siahmazgi and Malianbar sites


:: Paper No: GCGW-388 :: CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SOURCE RECONCILIATION OF ORGANIC AEROSOLS IN ALGIERS CITY AREA Noureddine Yassaa1,2, Riad Ladji2, Angelo Cecinato3 and Brahim Youcef Meklati2 1

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, U.S.T.H.B., BP 32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, 16111 Algiers, Algeria. 2 Centre de Recherche Scientifique et Technique en Analyses Physico-Chimiques (C.R.A.P.C), BP 248, Alger RP, 16004, Algiers, Algeria. 3 Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico-C.N.R., Area della Ricerca di Roma, Via Salaria Km 29.3, C.P 10, 00016, Monterotondo Scalo RM, Italy. As part of study of the chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over Mediterranean areas, the atmospheric concentrations of organic aerosols comprising n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) were measured during long time period from 1998 to 2006 at different sites of Algiers city. More than 500 aerosol samples were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after a dedicated extraction and clean-up procedure. For instances, the concentration levels of n-alkanes and PAH reached in Algiers between July 2005 and June 2006 were 42-193 and 8-29 ng m-3, respectively. Motor vehicle were found to be the main source of airborne particles in downtown Algiers, while the combustion and pyrolysis processes and bacterial activity seemed to concur to the air pollution generated from waste landfills. The in-situ generation of some NPAH seemed to contribute to air pollution, especially during summertime. In general, the wintertime concentrations of the organic pollutants in Algiers were similar to those measured in Europe and especially over the Mediterranean Basin.


Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumédiène , U.S.T.H.B, Faculté de Chimie, EL-Alia BP 32, Bab-Ezzouar 16111, Alger, Algerie. 2 C.R.A.P.C, Bp 248 Alger Rp 16400, Algerie.

The leaf oils of the following Algerian Eucalyptus species: E.leucoxylon F.Muell; E.punctata DC; E.sideroxylon Cunn; E.saligna Smith; E.cladocalyx F.Muell; E.blakelyi A.Cunn; E.ovata Labill; E.albens Miq.ex Benth; E.camaldulensis DC. and E.globulus Labill have been studied. The extracted oils obtained by steam distillation extraction procedure have been analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to either mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (GC-FTIR). In addition, the emission of volatile organic compounds from E. globulus Labill into the atmosphere has also been studied by employing cartridge sampling and thermal desorption GC-MS. Where more than 60 compounds were identified in the essential oils and 1,8 cineole, p-cymene, β-phellandrene, spathulenol and benzaldehyde were the main compounds, the major volatile compound in the essential oils namely 1,8 cineole was also the predominant one in the atmospheric emission of E. globulus Labill. 66

:: Paper No: GCGW-395 :: EFFECTS OF WATER MANAGEMENT ON METHANE EMISSION FROM RICE FIELDS BY THE REVISED DNDC MODEL Kruamas Smakgahn Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University at Kamphaeng Saen campus, Kamphaeng Saen district, Nakornpathom province, 73140 Thailand In irrigated rice fields the floodwater is controlled and usually maintained throughout the growing season. These conditions are favorable for both rice production and methane (CH4) production. Methane emissions from rice fields appear to be reduced by field drainage and some important cultivation practices. In order consider impact of water management on CH4 emission from rice field, the revised DNDC model was validated against field observations of CH4 emission from irrigated rice field in Thailand by conducted field drainage during growing season. Simulated results were comparable with observations. Alternative water management or introduced drainage to rice field during growing season result in lower CH4 emission compared to conventional water management. The contents of electron acceptors strongly affect methane emission from rice fields, particularly under alternative forms of water managements. Concentration of Fe+2 under drainage treatments were higher than continuously flooded. Fe+2 in flooded rice soil were oxidized during drainage period and function again as electron acceptors and inhibit methane production in subsequent flooded periods. Mid season drainage as a strategy to reduce methane emission should be on a short duration and timed when the rice plants have used up the N fertilizer at the panicle initiation stage. Field drainage during growing period (i.e. vegetative, panicle initial, and flowering stage) was strongly influence on CH4 emission simulated by the model. Methane emission decreased rapidly when water was drained, and increased again after reflooding. The practical mitigate CH4 by field drainage suggested base on the results of this study was drainage during panicle initial period because dry condition being unfavorable for CH4 production. Therefore, field drainage during growing season is one option to mitigate CH4 emission from irrigated rice production


:: Paper No: GCGW-400 :: INDIA’s FIRST FORESTRY (A & R) PROJECT UNDER CDM AGAINST GLOBAL WARMING M.S.Haque1 and K.G.Karmakar2 General Manager- Forestry and 2Managing Director NABARD, Bandra Kurla Complex, Bandra east, Mumbai –400051, Maharashtra, India 1

NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) is an apex financial institution and provides credit for promotion of sustainable agriculture, small- scale industries, cottage & village industries for integrated rural development. Forestry is one of the important activities in rural areas and NABARD has promoted several projects under its Farm Forestry / Agroforestry programs. For the first time in India, a CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) project on Afforestation and Reforestation ( A & R ) is being implemented in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh States by J.K.Paper Mills. The districts are: Kalahandi, Koraput and Rayagada in Orissa and Srikakulum, Vijianagram and Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. The World Bank has agreed to purchase the CER ( Certified Emission Reduction) @ $ 4.05, although the prevailing price of a CER is around $ 11. As this was the first project from not only India, but also S.E.Asia, the rate offered was low. The Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement ( ERPA ) was signed with the World Bank on 8 May 2007. The total area of the plantation is 3500 hectare of wastelands belonging to 2166 poor, tribal farmers. Each farmer has a maximum of 2 ha land under the project. The tree species planted are: Eucalyptus camaldulensis clones, Casuarina equisetifolia and Leucaena leucocephala seedlings. The benefits to the project will be in the form of wood and CERs besides of course the ecological and environmental benefits. In fact, as a part of it’s activities, it conceptualized the present project to ensure both local and global benefits through CDM of UNFCCC and submitted the Project Idea Note (PIN) “Improving rural livelihoods through carbon sequestration by adopting environment friendly technology based Agroforestry (Reforestation) Practices,” in 2003 to the Bio-carbon Fund established by the World Bank. NABARD is trying to bring the project under its Natural Resource Management ( NRM ) fold so that the small tribal farmers can avail of subsidized credit for undertaking the activity. Monitoring visits to the project sites were taken up twice in 2007 and the tie up with a commercial bank is in the final stages of negotiation.


:: Paper No: GCGW-402 :: ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF BOLOGNA PROCESS Karlin L., Savelyev L. Signing Bologna Declaration Russia undertook to modernize its higher education. Education and training at University level in this country is to be provided in more than 100 directions, environmental studies being one of them. Special unified Educational Programmes to be used in all Russian Universities have been developed for each direction. Educational programmes have two levels: BA (4 years) and MA (2 years), respectively, and include the following items: 1 Area of application, 2 Key terms, 3 General characteristics (Description) of a specialty), 4 Resources to implement the Programme (e.g. textbooks, equipment, etc.), 5 Description of Educational Programme (competencies, curricula, etc.). This approach makes it possible to unify education and training space in the country.

:: Paper No: GCGW-403 :: SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR HOUSE HEATING THROUGH LiBr / H2O ABSORPTION PROCESS: PRELIMINARY ENERGY EVALUATION Le Pierrès Nolwenn, Luo Lingai, Hui Liu LOCIE Laboratory, Savoie University Polytech’Savoie, Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget Du Lac, France A concept of thermal energy storage for solar heat storage from summer to winter using absorption is presented. The application aimed would be the coverage of all the heating needs of a residential building equipped of solar collectors for domestic hot water production and space heating. The different phases of the corresponding absorption cycle as well as the components involved are described, and an example of static dimensioning is given for the components for the case of the LiBr/H2O couple. For this couple, a heat source temperature around 80°C during the summer would be sufficient, compatible with simple flat plate solar collectors. The heat produced during the winter would then have a temperature around 30°C, corresponding to a heat floor temperature. The respective operating pressures would be 40 and 12 mbar. The covering of all the heating needs of a 120 m2 house in the alpine region of France would need mainly two tanks of respectively about 20 m3 of LiBr/H2O solution. However, this is only a first evaluation and dynamic simulations are needed to refine this value.



Mechanical Education Dept., Technical Education Faculty, Süleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta-Turkey, 2 HVAC Dept., Senirkent Vocational School, Süleyman Demirel University, 32600/Isparta-Turkey, 3 Mechanical Engineering Dept., Engineering Faculty, Süleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta CO2 has no ozone depletion potential and insignificant global warming potential. So CO2 is one of the promising natural fluids. In this study; the energy saving potential of one-stage transcritical CO2 cycle is investigated theoretically. The evaporator and gas cooler pressure are selected as variable parameters. The coefficient of cooling performance improving with using an expander which is used instead of an expansion valve is presented graphically. However the irreversibility analysis is carried out. The compressor isentropic efficiency and expander isentropic efficiency are used as variable parameters for the energy and irreversibility analyses. Total irreversibility is decreased by 22.5 % with using an expander which have 60 % isentropic efficiency.


:: Paper No: GCGW-405 :: ENERGY EFFICIENCT SOLID STATE LIGHTING AND THERMAL MANAGEMENT FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE Mehmet Arik1 , Anant Setlur2 General Electric Company Global Research Center Thermal Systems Laboratory, 2Optical Materials Laboratory, One Research Circle ES-513 Niskayuna, NY 12309


Solid-state lighting technologies such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) or organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been of interest for the last 15 years. This paper will focus on inorganic LED technology, evolving applications, energy efficiency and economic impact, and the effect of thermal management on LED lighting systems. The efficacy of commercial 1 W LED packages is expected to surpass the most efficient white light sources by 2010 as defined by the lumens per watt (lm/W), meaning the amount of light produced for each watt of electricity consumed by the light source. This metric takes into account both the sensitivity of the eye towards the spectral output of the light source as well as the electrical losses within the LED package and/or lighting system. Currently, the best white LEDs surpass the efficacy of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), which are widely accepted in Europe and Asia and are beginning to enter residential markets in North America. The introduction of high brightness LEDs with white light and monochromatic colors has allowed them to penetrate specialty and general illumination applications with much higher lumen requirements. The output of a typical commercial white LED lamp using a high brightness 1 mm2 LED exceeds 200 lumens (25% of a 60 W incandescent bulb) at 3 W power, corresponding to a heat flux of up to 300 W/cm2. This creates significant thermal challenges at both the chip and system level that need to be addressed to enable penetration into practical applications. In this paper, the basics of LED lighting will be discussed followed by the potential economic benefits for high efficiency LED lighting systems in the general illumination market focusing energy savings and reduced carbon emissions. We will then discuss the thermal challenges and possible candidate technologies.


:: Paper No: GCGW-407 :: EFFECT OF CLEAN ENERGY ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS H.R.Sharifan1, J.Farzadmehr2, A.Davari3, N.Banan4, H. Malvandi5 1

Graduate in Environmental pollution of Islamic Azad University of Tehran Science and Research Branch 2 Asisstant Professor of Birjand University 3 Graduate in Environment Engineering, University of Tehran ,Faculty of Natural Resources 4 Graduate in Environment Engineering, of Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan Branch 5 Graduate in Environment Engineering, University of Tarbia Modares, Tehran ,Faculty of Natural Resource Since world`s requirement for energy is spreading we need alternative sources of renewable energy such as wind power for generation of electricity, its positive effects on the economy of developed countries and developing countries is obvious, because it prevents rising coal and gas prices, specially in rural areas without the use of fossil fuel sources in arid and semi arid areas .wind is one of the clean energy sources that produces no emission which means, it doesn’t contribute to acid rain, global climate change, smog and…This environmental benefits positively effects have became an international topic. This paper presents quality and quantity assessment of land for use of potential wind energy in the rural areas that suffer from potential drought and high cost of electrical energy and its prevent fluctuation. In this paper we studied land assessment for use of potential wind power in Darmian rural areas, in East central desert of Iran at Southern Khorasan Province. It has dry climate and famous seasonal wind known "120 days of Sistan" this area has adequate constant wind speed, in this method we used geographical information system (GIS)tools and statistical of regions climatology station, after analysis of maps derived by application unit (slope- elevation- direct) and erosion and geological unit and its bird migration root, we consider and discuses its results on the regional and social benefits such as reduction for demand of fossil fuels, reduction of pollution, employment, prevention of migration to the big cities, improvement farmer and rancher livelihood, sustainable development of agriculture and…

:: Paper No: GCGW-408 :: A STUDY OF MALATHION DEGRADATION IN TRITICUM DURUM WHEAT SPECIES GROWING IN ALGERIA Oulounis Dalila, Bait Samira and Baaliouamer Aoumeur Laboratoire d’Analyse Organique Fonctionnelle Faculté de Chimie Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB) BP 32, El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, 16111, Algiers Algeria To elucidate the chemical behaviour of Malathion in Triticum durum wheat species growing in Algeria, degradation studies have been carried out under field conditions and sunlight irradiation in temperate climate at the Technical Institut of Great Cultures (Oued Smar, 10Km East of Algiers, Algeria). The Malathion solution to be used was prepared at a concentration of 18 mg/100mL in kerosene. The concentrations of Malathion in wheat seeds, wheat leafs and stems and bran respectively, after 15 days of treatment were determined by GC (HP series 1890), using a 30m x 0.25mm x 0.25 μm HP5-MS capillary column. GC / MS analysis using the same HP5-MS capillary column, were investigated to characterize some products of degradation as malaoxon, succinic acid mercapto diethyl ester and diethyl mercaptosuccinate. The problem of their accumulation in the environment is also reported. 72

:: Paper No: GCGW-411 :: ENERGY IN EGYPT: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS Azza Hafeza*, Maaly Khedra, Mervet Badb, ,Kamel-Elkhatiba, Hanaa Gaddalaa Said Alhallag c Fouad Teymour c a

Chemical Engineering and Pilot-Plant Department, National Research Center, Caio, Egypt, b Mechanical Engineering Department, National Research Center, Cairo Egypt c Department of Chemical &Environmental Engineering Illinoi Institute of Technology, Chicago, USA The vast increase in Egyptian population over the past two decades has resulted in sever energy shortages. Egypt population today has exceeded nearly 80 million, nearly 10% of these population are without electricity. About 90000 Gega Watt Hour (GWH) are generated in Egypt by conventional methods and nearly 200 GWH are generated from wind and solar energies. The annual increase in electricity demand is about 8%. Egypt has adopted a national strategy that seeks the increase of renewable energy contribution in the energy mix to three to five per cent of total production by the year 2010. This article represents one phase of an undergoing collaborative project between USA, Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and Egypt, National Research Centre (NRC) concerning the evaluation and identification of current and future demand of conventional and renewable energy resources in Egypt. This phase reports a comprehensive situation analysis of the energy resources in Egypt which includes conventional resources such as petroleum, natural gas, hydropower and coal as well as renewable energy resources such as solar, wind and biomass energies. Electricity generation via different energy sources as well as a sectoral electricity consumption have been evaluated. Future forecasting demand for the different energy resources and electricity are estimated based on energy and power evaluation program (ENPEP).


Azad University Arasanjan, Iran., 2Scientific board member, Islamic Azad University Arsanjan, Iran. 3 M.A.student of environmental pollution, Tehran Scientific re Seach University, Iran.

Todays air pollution is one of the most important environmental hazards. That it has been come to exist because of human came to exist because of human activities. his pollution has many dangers for heath of people and also it has danger for other alive creatures the valuation of long affects of air pollution on human health is so hard, but there is no any doubt that in the long term, the air polluted causes many diseases like amphizem, chronic bronshist, asthma and other respiratory diseases. According performed studies, the people who lived long term in cities with high air pollution, shows more rate of death and disability of heart and respiratory disorders. The result of this study showed that the most serious damage to human body is associated with particulate matter in air. Now the scientist can measure the rate of pollutant in the air by some birds like pigeon. Therefore, measuring concentration of air pollutant and analyzing it, is effective step in preventing of mentioned problems. in this essay we try to scrutinize about the characteristics of some important air pollutants and the way of their affects on health and the mental health of humans. 73

:: Paper No: GCGW-420 :: SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES IN MALAYSIA: ARE WE READY FOR IT? Nazirah Zainul Abidin University Science of Malaysia School of Housing, Building and Planning, University Science of Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia The creation of a sustainable future depends on the knowledge and involvement of the people, as well as an understanding of the consequences of individual actions. To implement sustainable construction effectively, the construction practitioners must be willing to change their behaviour in exploring new territory and willing to adopt new products, ideas and practices. In Malaysia, the issues of environmental dissatisfaction on construction projects regularly appeared in headlines. These negative remarks about construction tainted the good image of the industry. Due to the growing concern on environment, the government, professional bodies and private companies are beginning to take proactive approach to reduce this problem without restraining the need for development. There is some evidence of sustainable projects being built in Malaysia indicating that the concept of sustainable construction has beginning to settle within the industry. However, these projects are pioneers and merely fingers count. As global interest on sustainability has steadily blooming, Malaysia should not fell short in its attitude on sustainability and sustainable construction. Are we ready to make our commitment for sustainability in the global market? This paper focuses on the actions undertaken by the Malaysian government, non-government organisations and construction players in promoting sustainability in construction. To ensure that those concerted efforts are not only skin deep in its impact, a survey was conducted to investigate the awareness of the developers regarding this issue and whether those developers has absorb the concept of sustainable construction in their current practices. The survey revealed that although the developers are aware of the rising issues on sustainability, little efforts are generated from the developers in implementing it. More effort is necessary to boost this application and further stimulate actions and strategies towards a sustainable built environment.


:: Paper No: GCGW-421 :: GLOBAL WARMING: DESERT HEAT COLLECTION AND CONVERSION INTO ELECTRICITY Muftah M. Elarbash Senior environmental engineer, Managing Director, Waves Environmental Ltd., Tajura, Tripoli, Libya Waves Environmental through its founders has made advances since 1983 in researching, and on the way to developing and creating a clean energy source as a global alternative to fossil fuel and to provide renewable clean electric energy to satisfy the global need for energy. A 2,500 km2 of desert land would is planned to construct an operational physical model that would collect sufficient desert heat to generate about 70,000 MW. This large scale physical model would be used for testing and technology development. The model would be converted at a latter phase of the research and development to a commercial prototype for further testing and for fine tuning of the developed technology. Once the technology is fully developed and is ready for implementation, the first large scale desert heat collection and conversion into electricity (DHCCE) plant would be built. The plant would sit on about 10,000 km2 of desert land to generate about 300,000 MW. The project principle is to simulate global warming in energy trapping and create local isolated climates within the ambient climate. Several local low pressure regions would be created within the nearly constant high pressure desert climate. Keep and maintain a constant low pressure at the isolated mini climates, internal winds would be stimulated to blow in constant velocities. The velocities would be maintained at a level where wind speed is high enough to produce an adequate level of mechanical energy that is economically convertible into electricity. The overall energy conversion efficiency should be maintained at 8% or higher. The investment returns of the project are also substantial. The whole world community can benefit in cash terms. Energy would be cheap enough to be provided to each household at nearly half of what is paid today. With an annual production of 131,400 TWh in 2007 increasing at a 2.3% annual rate and estimating the average selling price of the renewable KWh to be $0.06, the annual revenue in 2018 – 10 years from now (total consumption 19 TW) - is estimated to be around $10 trillion.


:: Paper No: GCGW-426 :: THE CLUSTERIZATION OF GREENHOUSE GASES, THE ANTUGREENHOUSE EFFECT A.Y. Galashev, O.R. Rakhmanova, V.N. Chukanov Institute of Industrial Ecology of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 620219 Ekaterinburg, S. Kovalevskaya St., 20a Earth's atmosphere is a complicated dynamic system protecting the biosphere. One of the essential factors influencing the Earth’s radiation balance is the greenhouse effect, whose amplification is connected not only with rising solar activity, but also with the magnification of the gases possessing expressed radioactive properties in the atmosphere. A significant influence on formation of thermal radiation fields is rendered by H2O vaporous, and also by atmospheric gases such as CO2, CH4, N2O, and others. A change of the greenhouse gases’ concentration can cause unfavorable climatic changes. However, in the atmosphere there are phenomena, which slow down rapid development of climatic processes. One may attribute the clusterization of greenhouse gases to a number of such phenomena. However the process of self-regulation of the atmosphere composition due to the formation of water clusters and the following capture of greenhouse gases molecules by them, as a rule, is not taken into account. The present paper focuses on the molecular dynamic study of the influence of the H2O vapours’ and CO2, N2O, CH4 C2H2, C2H6 atmospheric gases’ clusterization on the greenhouse effect. Owing to the clusterization the homogeneous single-phase system represented by a mix of gases passes to a two- or even a three-phase state as depending on external conditions, clusters representing a little dispersed "phase" can be in both liquid and solid state.


:: Paper No: GCGW-428 :: WARMING TENDENCY IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN BASIN AND ITS INFLUENCE ON Culex pipiens POPULATION ABUNDANCE AND ON THE PROBABILITY OF WEST NILE FEVER OUTBREAKS (ISRAELI CASE STUDY: 2000-2005) Shlomit Paz Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel 31905 Many mosquitoes and the diseases they carry, including West Nile Virus (WNV), are sensitive to temperature increase. Therefore, global warming and West Nile Fever (WNF) are related subjects of global importance. The current study analyzes the lag correlations between weather conditions (especially air temperature) and 1) Culex pipiens mosquito population abundance, 2) WNF frequency in humans, between 2000 and 2005 in Israel. These six years follow a long period with a documented tendency for temperature increase in the hot season in the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Monthly anomalies of minimum and maximum temperatures, relative seasonal rainfall contribution, relative humidity, mosquito samplings (hazard level) and WNF cases (hospital admission dates and patients' addresses) were analyzed. Logistic regression was calculated between the climatic data and the mosquito samples, as Spearman correlations and Pearson cross correlations were calculated between daily temperature values (or daily precipitation amounts) and the hospital admission dates. The WNV outbreak in Israel in summer 2000 appeared after two summers with medical and climatic warning signs. The outbreak development was comparable to the cases from Romania (1996) and NYC (1999). Each of those eruptions appeared after a long heat wave. It was found that along the whole study period (2000-2005) the disease appearance reflects the population distribution, while the risk tends to escalate around the metropolis characterized by an urban heat island. Positive anomalies of the temperature appear to have facilitated the mosquito abundance and consequently, the disease emergence in humans. The disease appeared averagely at a lag of 3 to 9 weeks (strongest correlation = lag of 7 weeks). The minimum temperature was found as the most important climatic factor that encourages the disease earlier appearance. Extreme heat is more significant than high air humidity for increasing WNV cases. Significant lag correlations between daily rainfall amounts and WNF cases were not found but the increase in mosquito hazards and in WNF cases in 2003 could be related to the unusual increase in rainfall amount in the previous winter and spring. An important finding is the potential influence of extreme heat in the early spring on the vector population increase and on the disease's appearance weeks later. Awareness of such situations at the beginning of the spring may help authorities to reduce the disease risk before it becomes a real danger.


:: Paper No: GCGW-429 :: NATURAL FLUIDS AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT TO VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM Sattar MA, Saidur R, and Masjuki HH Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia The detrimental effect of Ozone depletion potential and global warming potential of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) refrigerant on environment has led to the search for environmental benign refrigerant. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the performance of vapor compression refrigeration system using natural fluids which is free from ozone depletion and global warming potential. The refrigerants used were pure butane and mixture of propane, butane and isobutene as refrigerants. The experiment was conducted with a refrigerator designed to work with HFC-134a under the same no load condition at a surrounding temperature of 25°C and 28°C. The refrigeration capacity, the compressor power, the coefficient of performance (COP), condenser duty and heat rejection ratio were investigated. The effect of ozone depletion potential and global warming potential is also discussed in this paper. It can be stated that the performance of butane and their blends is comparable with the performance of the HFC134a. The result shows a better performance of butane than HFC-134a. The results support the possibility of using butane as an alternative to HFC134a in domestic refrigerators without any modification of the domestic refrigerator.

:: Paper No: GCGW-430 :: FRAMEWORK OF TEXTILES MANUFACTURING INDEX You Sau Wai Sophie1,Cheng Kwok Po Stephen2 1

Research Student of Institute of Textiles and Clothing,The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. 2 Associate Professor of Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. With an increasing emphasis on the environment, green consumerism is gaining the momentum. It can be anticipated that many enterprises start to launch green campaigns. This movement further motivates manufacturers to be more environmental conscious in their production process. They are obliged to follow eco-standards agreed upon local authorities as well as buyers. All industrial activities would unavoidably cause pollution. The textiles industry, which is reported to have a significant impact on the environment, is no exception to the statement. A general idea will be presented on how textile production can impose an adverse effect on the environment stage by stage. Also, a review of the various management tools will be outlined concerning the assessment of environmental performance of a product or a manufacturing process. Another objective of this paper is to propose a new idea on developing a monitoring index which addresses the environmental impact of the textiles production process. 78

:: Paper No: GCGW-431 :: THE GREAT SEASON CLIMATIC OSCILLATION AND THE GLOBAL WARMING Ahmed Boucenna Laboratoire DAC, Département de Physique Faculté des Sciences, Université Ferhat Abbas, 19 000 Sétif, Algeria The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth’s ground its 15 °C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its importance. We think that natural climatic oscillations contribute more to earth climatic disturbances. It is known that earth is subject to various climatic oscillations of relatively short periods such as the twenty-four hour and the one-year climatic oscillation periods. The other oscillation that we hypothesize to exist has a longer period (800 to 1000 years). The glacier melting and regeneration cycles lead to variations in the cold region ocean water density and thermal conductibility according to their salinity. These variations lead one to think about a macro climate oscillating between maximum hot and minimum cold temperatures. This oscillation is materialized by the passages of the planet through hot, mild, and cold eras, leading to the great season climatic oscillation phenomenon (GSCO). Thus, our planet lives four great seasons a great spring, a great summer, a great winter and a great autumn/fall, making a great year embracing our four small classical yearly seasons. This great season climatic oscillation is responsible for the slowing of the thermo haline circulation (THC) to the North Atlantic signaled by several authors. Culminating great summer heat weather maxima would take place around the years Ns = 2000 ± (800 to 1000)k and culminating great winter cold weather maxima would be expected to occur around the years Nw = 1600 ± (800 to 1000)k, where k is an integer number. The probabilistic character of the parameters that are at the origin of this climatic oscillation makes the long-term prediction less precise but the deterministic tendencies and the resonance phenomena give precious information on our planet climatic future. The present warming up is well interpreted in the frame of the great season climatic oscillation theory.


:: Paper No: GCGW-433 :: SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS R.L. Evans Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z4 Transportation accounts for more than a quarter of total global energy consumption. For fuelling road transportation there has been much speculation about the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, which proponents claim would usher in the “Hydrogen Economy”. The concept of the “complete energy conversion chain” has been used to compare the overall energy consumption and CO2 emissions from vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells with those from vehicles using a battery and electric drive. The analysis shows that if a sustainable source of electricity is used to produce hydrogen, then the hydrogen and fuel cell system is just equivalent to a battery. The efficiency of these two different approaches has been compared, and shows that the hydrogen system would consume nearly three times the primary energy required by a battery storage system. Conventional batteries do not, however, have a sufficiently high energy storage density to provide the range needed for most drivers. A new generation of plug-in hybrid vehicles is being developed which take advantage of the best attributes of both electric vehicles and conventional fossil-fuelled vehicles. These vehicles show promise to dramatically reduce the quantity of greenhouse gases produced each year by the transportation sector.


Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, Bocní II 1401, 141 31 Prague, Czech Republic 2 Technical University, Hálkova 6, 461 17 Liberec, Czech Republic

Development of extreme value models with time-dependent parameters has been one of the challenging recent advances in the field of statistical modelling of extremes. Such models enable estimating frequencies and magnitudes of extremes under conditions for which trends or long-term variability have been detected and/or where it is reasonable to assume that such trends/variability will continue towards future, and may be applied not only into the non-stationary observed data but also utilized in generating scenarios of their future changes using climate model outputs. The method leads to a likelihood function that can be treated in a usual way to obtain estimates, standard errors and confidence intervals of model parameters and quantiles. In this study, extreme value models with time-dependent parameters are applied to estimate high quantiles of distributions of maximum daily air temperatures over Europe in transient climate change simulations from Global Climate Models (GCMs), covering the period 1961-2100 and assuming a gradual increase in greenhouse gas concentrations over the 21st century according to various SRES emission scenarios. A comparison of scenarios of changes in extreme high temperatures based on the non-stationary peaks-over-threshold models with ‘classical’ stationary models is performed. The results demonstrate that the application of stationary extreme value models in temperature data from GCM scenarios over the 21st century yields results that may be to a large extent biased, while the nonstationary models lead to spatial patterns that are robust and enable one to detect those areas in which the projected warming in the tail of the distribution of daily temperatures is largest for a given time horizon. 80


Ataturk University Environmental Problems Research Center, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey, Ataturk University Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey,


The air pollution is a major environmental problem in Erzurum in the eastern of Turkey during heating season. It is known that, in general, the air pollution concentations have a close relationship with meteorological parameters. In this study, the relationship between air quality data with the previous day’s pollutants concentration and meteorological parameters, such as wind speed, temperature, relative humidity was statistically analyzed using the RATS (Regression Analysis Time Series) programme. SO2 and TSP were considered to be dependent variables whereas wind speed, temperature, humidity and previous days’ pollutant concentration of were considered as independent variables. Determination coefficient of proposed statistical model for SO2 and TSP related meteorological parameters with previous day’s pollutant concentration was calculated 0.71 and 0.43, respectively. The model was good for SO2, but for TSP was moderate. According to this equation, the level of SO2 decreased with increasing wind velocity and temperature, but SO2 increased with increasing SO2 concentration of previous days. TSP concentration decreased with increasing wind velocity and temperature, but TSP increased with increasing TSP concentration of previous days. According to the results get through multiple linear regression analysis, there was an opposite relation between air pollutants (TSP and SO2) concentrations and meteorological parameters (temperature, wind speed) data. Also higher air pollutants concentration was related to higher previous day’s pollutants.

:: Paper No: GCGW-442 :: Light- induced transformation of carbendazim in water A. Boudina1,2, C. Emmelin2, A. Baaliouamer1, M.F. Grenier-Loustalot3, J.M Chovelon2 1

Laboratoire d’Analyse Organique Fonctionnelle, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, BP 32 El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger, Algérie. 2 Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l’Environnement, (IRCELYON), UMR CNRS 5256, Université de Lyon I, 43, Boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622, Villeurbanne Cedex France. 3 S.C.A.- Service Central d’Analyse, U.S.R. 059 CNRS-Echangeur de Solaize, BP 22 69390 Vernaison, France. In the present work, we studied the photochemical behaviour of the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), which is also the major degradation product of benomyl. These compounds are toxic for humans, animals and plants, and they contaminate surface waters and aquifers. The kinetics of photodecomposition of carbendazim was determined using HPLC-DAD and the identification of photoproducts was carried out with HPLC/MS (ESI). According to the experimental results, carbendazim is rather stable molecule in the dark or in the environmental conditions (quantum efficiency in the suntest Φsun= 10-4 degraded molecule per absorbed photon). Four photoproducts have been identified in pure water. The photoproduct issued from the cleavage of the benzimidazole ring of carbendazim seems very stable. 81

:: Paper No: GCGW-444 :: IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON POVERTY AND WOMEN IN INDIA Durgadas Mukhopadhyay Delhi University, A 21, Sec 31, Noida , Pin 201301,India The Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) says the world can expect more heat waves and droughts, heavier rains, stronger storms and rising sea levels due to global warming caused by emissions of greenhouse gases. Africa, Latin America and parts of Asia- where the climate is already more extreme and arid regions are common-are likely to be most affected. Large numbers of people could be forced to find new homes as their living environments are submerged, or food and water become scarce. Up to 250 million people could be displaced by climate-related disasters by the middle of the century. Recent World Bank researcher has found that the impacts of a one-meter rise in sea level will be profound in the developing world, potentially turning 56 million people in 84 developing countries into environmental refugees. In Vietnam, an estimated 10.8 per cent of the nation’s population will be displaced with onemeter sea level rise, with very high impacts in the Mekong and Red River deltas. Egypt’s Nile Delta will be similarly affected with 10.5 per cent of the population at risk and 25 percent of the delta inundated. In South Asia, Bangladesh will have the largest share of land affected. A 2007 cross-country study in Latin America has found strong evidence that agriculture in the region will be vulnerable to the effects of higher temperatures, though these effects are likely to vary from place to place. Deforestation at five percent a decade is steadily depleting a valuable resource base for millions of people who depend on forest for survival. It also contributes to about 20 per cent of annual global CO2 emissions and seriously threatens biodiversity. A world-wide average 3 centigrade increase (compared to pre-industrial temperatures) over the coming decades would results in a range of localized increases that could reach twice as high in some locations. The effect that increase droughts, extreme weather events, tropical storms and sea level rises will have on large parts of Africa, on many small island states and coastal zones will be inflicted in our lifetimes. For some of the world’s poorest people, the consequences could be apocalyptic. In the long run climate change is a massive threat to human development and in some places it is already undermining the international community’s efforts to reduce extreme poverty.


:: Paper No: GCGW-445 :: MULTIMEDIA POLLUTANT SOURCES, THEIR EFFECTS TO ENVIRONMENT AND WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IN TURKISH SHIPYARDS Ugur Bugra Celebi, Fuat Tolga Akanlar and Nurten Vardar Yıldız Technical University, Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 34349 Istanbul, Turkey, There is a major manpower requirement to process production in shipyard industry under hard working conditions with hazardous material. Most of the production processes are resulted with waste and pollutants which are hazardous to the environmental safety and health. More than 40 shipyards in Istanbul/Turkey are involved in new construction and repair of ships and generate significant quantities of pollutants, wastes and wastewater every year. To minimize these effects, the amount of wastes and pollutants has to be defined before the production processes. Especially the climate change, mostly being discussed and studied for recent years, will be effected by improving these shipyard production processes. This paper focuses on shipyard process and associated solid, liquid and air pollutants emissions resulting from shipbuilding and ship repair activities and the prevention, minimization and re-use of these waste products. The first application of “Best Management Practice” (BMP) from a Turkish shipyard is managed and the results are given in this paper to lead the shipyard industry. This BMP application is awarded by “The Ecological Magazine in Turkey” in 2007.



Senior Lecturer, Griffith School of Environment Director, Tourism, Sport and Service Innovation Research Centre, Griffith University Gold PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre 9726 Qld, Australia


In Australia, recent severe widespread droughts, in some cases the longest on record, have resulted in water shortages throughout much of the country. The ongoing decline in stream flows1 in some of the major urban catchments combined with an ongoing demand for living in major capital cities and urban centres2 have exacerbated the pressure on natural surface water supplies for major cities. Reports released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change3 and Australia’s Commonweal th Scient i f ic and Indus t r ial Research Organi sat ion4 strongly indicate continuing changes to climate scenarios that are likely to increase the risks of further water shortages for Australia’s major urban centres. In response, state governments and urban water authorities have focused on extending centralised systems, by adding ultra and nano filtration processes to effluent recycling supplemented by reverse osmosis (desalination), in an attempt to drought-proof urban water supplies.5 A shortcoming of this approach concerns the heightened energy demands resulting from the transportation and filtration of large volumes of water. In Australia, this extra energy is being largely generated by coal fired power stations which increase (a) CO2 production and (b) pressure on existing urban water resources. Alternative solutions based on decentralised water management systems, including local stormwater and rainwater harvesting, effluent treatment and recycling, have not been pursued with the same vigour. This paper examines the legislative and policy framework pertaining to urban water supply in Southeast Queensland, with particular emphasis attached to the provision of decentralised water management systems for large residential and mixed use urban developments. It also analyses a number of case studies to illustrate the constraints and mindsets of decision makers and property developers with respect to the development of more sustainable and greenhouse gas conscious water management solutions. In conclusion, the paper contrasts some of the economic and environmental implications of centralised versus decentralised water solutions and provides recommendations for policy making, internationally, on how to address water problems without exacerbating climate change.


:: Paper No: GCGW-448 :: COASTAL UPWELLING VARIABILITY ALONG THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF INDIA-GLOBAL WARMING K. Muni Krishna Dept of Meteorology and Oceanography, Andhra University Visakhapatnam-530 003, India Coastal upwelling along the Southwest Coast of India (SCI) supports one of the most productive areas of the global ocean. Upwelling favourable winds with different seasonality along this coast pump nutrientrich waters into the euphotic zone, enhancing primary production. The oceanography of the SCI is dominated by the reversal of winds between the southwest and northeast monsoons. The southwest monsoon normally reaches the southern coast of SCI in May or June, spreads northward and continues to blow through September. Between November and March or April, the region is under the influence of lighter, drier northeast winds. Characteristics of this climate regime that may vary year to year include the timing of onset and withdrawal of the southwest monsoon and the intermittency and intensity of associated wind stress and precipitation. Variations in the coupled ocean-atmospheric system impact upwelling patterns and other climatic elements in SCI. Changes in the upwelling system in turn modify sea surface temperatures, sea level heights, and coastal climate. This study examines upwelling patterns from 1946 – 2005 along the SCI, and ties these patterns to variations in air-sea interactions. While upwelling is controlled daily mostly by local characteristics of winds, coastal topography and bathymetry, large atmospheric feature such as El Nino/La Nina episodes dominate local conditions. Results from this indicate that air-sea interactions on a large-scale do explain trends and variability of upwelling along the SCI. Additionally, these findings also point to the possible influences of global warming. Furthermore, local climatic records reveal the influence of coastal atmospheric/oceanic variations on SCI climate.

:: Paper No: GCGW-449 :: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT STUDIES ON GREEN HOUSE GAS REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES IN INDIAN INTEGRATED STEEL SECTOR Amitava Bandopadhyay National Metallurgical Laboratory, (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research), Jamshedpur – 831 007, India The iron & steel industry has been recognised as a major source of CO2 emission. Green house gas emission and global warming caused by the steel sector has received significant attention from scientists, technologists and policy makers. The steel industry globally emits approximately 360 million tons of CO2 as carbon from cradle-to-gate. Over the last two decades, the Indian steel sector has made significant advances resulting in 20-25% reduction in CO2 emission. A few years back, the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India had initiated a life cycle assessment (LCA) study for the integrated steel sector to assess current levels of emissions of pollutants and green house gases and recommend strategies for improving the environmental performance of the steel sector. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to analyse various process integration and optimisation measures recommended for GHG reduction from sinter plants, pellet plants, coke ovens, blast furnaces and steel making furnaces based on the results of the LCA study. The paper also discusses various green steel making options using scrap, direct reduced iron and hot metal produced by smelting reduction processes. 85



Laboratoire du Gaz Naturel, Département de Chimie, USTHB Alger, Algérie LMSPC UMR CNRS 7515, ECPM, 25, rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg Cedex 2 France

Several defined structures (Ni2Al18O29, NiAl10O16, NiAl26O40 and NiAl32O49) with an atomic ratio Al/Ni from 9 to 32 have been prepared by a sol-gel method. The characterization of the different structures was made by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), surface areas (BET) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). By XRD, all the phases expected were obtained, however the characteristic main phase was often mixed with minors phases (e.g NiAl32O49) for all the catalysts. For NiAl26O40 and NiAl32O49 the characterised minor phases were NiAl10O16 and Ni2Al18O29. The catalysts offered a high stability by TPR, their temperature reduction was higher than 825. TEM showed Ni particles finely dispersed (< 10 nm). After reduction at high temperature (800°C) under hydrogen atmosphere, the cataly sts were tested in steam reforming of methane at atmospheric pressure, in the temperature range 600-900°C using 0,2g of catalyst and a molar ratio of H2O/CH4 = 3. Their activities are relevant: high CH4 conversion, low carbon formation after long duration tests even if CO2 formation appeared to be high.


:: Paper No: GCGW-453 :: IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON LIFE: LIFE ON EARTH FROM SINGLECELLULAR ORGANISMS TO MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS Kartikey Gupta Grade X, Mayura School, Jaipur, India 23, Arvind Park, Tonk Road, Near Central School, Jaipur-302015, India Wherever we look, life can be seen...so many different forms of life, that is, uncountable varieties of animals and plants occupy the whole world today! But, where and how did it all start? The story of evolution is one of the most interesting theories ever put forward. It refers to - the way that simple and small living things eventually changed into much more functional and bigger beings, in course of time. Charles Darwin had explored this mystery, and had provided the reason- Evolution. Evolution is changing of life forms into more functional ones with respect to their changing environment. However, as odd as it may sound, evolution and extinction are closely linked. Because, the better evolved species survives, and throughout the timeline of evolution, there have been many extinction waves. They were all occurred naturally thus proving that the very process of extinction is natural. The earth has seen many variations of global temperature; it has suffered various ice ages, which had also many a times threatened to eradicate most life from the planet. But, every time life has found a way to go on. Therefore, whatever life we see today has resulted from the ongoing long process of evolution. After millions of years, finally we humans have come into existence, and today are the leading species of the world. But, we may possibly be very close to another major extinction wave, the root causes of which are both natural and man-made, but the part played by the latter is much more than the former. Global Warming has now started affecting all kinds of life on the planet, and it is our responsibility as the leading and most intellectual species to try to save our earth. A study reveals that 60% Indian people do not actually know about Global Warming, and that the number of youth aware of Global Warming and Its impacts are much more than the number of adults. About 75% Indians believe that it is the sole responsibility of the government to solve the problems related to environmental pollution and Global Warming. But, it is actually, in the hands of each of us to save our home planet from the threat of Global Warming.


:: Paper No: GCGW-454 :: GLOBAL WARMING IS GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE Bo Nordell and Bruno Gervet Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Luleå University of Technology SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden. The global air temperature increase is an inadequate measure of global warming, which rather should be considered in terms of energy. The ongoing global warming means that heat has been accumulating since 1880, in air, ground, and water. Before explaining this warming by external heat sources the net heat emissions on Earth must be considered. Such emissions, from e.g. the global use of fossil fuel and nuclear power, must contribute to global warming. The aim of this study was to compare globally accumulated and emitted heat. The heat accumulated in air corresponds to 6.6% of the global warming, while the remaining heat is stored in the ground (31.5%), melting of ice (33.4%), and sea water (28.5%). It was found that the net heat emissions 1880-2000 correspond to 74% of accumulated heat, i.e. the global warming, during the same period. The missing heat (26%) must have other causes; e.g. the greenhouse effect, natural variation of the climate, and/or underestimation of net heat emissions. Most measures already taken to combat global warming are beneficial also for current explanation, though nuclear power is not a solution but part of the problem.

:: Paper No: GCGW-455 :: SUSTAINABLE H/C SYSTEMS FOR CHICKEN FARMS IN SYRIA Mohamad Kharseh1, Bo Nordell2 1 2

Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden. Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden.

Space heating/cooling systems account for approximately 30% of the global energy consumption. Such systems contribute to global warming by emitting 0.39.1011 MWh of heat and 2.9.1010 tons of CO2. There is a general understanding that the way to reduce global warming is a more efficient use of energy and increased use of renewable energy in all fields of the society. The poultry industry in the Mid East is an important business. There are e.g. 13000 chicken farms in Syria producing 172,000 ton of meat. This industry employs directly almost 150,000 people. The total investment in chicken farming is 130 BSP (2 B¤). Even though, the annual mean temperature in Syria is ~15-18oC the winter temperatures are close to freezing for two months. Since the chickens need a temperature of 21-35oC, depending on age, approximately 168.103 tons of coal (1170 GWh) is consumed for heating these plants. The chicken farms have no cooling systems since conventional cooling is too expensive. In the summer time, the ambient air temperature in Syria could reach above 45oC. The elevated temperature inside the farms reduces the chicken growth and lots of chicken die of over heating. Using the ground as a heat source means a sustainable and less expensive heating of the chicken farms. During the summer the resulting colder ground can be used as a source for free cooling, i.e. it can be used directly for cooling of the plants without any cooling machines. This study shows the design and simulated operation of a ground coupled heating/cooling system for a typical chicken farm in Syria. Based on this study the national potential of using such systems was estimated. It shows that the implementation of such ground coupled heating and cooling systems in the Syrian poultry sector would mean increased poultry production and considerable savings in money, energy, and the environment. 88

:: Paper No: GCGW-456 :: CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES COAL-BASED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION WITH CO2 CAPTURE Adam Smolinski Central Mining Institute, Department of Energy Saving and Air Protection, Laboratory of Coal Processing Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166, Katowice, Poland In the light of continuously increasing oil prices as well as stronger environmental regulations an important issue becomes finding an alternative for fossil fuels. Scientists agree that hydrogen seem to be an ideal, price competitive and environment friendly future energy carrier. One of the most effective ways of hydrogen production is the process of steam gasification of coal to hydrogen-rich gas. In the paper the results of laboratory tests of steam coal gasification oriented on hydrogen-rich gas production with CO2 capture are presented. The coal samples used in the experiments were provided by Polish coal mine Piast. The tests were conducted in a vertical fixed bed reactor system at the temperature range of 923-1173K. The idea of the hydrogen-rich gas production process was based on the simultaneous use of iron oxide as an oxygen transfer compound enhancing the conversion rate of CO to CO2 and calcium oxide to ensure an effective CO2 absorption. Addition of Fe2O3 and CaO significantly improved the total yield of hydrogen produced in one hour test duration. At the temperature of 923K the maximum 90% of the total hydrogen content in the produced gas was achieved.

:: Paper No: GCGW-460 :: IMPROVEMENT OF PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL WITH USING OF STEEL SLAG E. Mozaffari1, M. Ashtiani2, A. Heidarizhaleh3 1 Faculty of Mining Engineering, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran, Tel:98-2188055348, M. Sc. Student of Geotechnical Engineering,Tehran University,Tehran, Iran, Tel: 98-2161112210, 3 M. Sc. Student of Hydraulic Engineering,Tehran University,Tehran, Iran, Tel: 98-2161112210,


Slag is one of the by-products of iron and steel making industries. It is produced in a large volume with along with iron and thus attracts attention of researchers to find more Effective application. There is a great demand for this slag uses and In Iran, there are many iron ore resources and steel Making industries with increasing concerns about the environment. Dealing with such a waste product could resolve some of these concerns. In this paper a comparison is made between slags produced by various iron making factories in Iran. The by-product materials are characterized in terms of and possible application in construction industry is investigated. The aim of the study is to highlight the significance of these applications in reducing environmental impacts, the global warming effects in particular. 89

:: Paper No: GCGW-461 :: BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM MICROALGAE OVER HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS M. Tuncer1, E. S. Umdu1, E. Kursat1, G. Yilmaz1, Y. Durmaz2, S. Gokpinar2, E. Seker1* 1

Izmir Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Gülbahçe Campus, 35430 Urla, Izmir, Turkey 2 Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Aquaculture, 35100 Bornova, ‹zmir, Turkey The aim of this study is to produce biodiesel from yellow green algae (Nannochloropsis oculata) by using heterogeneous catalysts. Nannochloropsis oculata was preferred due to its high triglyceride content. N. oculata were grown in a batch culture using a flat plate type photobioreactor. After reaching the stationary phase, the algae were harvested, centrifuged and vacuum dried. Its lipid was extracted by using n-hexane. Finally, lipid-hexane mixture was subjected to the transesterification at 50 oC using methanol and alumina supported CaO and MgO catalysts. We found that CaO nano-crystals were obtained on 80 wt.% CaO/Al2O3 catalysts, hence resulting in a high CaO dispersion. Our activity results show that the biodiesel yield obtained using CaO and MgO on Al2O3 catalysts was a factor of two higher than that obtained with NaOH catalyst under the same reaction condition.


:: Paper No: GCGW-463 :: BIOCLIMATIC EVALUATIONS IN THE MOUNTAINOUS ECOSYSTEM OF DAJT-TIRANA Hysen Mankolli Agricultural University of Tirana, Kamëz, Tirana, Albania Lecture of ecology, Department of Agro-Environment and Ecology Bio-climate is considered as a combination among the vegetation area and climatic elements with indexes: temperature, precipitations, wind, air humidity etc. This combination creates a complete, continued and stable view of an area or some ecologic areas in relation to indexes of bio-climate content elements. Dajt ecosystem is situated at “the heart” of Albania. From the sea level is situated Vora with altitude 50 m and the most altitude is the top of Dajt mountain with 1600 m. The eco-climatic indexes are obtained based on real measurements from observations on meteorologic stations for some decades. The basic indexes are: sunning, month temperatures, precipitations and air relative humidity. Based on obtained results from the data processing according to Emberger and Rivas S. Martinez’s Method, and the discussions about the study “Bioclimatic evaluations in the mountainous ecosystem of Dajt-Tirana” is concluded: 1. The index Q is oscillated from 142, to 205,7. For Tirana eco zone (the humid variant of bioclimatic) Q values are over 90. 2. The index Ic. The continental index is oscillated from 26,4 to 29,3. The ecosystem of Dajt-Tirana based on index Ic or continental index is evaluated on sub Continental - Continental – Mediterranean macroclimate. The changes among the studied microzone results with a little climate change and are part of a bioclimatic type. 3. The index It. The termotipos index is oscillated from 381 to 456. Dajt eco-zone based on index It is considerate with termotemplado micro-bio-climate, in which take parts: Fushë-Dajt, Rrëzë-Dajt and infratemplado ones in which take parts Linëza. 4. The index Io. The ombrotipos index is oscillated from 2,2 to 3,7. Tirana eco-zone based on index Io is considerate with a dry Semiarido micro-bio-climate 2.0-3.6, in which take parts: Fushë-Dajt, Rrëzë-Dajt, Linëz. 5. Evaluation of micro-zones ecoclimatic indexes The minimal average temperature on Rrëzë-Dajt results – 2,6 °C. The minimal average annual temperature on Rrëzë-Dajt results 10,2 °C. The minimal average monthly precipitation on RrëzëDajt results 1558 mm.



University of Ulsan, School Of Architecture, S. Korea B Ulsan College, School Of Space Design, S. Korea c University of Ulsan, School Of Architectur, S. Korea d University of Ulsan, School Of Architecture, S. Korea In this paper, the global solar radiation of the major cities (Seoul, Busan, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan) in South Korea where the global solar radiation is measured using comparatively simple CRM (Cloud cover Radiation Model) was calculated, compared and analyzed. Also, the difference of the result of global solar radiation calculation caused by change of coefficients was estimated by applying the coefficients calculated for the four locations to Ulsan where global radiation solar radiation measurement is not made. The result was that the values of the global radiation measured and calculated were similar for Seoul et al. in case of Seoul, when the original coefficient and the site-fitted coefficient were applied, the R•'5f(coefficient of determination) were 0.747 and 0.749 respectively, which showed some correlation between the two figures. In case of Busan, the figures were 0.817 and 0.819 respectively, which also showed strong correlation. For Gwangju, like the two above cities, R2 was reported as 0.618 and 0.622 respectively, showing that site-fitted coefficient produced higher determinant coefficient. Meanwhile, Daejeon’s R2 was reported 0.772 and 0.773, meaning both of the two cases are correlated, but original coefficient produced very slightly higher result. As a result, we noted that applying the original coefficient has no problem as there is correlation, however, site-fitted coefficient can generate more superior figures than when original coefficient is applied. Also, the result of applying the coefficients of the four locations for the calculation of the global solar radiation of Ulsan, which is located 380, 55, 330 and 360 Km away from Seoul, Busan, Gwangju and Daejeon respectively, showed difference of about 10-380 W/m•'5f. Accordingly, when calculating global solar radiation of a location where global solar radiation is not measured, the difference of the coefficient depending on the location should be considered.


:: Paper No: GCGW-472 :: PHENOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF CEREAL WEEDS TO CLIMATE VARIATIONS Fenni Mohamed and Bounechada Mustapha Laboratoire d’Amélioration et Valorisation des Ressources Biologiques, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ferhat Abbes, Sétif 19000, Algérie, Phenology is the study of the relationships between various climatic factors and occurrence of successive stages in the life cycle of plants or animals. Growth stages of major weeds in cereals Setifian high plains (North-East, Algeria) were recorded for five years. Phenological stages of these species were recorded as: first leaf, vegetative development, flowering, maturity of seed, and senescence. The phenology of fourteen annual weeds was determined, and two groups were identified: winter- spring species, and springsummer species. Much variation exists in phenology among and within groupings of these species. Variability in phenology of these weeds was dependent on temperature patterns of the year. The results show that flowering stage of all species was affected by temperature and day length. The flowering dates for these species could be correctly predicted by using the summation of degree-days. Cereal weeds adaptwith the climatic changes by modulating the duration of their phenological phases. The records show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness. Weeds phenology reflects and constitutes a good indicator of climatic variations.


:: Paper No: GCGW-473 :: UNILATERAL CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION, CARBON LEAKAGE AND COMPETITIVENESS: AN APPLICATION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION Terry Barker1 and S. fierban Scrieciu2 Director and Senior Research Associate, Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research (4CMR), Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, UK Research Associate, Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research (4CMR), Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, UK The paper explores these claims through the deployment of a dynamic and non-linear energy-economyenvironment model at the global scale (E3MG). This is a macro-econometric simulation model that displays in addition the distinct feature of a hybrid structure to include a bottom-up energy technology sub-model within the overall top-down macroeconomic modelling framework. E3MG is based on the history approach of cumulative causation and demand-led growth that focuses on gross investment and endogenous technological change within a Post Keynesian economics perspective. The objectives of the modelling application are twofold. First, the model assesses the potential for carbon leakage and the migration of carbon-intensive production outside the EU, when unilateral mitigation action is pursued assuming endogenous technological change. Second, the impacts on regional and global development are investigated through the consideration of likely changes in the price and non-price innovation competitiveness and the adoption of revenue recycling from the sale of permits. In contrast to the generally held view, the paper argues that, even though the EU is penalised in terms of input prices by additional permit costs for the fossil-fuel energy intensive industries, its overall competitiveness may improve. This would be a result of enhanced product quality fostered through innovation and extra investments in low carbon technologies, and increased demand for these on both EU and international markets. We fully support the view that unilateral mitigation action results in emission reduction outcomes far inferior to those associated with a worldwide consensus and a global binding agreement However, we also argue that unilateral action may be effective in reducing global CO2 emissions relative to a no climate change action scenario, although the reduction is very small.


:: Paper No: GCGW-475 :: NORTH –SOUTH GAP IN WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT, A COMPARISON STUDY FOR GERMANY AND JORDAN Matthias Barjenbruch1& Kamel AlZboon2* 1 Department of Environment, Technician University of Berlin, Germany. Department of Water and Environment, Al Balqa Applied University, Jordan.


Data regarding wastewater treatment for 7006 treatment plants in Germany and Jordan is collected and analyzed statistically. Comparison includes strength of wastewater, efficiency of treatment, applied treatment technologies, and regulations. This is expected to improve the existing cooperation between these two countries as well as wastewater management in both countries Results indicate that the concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, ammonium, total suspended solid and total phosphorus in wastewater generated in Jordan are higher than that in Germany's case. Treatment plants in Germany have higher removal efficiency in comparison with Jordan's plants. Modern treatment technologies, high-qualified operators, and strict regulations are the main strength points in wastewater management in Germany. Overloads on the treatment plants in Jordan, lack of expertise, limited budget, and poor technologies are the main obstacles of wastewater management. In Jordan, high effluent quality could be achieved by using modern treatment technologies, improving wastewater treatment plants designs, enacting stricter regulations, and by transferring the developed experiences in this sector. Jordanian standards should regulate both the concentration and the loads, and should take in consideration the sensitivity of the receiving environment.


El Hadi Bouguerra, 1Abdelkader Hamid, 2Noureddine Retiel


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saad Dahleb University, Route de Soumaa, BP 270 Blida, Algeria 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Mostaganem, BP 300 Mostaganem, Algeria

To avoid or at least to attenuate the global warming, it is essential to reduce the consumption energy of the buildings where the biggest potential of savings exists. The impending danger can come from the increase in the needs of air conditioning not only because of the climate warming but also the fast equipping of emerging or developing countries. The most used models of energy reduction in the world as well as some bio-climatic practices are exposed with their applicability to the hot climate countries. Passive solutions exist and others are in promising development and so must be applied wherever it is possible. Even if they do not always avoid the resort to an active cooling (mechanical), they allow to lower the load at an acceptable level which can be possibly taken in relay by the renewable energies. These solutions have the advantage to be relatively less expensive and especially adaptable to the existing housing. 95


Gazi University, Gazi Education Faculty, Biology Department, 06500, Beflevler-Ankara, Turkey, 2 Ankara University, Science Faculty, Biology Department, 06500, Tando¤an-Ankara, Turkey

As Phytoplanktonic dominant algae determined Choroococcus, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Anabaena, Plectonema, Euglena, Trachelomonas, Dinobryon, Botryyococcus, Oocystis, Scenedesmus, Stigeoclonium, Cosmarium, Spirogyra, Zygnema, Oedogonium, Cyclotella, Melosira, Amphora, Asterionella, Cocconeis, Cymbella, Diatoma, Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Gyrosigma, Navicula, Nitzschia, Pinnularia and Synedra in Abant Lake. As zooplanktonic dominant organisms determined Filinia longiseta, Synchaeta pectinata, Synchaeta littoralis, Daphnia longispina, Diaphanosoma brachyurum and Acanthodiaptomus denticornis in Abant Lake. They widely adapted taxon on the state of an aquatic environment. Abant Lake is shallow lake that is under environmental protection status. Accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr) in the water and plankton of Abant Lake was studied seasonally, during from April 2000 to December 2002. Higher concentration of all heavy metals was recorded in plankton. Hg was found in lowest and Pb in the highest correlation, however, the concentration of each metal varied seasonally. In addition, the seasonal changes in phytoplankton and zooplankton populations and species abundance were also determinate. Some physical–chemical parameters of water and their correlation with heavy metals were also examined.

:: Paper No: GCGW-478 :: PARTIAL EXCHANGE OF THE ALKALINE CATION IN THE LAYERED NIOBATE N. Belmokhtar, R. Nedjar, H. Rebbah Laboratoire Science des Matériaux, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, BP32 El Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Alger, Algeria The partially exchanged compounds of niobates with general composition Kx(H3O)1-xNb3O8.nH2O were prepared by ion-exchange reaction, with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. The x values depend on the relative proportion of the layered niobate H3ONb3O8 and the alkaline solution KNO3 (0.1N) in the liquid-solid mixture. The characterization of the exchange reaction products has been made by means of chemical analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analysis. The thermal stability of these oxides and their parameters of orthorhombic cell were determined and discussed in term of x proportion and the amount of water in the exchanged phases. 96



Marnoch Thermal Power Inc., Port Severn, Ontario, L0K 1S0, Canada Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University. of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4, Canada

In this paper, a new type of heat recovery and thermal conversion device is described and assessed, with respect to the electricity harnessed from the transfer of heat across a relatively narrow temperature difference. The heat transfers induce fluid motion that drives a piston assembly connected to an electric generator. Temperature differences as low as 15oC can be used to produce useful power with the device. The device can also be driven by solar energy, which could provide temperatures of approximately 90oC at the collector head and therefore increase the Carnot efficiency of the process significantly. The operating performance and economic viability of various operating circumstances and applications are demonstrated for the Marnoch engine in this paper, as well as planned enhancements to provide the device with improved performance.

:: Paper No: GCGW-482 :: CO2 AND SO2 CAPTURE CAPABILITY OF TWO GREEK LIMESTONES UNDER FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION CONDITIONS P. Basinas1,2, P. Grammelis2, J. R. Grace3 , C. J. Lim3, G. Skodras1,2, E. Kakaras2, G. P. Sakellaropoulos1 1

Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. 2 Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications / Centre for Research & Technology Hellas, Ptolemais, Greece. 3 Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. CO2 removal from flue gas streams is a key-factor to reduce greenhouse gas emissions released from combustion systems. Ca-based sorbents constitute an attractive option for CO2 capture due to their potential for regeneration and the possibility of simultaneous SO2 capture. However, the decay in the sorbents capture capability after a number of cycles constitutes a problem to the extensive application of the technology. Hence improving sorbent reversibility is imperative to make the technology economically attractive. In the present study, two Greek limestones, from the Megalopolis and Florina areas, were used to capture CO2 and SO2. The regeneration ability and the decay of both limestone samples were investigated through sorption – calcination cycles in a thermogravimetric analyser operated at ambient pressure. The effects of the sorption time (3, 8 and 30 min), reaction temperature (750 and 850°C) and particle size (3853, 150-250 and 500-800 μm) on the sorbent performance were examined. The two limestones demonstrated similar CO2 capture capability. The Florina limestone decayed less after a specific number of cycles. When the particle size of the samples increased and when the carbonation temperature was reduced, less CO2 capture was observed for both samples. The presence of SO2 inhibited the sorption ability of both limestones. Florina limestone had a higher sorption ability and lower decay when CO2 and SO2 were present simultaneously. 97

:: Paper No: GCGW-494 :: EFFECTS OF WATER MANAGEMENT WORKS IN TARNAVE RIVER BASIN, ROMANIA Mihai Voda, Victor Sorocovschi, Ramona Ratiu Dimitrie Cantemir University, Targu Mures, 3-5 Bodoni S. st, Romania, The Tarnave river basin is situated in central Romania as a part of the Mures river basin and has two water courses Tarnava Mare and Tarnava Mica which springs from the volcanic range of the Orientali Carpathians. The rivers then cross the Transilvanian Subcarpathians and Tarnavelor Tableland where they confluence in Blaj. Then the river name becomes Tarnave up to the Mures confluence downstream Mihalt. The paper describes a situation in Romania where adjustments to flooding modify flooding hazards. The evolution of water flow in the areas under observation was modeled taking into consideration the correction factors for discharges and water volumes consumed by users in addition to modifying factors of the natural flow imposed by reconstruction modifications during a period of 22 years.

:: Paper No: GCGW-496 :: IMPACT OF Global Warming on Trees Nasrullah Khan1, Naeem Abas2, Norman Mariun3 1

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, H-8/1 Islamabad, Pakistan Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan 3 University Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Engineering, UPM Serdang, Malaysia


Trees store CO2, drive food chain, produce oxygen and cause cooling effects through the transpiration process. However, increasing forests to cool the planet needs a lot of care regarding locations and types of trees. Initially it was thought that the city trees fight climate change but later it was found that only tropical trees do the best. Ozone absorption in soil affects its natural carbon sequestration capability. Interaction of plants and soil with changing atmosphere and climate is very complex and not yet understood. Some crops like cotton, wheat and rice are more productive in elevated CO2 but their response at high temperatures needs further studies (GWDTR, 1997-2007; ITGW, 1990-2008). Use of CO2 as input raw material in fuel cells might be a revolutionary innovation but there is a long way to go ahead. At this moment we can only start energy education to cope up the time to come. On average CO2 concentration has been increasing at rate of 2.25ppm/yr from 2004 to 2008 but later from 2007 to 2008 it has been found increasing exponentially at rate of 4ppm/yr. It continues to increase at this rate even after oil peaking then it might exceed 500ppm by 2040-2050. CO2 concentration in atmosphere was 280 ppm before industrial revolution and in last few centuries it has increased to 385 ppm at an average annual rate of 2 ppm. Weeds normally show poor response to high CO2 concentrations but crops, fruits and vegetables flourish well. Previous draught cycle was only three years long but recent draught cycle is much longer than earlier (IGWT, 1997-2008). However, few trees in the same constellation are still quite healthy and alive. Some trees were seen dead even close to water canals. Based on literature review and observations recorded in this study it is concluded that high CO2 induced heat wave (global warming) is responsible for helping beetles and wood ants to eat trees roots and stem to kill them by starvation. The trees have been found to dry from top to bottom in all the known cases in Pakistan. As the water stops reaching top branches due to insect attack at tree-ground interface or reduced water table or both the tree leaves start drying from the top. 98

:: Paper No: GCGW-498 :: BIOFUELS TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM OF THESSALY, GREECE Stella Bezergianni1 and Vasiliki Kazantzi2 PhD Chemical Engineer – Researcher Center for Research and Technology Hellas – CERTH 6th km Harilaou – Thermi Rd, Thermi – Thessaloniki 57001, Greece The biofuels technology platform is an initiative developed via the Regional Innovation Pole of Thessaly in 2007 and is intended to provide and implement a common vision and strategy for the production of biofuels for transport applications. Its goal is, in particular, the development of competitive technology for biofuels production in the Greek market. The main premise is the development of an integrated strategy for the production of biofuels from energy crops, as well as from agricultural and municipal waste. The technology platform will assist the coordination of local, national, and European research, development and deployment programs and initiatives, ensuring a balanced and active participation of the major stakeholders (R&T organizations, enterprises, chambers, public authorities, users, civil society). The technology platform will further bring together all the interested parties for the coordination of their activities and investments to handle all resulting economic, technological and social changes. The goals of the Biofuels Technology Platform are achieved via the flexible organizational structure, allowing the participation of all major active research and business Greek stakeholders. The advisory council is the superior committee consisting of the major stakeholders of the petrochemical industry, sugar industry, biodiesel industry, ginning houses, agricultural enterprises, etc, as well as research stakeholders. The major role of the advisory council is to develop the Vision Paper aims to be the basis for research and business activities towards the development of the Biofuels Sector up to 2030. The Vision Paper will be presented in this paper.


:: Paper No: GCGW-502:: ENVIRONMENTALLY-BENIGN NUCLEAR-BASED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION THROUGH A COPPER-CHLORINE THERMOCHEMICAL CYCLE Mehmet F. Orhan, Ibrahim Dincer, Marc A. Rosen Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4, Canada There are several energy sources that can be used for hydrogen production, such as nuclear, renewables, and fossil fuels. One of these alternatives is the use of electricity and/or heat from a nuclear plant to break the chemical molecules of water with hydrogen as a product. Using nuclear energy as the primary energy source for hydrogen production is an advantageous option for two main reasons. First, nuclear reactors do not emit greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2. A large-scale hydrogen infrastructure provides significant environmental merits only if the hydrogen is produced by non-greenhouse gas emitting methods, such as from nuclear or renewable energies. The second advantage is that nuclear energy can provide the energy needed for large-scale hydrogen production. Given the challenge of rapidly increasing global energy demand in all sectors of economies, including the transportation sector, large-scale and clean hydrogen production will likely be important, as presently such production is not achieved by renewable energy resources. The limited contribution of renewables to total energy supply is due to their characteristics, including low energy density, intermittency and high cost. Many combinations of chemical reactions have been studied, where water is split into hydrogen and oxygen in a closed cycle using heat and electricity. One such process operates on the basis of steam reforming of methane. In this process, about half the hydrogen is produced from water. Several criteria determine the choice of the optimal process for decomposing water. The most important ones are cycle efficiency, thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of the individual reactions, availability and cost of the reagents, compatibility of reagents and structural materials, safety of the process, ecological considerations, and economic indicators. Nuclear-based hydrogen production via thermochemical water decomposition using a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle consists of a series of chemical reactions in which water is split into hydrogen and oxygen as the net result. This is accomplished through reactions involving intermediate copper and chlorine compounds, which are recycled. The chemical reactions form a closed internal loop that re-cycles all of the copperchlorine compounds on a continuous basis, without emitting any greenhouse gases externally to the atmosphere. This paper describes nuclear-based hydrogen production technologies and discusses the role of the Cu-Cl cycle for thermochemical water decomposition, potentially driven by waste heat from a nuclear power generation station, in reducing the GHG emissions.


:: Paper No: GCGW-503 :: TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON RAINFALL IN NIGERIA, WEST AFRICA: 1971-2003 IBE Osita,Nymphas E.F. Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, West Africa Daily temperature and rainfall data were processed for sixteen stations which cut across all the zones of the country, namely: North Central (NC), North East (NE), North West (NW), South East (SE), SouthSouth (SS) and South West (SW). These locations were chosen in such a way that the climatic effect of the interplay between these observables can be captured. The analyses in this research work involved the use of the least square regression of data in order to capture the effects of all the variables in a statistical model by minimizing the sum of the residuals (the difference between the predicted and observed values) squared. Additionally, the data were analysed in order to identify meaningful long-term trends by making use of the sequential version of the Man-Kendall rank statistics. The least square correlation analysis showed that the South-South zone, which is located in the coastal areas of the country, experiences the highest average annual rainfall variation (4.04mm) at 0.02 oC annual temperature variation. The computed mean annual temperature and rainfall for the duration of study presents a 0.03oC and 1.96mm annual increase respectively throughout the country. This computation amounts to 0.90 oC and 58.80mm respectively throughout the 30-year duration of study. The correlation analysis of rainfall and temperature showed that the North East, North Central and the South East Zones are negatively correlated while the North West, South-South and South West are positively correlated. The correlation analysis across the six geopolitical zones which represents the whole of the Nigerian federation yielded a positive result. Based on the reports of IPCC (IPCC, 2001), the globally averaged surface temperatures have increased by 0.6±0.2oC in the 20th century and that average global surface temperature will likely rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the 21st century. Indeed the country’s average, during the duration of study (0.90 oC) falls within this range. Hence, the country is susceptible to global warming and the coastal area appears the worst affected. Urgent efforts are needed, in order to mitigate catastrophic consequences.


:: Paper No: GCGW-504 :: REMOVAL OF CU+2 AND NI +2 FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ALGERIAN CLAY MATERIALS S. Dib, A. Khouider and M. Boufatit Faculté de Chimie –USTHB, B.P.: 32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers 16111, Algeria. The aim of this was to assess the possibility of removing some heavy metals from water by low-cost adsorbent. In this study the adsorption characteristics of Cu+2 and Ni+2 from aqueous solution by Algerian clay was investigated. Batch experiments were carried out as a function of adsorbent dosage, solution pH, shaking time and initial concentration. The experimental results indicated that Algerian clay had significant potential for removing Cu+2 and Ni+2 from wastewater using adsorption method.

:: Paper No: GCGW-509 :: PURIFICATION PROCESS OF THE EFFLUENTS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS. APPLICATION OF THE SYSTEMES CADMIUM AND CHROMIUM F. Hassaine-Sadi, L.Sadoun And H. Bouchabou Laboratory of Electrochemistry-corrosion, Metallurgy and Inorganic Chemistry. Chemistry Faculty. University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene. BP-N°32 El-alia. Bab-Ezzouar. Algiers. Algeria. Currently, the processes of treatment aiming to recover metals from the sewages tempt to couple the purification and the concentration, this unit operation that permits the industrial solution treatment is always a technico - economic compromise between these two contradictory requirements. We applied the process characterized by the extraction -réextraction - liquid - liquid association to the systemes following: Cadmium - Orthophosphoric acid - Oxyde Tri-n-octylphosphine; kerosene-HCl Chromium (VI), Sulfuric acid - Oxyde Tri-n-octylphosphine, kerosene- NaOH. The fundamental parameters influencing the transportation of the Cadmium; chromium (VI) through the liquid membrane has been examined (the acidity, the presence of complexant, nature and concentration of the extractant, the time of transportation). The coupling that makes itself thanks to the membrane (extractant + diluent) permits to define the different phases of transfer and to determine the mechanisms of transportation membranaires. in this study, the mechanisms transport were investigated, also a physical modelling of the reactor extraction-reextraction permitted to demonstrate the existence of transfers that finds their origin on the one hand, in a gradient of potential chemical and, on the other hand, in the active transports bound to the coupled processes. The membrane can work thanks to the « activation » by the cosolute of the transportor at one interface and to the « desactivation » at other interface, both of these mechanisms of the active transport creating a real "chemical agitation". 102

:: Paper No: GCGW-514 :: CO2 HYDROGENATION TO METHANOL ON Cu-ZrO2 CATALYSTS F. Bali1, L.Jalowiecki- Duhamel2 1

Laboratoire de Chimie du Gaz Naturel, Faculté de Chimie. Université H. Boumédiene. Algiers. Algeria 2 Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide. UMR 8181. Lille. France

The effective utilization of CO2 has been catching great attention due to its environmental relevance. In addition, synthesis of methanol from CO2+H2 is one of most economic processes. Therefore, it is important to develop new catalysts with a high activity and selectivity to methanol. In the present study, we report on CO2 hydrogenation activity and selectivity of zirconium-copper oxides. The characterization of the catalysts in the oxidized and partially reduced state (after treatment in H2) using in-situ techniques such as XRD and chemical catalytic hydrogen storage titration, allows proposing a mechanistic model for the formation of methanol and methane related to specific catalytic active sites.


:: Paper No: GCGW-515 :: THE IMPACT OF URBAN TRAFFIC ON FINE PARTICULATE IN ZAGREB (CROATIA) Ivona Herljevic1, Ivana Hrga2, Dinko Puntaricf3 1,2,3

Department of Health Ecology, Zagreb Institute of Public Health Mirogojska 16, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia

This paper presents the results of measurement of fine particulate PM10 in Zagreb air, at three different locations, during the years of 2005 and 2006. Fine particulate PM10 air concentrations have been shown to have harmful effects on human health, possibly with no threshold. Air quality monitoring in Zagreb Institute of Public Health began in December of 2003. The first location of monitoring station for air quality control was residential area of Zagreb near the city cemetery – Mirogoj. The second location was in industrial area of the city near the compost factory in the west part of the city. Since urban air pollution in Europe is characterized mainly by traffic–related pollutants as third sources, we used data from Croatian national air quality monitoring network station located in traffic–exposed site near the city center. PM10 concentration data series collected at these three sites are analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. The monitors are located at sites characterized by different exposure to emission sources: residential urban area, area mainly exposed to traffic emissions, and industrial area also characterized by high traffic density. Weekly behaviors of concentration levels are separately presented for the cold and warm seasons of the year. The reduction of concentration levels is also observed during the weekends compared to working days. Concentration levels are quite uniform over the entire city, with the lowest values for residential area of Zagreb, higher values for site with high traffic density and the highest for industrial traffic-exposed site. Workday behaviors generally show a progressive increase of the daily concentration, reaching a maximum in the middle of the week followed by a downward trend towards the minimum always observed on weekends. During the weekends, concentration levels are reduced by approximately 18% in residential area, 23% in area mainly exposed to traffic emissions, and 25% in industrial traffic-exposed area. The only exception in concentration levels was found on the 1st of November in residential area which is near the city cemetery. This is due to the fact, that on November 1st the traffic was forbidden in this city zone and concentration levels were reduced by approximately 31% in 2006 and 30% in 2005 in comparison with average monthly values. The reduction in concentration level is consistent with observed reductions of the traffic volume between weekends and workdays and significant traffic decrease on the 1st of November.


:: Paper No: GCGW-518 :: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF INTEGRATING RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN PROCESS INDUSTRIES M. Hassan Panjeshahi1, Simon Perry2, Lena Ahmadi3 1 Department 2

of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran, Iran. Department of Process Integration, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, UK. 3 Department of Energy Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 1999143344, Tehran, Iran,

In this paper, renewable energies are re-addressed with respect to the potentials and feasibility of being incorporated in process industries, and it was found that wind, hydropower and geothermal energies are most appropriate ones amongst all renewable recourses. The result shows that the impact of green power on increasing the renewable generation capacity is rather limited. Utility systems are studied as part of a sustainable industrial activity that retains the capacity of ecosystems to support both life and industrial activities. Also, within a process, utility system is considered to be the most appropriate place for using alternative energies. For integrating the renewable energies, the pinch analysis is applied as the main tool to provide opportunity for energy conservation. The process integration by renewable energies leads to several scenarios. Hence these different scenarios are studied to see what would be the effects, if we produce heat and/or electricity using renewable energies and use them in a site utility system. The results demonstrated that the power generation by the wind is the most cost effective and environmentally friendly option for energy conservation in comparison to the other sustainable resources. However the tidal energy stands the least due to the long payback period. The advantages and disadvantages of the renewable sources are investigated for the selection of the most proper alternative with the same conditions. Also, a computer program is developed, using MATLAB 7.3, to screen out different scenarios and perform economic study. The outcome data showed that, there are several different opportunities for the integration of alternative energies. A new factor, ERIR that allows environmental-economical aspects consideration is introduced to study the relation between the spent investment and emission reduction. Finally, this method is applied to a case study and various retrofit projects are identified, each of which has certain amount of CO2 reduction and estimated values for the required investment, saving potential and payback period.



Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran, Iran. 2 Department of Process Integration, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, UK. 3 Department of Energy Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 1999143344, Tehran, Iran.

In the present study, a modern method based on pinch technology is presented for using renewable energy sources in industrial cases. This method is to reduce high cost of fossil fuel consumption and environmental pollution took into consideration global warming emphasizing on Kyoto protocol. To achieve the energy conservation and the cost effective approach for optimizing steam generation by renewable energies in the refinery, economical considerations are taken. Different scenarios are developed for economical improvement of the steam network. This optimization is applied to a case study, Tehran Oil Refinery. Of all the sustainables, using solar and biomass energies is preferred, due to geographical region, environmental condition, municipal solid waste (MSW) costs. Various steam consumption units of Tehran Oil Refinery such as Unifier plant, Nitrogen plant, Visbreaker, Isomax, LPG and hydrogen units are investigated. Integrated solar and biomass planning is an approach that systematically evaluates the potential of steam supply-demand sources with the objective of developing a plan that provide energy services with the best environmental effects. Simulation and optimization are organized at STAR environment and MATLAB 7.3 developed code. The alternatives are studied for the possible occasions to be integrated. In this case study, results and investigations, have determined that the steam generated by the biomass is the environmentally friendly and the most cost effective option for integration in comparison to the other sustainable resources. Sulfur dioxide is typically 2-3 times lower for biomass burning than fossil fuel burning (per kilogram of fuel), as well as similar emissions (CO2 and CO). Also, the amount of operating cost and fuel consumption (natural gas, gasoline and fuel gas) by the biomass replacing is reduced, and energy conservation is achieved.



Sakarya University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Adapazarı, Turkey Sakarya University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Adapazarı, Turkey


The surfactants widely used in the household and industrial detergents. The removal of detergent and pH change from detergent wastewater was experimentally investigated using direct current (D.C.) electrocoagulation (EC). Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of pH, current density, change of concentration, elektrolysis time, waiting time, conductivity, amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the surfactant removal. Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water whereby sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminium or iron cations) into solution. Anionic surfactants can be achived by the electro fenton reactive, both at laboratory and pilot scale. A kinetic model was adopted to represent the oxidation of surfactant wastewater. The detergent parameter in the aqueous phase was effectively removed when iron was used as sacrificial anode. The optimum operating range for each operating variable was experimentally determined. The batch experimental results revealed that detergents in aqueous phase were effectively removed. The overall detergent removal efficiencies reached 80% for SDS and 99% for DBS respectively. The optimum current density 0,5mA/cm2 for SDS and 0,15mA/cm2 for DBS; pH 5 for SDS, pH 7 for DBS, electrolysis time for SDS was 10 minute for SDS, 1 minute for DBS, waiting time period was 1 minute for both SDS and DBS.


:: Paper No: GCGW-521 :: ADDRESSING URBAN AIR QUALITY AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH TRANSPORTATION Maryse Labriet, Natalia Caldés, Lucila Izquierdo Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT) Energy Department, Energy System Analysis Unit, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, Spain Global and local urban air pollution from road transport is a growing concern all around the World and especially in the rapidly growing cities of the developing countries. Although their potential for both greenhouse gases and local pollutants reduction (the so-called “co-benefits”) is considered significant, transportation projects remain an almost negligible part of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Inspired by the CURB-AIR project, this paper reviews the international evidence from several case studies focused on the implementation of Bus Rapid Transit, as well as the promotion of biofuels. The key difficulties associated with biofuels/BRT as CDM projects are, among others: the complexity involved in developing baseline (several possible baseline scenarios, life-cycle emissions for biofuels, etc.), monitoring methodologies and proving additionality of the projects; the difficulty to warrant the significant requested investments (especially for BRT), the need to ensure a good quality and reliable supply chain of biofuels and the relatively small expected "carbon revenues" compared to the total cost. In conclusion, it appears that in order to promote sustainable transport projects in developing countries. Tthere is a need to have a better quantification and accountability of the sustainability aspects and cobenefits beyond air pollution reduction in the decision process (other environmental impacts reduction, improving quality of life, health, time saving, economic development, etc.).


:: Paper No: GCGW-522 :: HEALTH IMPACTS OF HEAT WAVES OF 2007 IN HUNGARY - BACKGROUND AND EXPERIENCES Anna Páldy and- János Bobvos National Institute of Environmental Health, 2-6. Gyáli st. Budapest 1097, Hungary The summer of 2007 was the most extreme season ever recorded; three heat waves affected the country. During the first and third heat wave excess mortality was less than 5%. Between 16-24 July the daily mean temperature was above 30°C for five days. The impact of high temperature on daily mortality could be stated; heat related excess mortality was higher in hospitals than elsewhere. Concerning the second, 10-day long heat wave the rate of excess mortality was less than the impact of the heat wave of 2003 in France, however during the five hottest days the average excess death rate was 57%. Based on the association stated for the Central Hungarian Region, excess mortality cases could be assumed between 600 and 800. Using the estimates of the time series analysis of the data of 1970-2000, a lower excess mortality could be predicted over 30°C daily mean temperature, while under this temperature higher excess mortality was forecast compared to the rates detected in 2007. In order to compare the excess mortality of the previous years with that of the year 2007, some assumptions were set up; therefore the results must be handled with care. Similarly there is a lot of uncertainty concerning the extrapolation of the results for the whole country. Further evaluation of the validated mortality data is necessary to qualify the association. We could state that the measures applied so far during the heat alert can reduce the impact of heat wave with a mean temperature of 25-29°C, on the other hand excess mortality significantly increased on extreme hot days. It is necessary to consider what measures can reduce excess mortality effectively and efficiently during extreme hot days. Real time mortality data collection proved to be a good tool to monitor the impact of heat waves. In the future the legal basis and technical options of electronic collection of real time mortality and other types of health data (like emergency ambulance calls) should be considered and elaborated.


:: Paper No: GCGW-523 :: DEFORESTATION: ENVIRONMENT CHALLENGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Romit Agrawal, Gorang Vashistha, Rahul Mutha Student, Gujarat National Law University, E-4, GIDC, Electronic Estate, Sector- 26, Gandhinagar 382 028, Gujarat, India. This paper deals with the concept of deforestation, its impact on environment and measure to attain sustainable development. Spanning over in various parts, this research paper looks at the problem of deforestation and global warming. The first part of this paper deals with definition and general introduction of deforestation and corporate social responsibility. In this part, authors have relied on various reports proving the degradation of environment due to corporations in India and have emphasized on the concern of corporations towards the environment. The next part gives a brief overview of the problem of deforestation and its impact on environment leading to deforestation. It also highlights the causes, effect, reasons, and other issues related to deforestation. Relying on various reports and statistics, authors in this part, have mentioned that what a forest is, what the causes of deforestation are and how it is degrading the environment. The third part of this paper deals with the legislative and judicial response to deforestation problem. In this part, authors have supported their arguments with handful of International treaties, legislations and case laws relating to the problem of global warming. The fourth part of this paper deals with the concept that how corporate social responsibility can play a significant role in lessen the degradation of environment and how global warming will be reduced. Authors have also mentioned the emerging concept of carbon credits. This paper is than concluded with the remarks and suggestion of authors that corporate social responsibility is a measure to lessen global warming and to attain sustainable development.

:: Paper No: GCGW-524 :: INFLUENCE OF OPERATING PARAMETERS AND ASSOCIATED CO2 EMISSIONS WITH SURFACE RETORTING OF JORDANIAN OIL SHALE J.O. Jaber Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, Jordan In this study, two oil shale samples, from two different deposits in Jordan, have been pyrolysed using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The controlling parameters studied were the final pyrolysis temperature and the influence of the heating rate as well as type of purge gas employed on the process of thermal degradation of the shale sample. It is found that there are two main steps of samples' weight loss. The first one is due to conversion of organic matter to oil and gas which occurred within the temperature range of between 250 to 550 °C, while the second step represents weight loss due to carbonate decomposition releasing CO2 and occurred at approximately higher temperature of more than 550 °C for examined samples. In directly heated systems additional quantities of CO2 will be produced due to combustion of residual carbon in order to provide needed heat for the retorting process. Therefore, surface retorting processes aiming to produce crude shale oil from raw oil shale will release higher rates of CO2 emissions to the environment compared with production of conventional or other synthetic fuels. 110

:: Paper No: GCGW-525 :: Energy ANALYSIS and associated GHG emissions of the residential sector In jordan J.O. Jaber a, A. Al-Ghandoor b, R. H. Fouadb a

Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, Jordan b Department of Industrial Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan

In this paper, two empirical models based on multivariate linear regression to identify main drivers behind changes on electricity and fuel consumptions and projected demand of electricity and fuel demand, in the residential sector, are presented. To illustrate the importance of integrating energy efficiency within national energy plans, impacts of implementing most promising energy efficient measures, such as efficient lighting was investigated and found to be significant and encouraging. It is concluded that without active and economically-viable energy conservation and management programs, energy and electricity demand and associated emissions of air pollutants, e.g. GHG, are expected to grow up at high rates.

:: Paper No: GCGW-526 :: INDUSTRIES FLARING CONTROL Khalid K. Nowaishi1 Fahad Al-Khaldi2, Mohammed S. Ba-Shammakh3, 1

Saudi Aramco, Process & Control Systems Dept, P.O. Box 614, Dhahran 31311 2 Saudi Aramco, Facilities Planning Dept, P.O. Box 12538, Dhahran 31311 3 KFUPM, Chemical Engineering Dept, P.O. Box 5050 Zip code: 31261

Flaring is required as a safe and healthy disposal system for undesired gas byproducts or off-spec gas product. It also provides an emergency mean for the petrochemical flaring during plants upset operation or sudden trips. Flaring has both cost and environmental concerns. As a result, flaring activities is required to be monitored and controlled effectively, by the industrial sector, to ensure better utilization of local energy resources. This paper discusses the sources of flaring gas and suggests some proposal to minimize flaring rate. The paper also highlights some important environmental and economic considerations related to flaring control. 111

:: Paper No: GCGW-529 :: APPROACHES ON H5N1 AVIAN INFLUENZA SPREADING IN RELATION WITH HUMAN HEALTH RISK Monica Popa1, Daniela Curfleu1, Dana Sîrbu1, Ovidiu Ghiran2 1 University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Romania Department of Environmental Health, 6 Pasteur Str., 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania 2 I.P.A. – R&D Institute for Automation Cluj-Napoca Subsidiary, Romania

Climate change is set to become the biggest public health challenge for this century with serious impacts on human health. Recent experiences with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza have given the world its first advance warning that other influenza pandemic may be imminent. Given the serious consequences of past pandemics, this advance warning has stimulated a search for ways to prevent such an event from occurring through preparedness, rapid response and containment. The rapid response and containment strategy aims to stop, or at least slow the spread of pandemic influenza at the source of its emergence in order to minimize global morbidity and mortality. The paper describes some alarming concerns about the potential burden for the health care sectors, for example hospitals, old people’s homes and community health services.

:: Paper No: GCGW-530 :: EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR Severe acute respiratory syndrome OUTBREAK Dana Sirbu1, Monica Popa1 Daniela Curseu1, Marcel Sabin Popa2, Ovidiu Ghiran3 1

Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Environmental Health, 6, Pasteur str., Cluj – Napoca, Romania, 2 Technical University Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Blvd., Cluj-Napoca, Romania 3 IPA S.A. R&D Institute, Cluj Subsidiary, 45, Zorilor str., Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, which are a group of viruses that cause approximately 30% of all common colds. The original source of this SARS outbreak may still be in the environment and could ignite a new outbreak in future. In this content, our study is focus on the importance of the preparations for the next outbreak which requires restoring and strengthening the public health infrastructure. Better surveillance and response systems must be established which include strong national, regional and global linkages in reporting. Education and training is critical to develop efficient preparedness and response capabilities. Trainings methods can include: lectures and/or informative letters, and memorandums; combination of lectures and practice sessions; and response exercises. The ability of hospitals to respond to a SARS outbreak is dependent upon the knowledge and experience of partners with emergency response assignments and responsibilities. Having sufficient staff orientated and well trained is the basis for a strong network that has the capability to detect, control, treat, and prevent illness and injury resulting from an infectious diseases outbreak. These strategies are tailored to address SARS education strategies national public health systems. They will serve as a model of general education recommendations for future outbreaks of SARS or other public health threats, tailored to different time periods and populations served. 112

:: Paper No: GCGW-531 :: POTENTIAL IMPACT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON PANDEMIC INFLUENZA RISK Daniela Curseu1, Dana Sirbu1, Monica Popa1, I. Stoian2 1

Department of Environmental Health, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 2 IPA S.A. R&D Institute, Cluj Subsidiary, Romania

The impact of greenhouse gas emissions on both human beings and the global climate has been greatly debated in recent years. According to the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, there has been a documented increase in global temperature measurements of 0.3° to 0.6°C over the last century. Further, recent reports support the concept of an association between global warming and an increased risk to public health. Reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere will benefit human health. This paper reviews current information about the possible impact of climate change on the pandemic influenza risk. It is intended to help environmental and public health practitioners and colleagues in related fields to reduce influenza pandemic harm and to limit the spread of a pandemic.


Islamic Azad University-Tabriz Branch, Iran, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Tabriz, Iran,


In the present paper, an experimental investigation was performed on a vapor compression refrigeration system working with R134a and R12. The system was originally designed to work with R12. Some modifications were done on the apparatus in order to work with the new refrigerant. In order to determine the performance characteristics of the refrigeration system a thermodynamic model was also developed utilizing the equations of state for R12 and R134a. A parametric study was carried out in order to specify the effect of evaporator and condenser temperature on the performance characteristics. Evaporator temperature was varied from -30 °C to 0 °C and condenser temperature range was 30 °C to 55 °C. Parameters such as refrigeration capacity, coefficient of performance, compressor power and volumetric efficiency were studied as the evaporator and condenser temperature changed. The obtained results were compared with the available data in the literature and a good agreement was found between them. 113

:: Paper No: GCGW-538 :: ESTIMATING LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS: AN APPLICATION OF THE IPCC’S WASTE MODELS FOR A SPECIFIC SITE FROM ROMANIA Mihaela Petre1, Daniela Luminita Movileanu1, Elena Mirela Minea1, Cristian Patraflcioiu2 1

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemistry, Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, No 39, Bucuresti Blvd., Ploiesti, Romania. 2 Department of Automatics and Computers, Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, PetroleumGas University of Ploiesti, No 39, Bucuresti Blvd., Ploiesti, Romania.

In this paper the emissions of methane from a specific site placed in Romania, South - Muntenia Region, Boldesti – Scaieni site are estimated between 2001 and 2006, using the approximate method, presented in 1996 IPPC Reised and 2000 Good Practice Guidelines as well as the method to the first order decay, 2006 IPPC Waste Model. The estimations with Tier 1 – Default method, using the data of SWDS and the implicit coefficients of emission, led to values between 13.81 and 13.35 Gg methane, during 2001 – 2006. These results were compared with those obtained when applying the same method, but using activity data and specific coefficients of methane emission. The comparison shows a small variation, between 7.62 and 12.19 Gg methane emitted. This is considered normal and correct, because it was confirmed that the methane emissions, calculated with implicit coefficients are supradimensioned. Also, a good practice is usage of specific data about the quantity of waste generated and usage of the specific coefficients of emissions. The methane emissions, calculated with 2006 IPPC first order decay method, based on the data and specific coefficients of Boldesti – Scaieni waste disposal site, showed a variation in time between 1.0 and 5.6 Gg methane. This paper presents three scenarios regarding the forecast of methane emissions from the studied waste disposal site, until 2013, using the first order method. The first scenarios take into account the increase of activity of municipal wastes collecting and this leads to methane emissions of about 9 Gg in 2013. The second scenario, that involves the recycling of one important part from wrap waste and also the decreasing of quantity of organic waste through different treatment techniques, leads to the reduction of methane emissions with 27% in comparison with the first scenario. The third scenario proposed that the methods from the previous scenario should be coupled with the captation and energetic valuating of 50% from methane. This leads to the reduction of methane emissions with 64% in 2013, in comparison with the first scenario.


:: Paper No: GCGW-539 :: COSTS AND INVESTMENTS FORECAST REGARDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN ROMANIA DURING 2007 – 2013 Daniela Luminita Movileanu1, Cornel Lazar1, Ion Onutu1, Mihaela Petre2 1

Faculty of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemistry, Petroleum Engineering and Petrochemistry Dept., Petroleum - Gas University of Ploiesti, No 39, Bucuresti Blvd., Ploiesti, Romania. 2 Faculty of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemistry, Chemical Engineering Dept., Petroleum - Gas University of Ploiesti, No 39, Bucuresti Blvd., Ploiesti, Romania.

An analysis of costs and investments for environmental protection during 2001 – 2006 emphasised an increase of these, thus in 2006 these were 3.07 times higher than in 2001. A more accentuated dynamics (3.86 times) has been noticed for current costs, while investment has been low (2.08 times compared to 2001). It has to be mentioned the fact that this increase of total costs for environmental protection has been determined by the high volume of costs made by the producers specialised in the environmental protection field; in their case, the costs in 2006 were of 4.9 billion lei, which means, in real terms, an increase of over 8 times. In the last part of paper, on the basis of the costs and investments for environment protection analysis during 2001–2006, is presented the model of them forecast until 2013. The statistical series used in the establishing of tendency of future evolution of them is only for 6 years, because completely available data were only since 2001. As far as the forecast of costs is concerned, it can be noticed that the total costs for environmental protection has a linear tendency of evolution during 2007 – 2013. The forecast costs for sectors of activity emphasises the fact that their evolution tendency is given by the parabolic functions of 2nd degree for administrative and water catchment, treatment and distribution sectors, and of 3rd degree for electric and thermal energy, gas and hot water production, transport and distribution; for wastes and used waters refusal; drying up, sanitation and similar activities the evolution is given by a power function. Applying these forecast models was estimated that in 2013 the total costs will be 5.5 times higher than 2001 and 1.8 times higher than in 2006. Regarding the internal current costs, in 2013 these will be 7.3 times higher than 2001 and 1.9 times higher than in 2006. Also, the investments in 2013 will be 3.2 times higher than in 2001 and 1.5 times higher than in 2006.


:: Paper No: GCGW-540 :: EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON POVERTY AND SOLUTION SUGGESTIONS fiErmin Atak, Melike Erdo¤an, Aslı Yönten Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Science, Department of Public Administration, Buca,‹zmir/Turkey. Most environmental risks including global warming are accepted as “manufactured risks” as well. Climate change, as manufactured risk, occurs due to human activities such as energy usage, industrialization, agricultural activities, pollination and forest damage which broke down the combination of global atmosphere in addition to nature sourced climate change which can be stated as external risk. Global climate change, as manufactured risk, has environmental and socio-economic effects in the subjects like water shortage, drought, highness in water levels, decrease in biological diversity, nutrition and food shortage. The effect of global climate change, as manufactured risk, on society’s poverty has been classified as horizontal and vertical effect in this study. It’s possible to say that horizontal effect of global climate change, as manufactured risk, on poverty will come out in the way “expansion of poverty”. It’s possible to state the vertical effect of global climate change, as manufactured risk, on poverty as the “deepening of poverty” and “intensifying of poverty”. Horizontal and vertical effects of climate change on poverty can not be evaluated interdependently. The multiplier effect and the cross interaction that these two effects form together bring along the process of increasing of poverty and the solution’s getting difficult. Global climate change, as manufactured risk, affects all parts but the most powerful effect of it is over the poor. The studies in the direction of decreasing the poverty effect of global climate change necessitate global cooperation. National and international solutions should be considered together. In addition to global cooperation, individual, institutional, domestic and regional applications must have complementary qualities in decreasing the effects of global climate change. Global and individual studies made for decreasing of global climate change and its effects must be in parallelism of the activities of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The activities of NGOs must be in the way to develop the applications towards providing sustainable natural sources usage in addition to forming familiarity about global warming.


:: Paper No: GCGW-541 :: AIRBORNE RAGWEED POLLEN CONCENTRATION IN ZAGREB, CROATIA 2005-2007 Ivana Hrga, Ivona Herljevic, Barbara Stjepanovic, Dinko Puntaric Department of Health Ecology, Zagreb Institute of Public Health, Mirogojska 16, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia The aim of the study was to determine and compare the airborne ragweed pollen count in three years in the city of Zagreb according to the onset, duration of season, peak values and total annual count. Sevenday Hirst-type volumetric pollen traps were used for pollen sampling. Pollen concentration was expressed as the average number of pollen grains daily/m3. The three (2005, 2006 and 2007) pollen season were investigated. Ragweed pollen is the third most abundant pollen type in atmosphere of Zagreb and accounted for 17% of total annual pollen spectrum in 2005, 13% in 2006 and 11% of total annual pollen count in 2007. The peak daily pollen concentrations were recorded at the end of August and in the first week of September. The mean total annual concentration of Ambrosia measured in 2005 was 5,713, in 2006 6,104 In 2007 measured decreasing number (3,012) of pollen grains caused by effective preventive actions and lower average temperature for 1,5°C than usual. The results of this study are expected to help alleviate the symptoms of allergenic reactions in individuals with ragweed pollen hypersensitivity, thus improving their quality of life.

:: Paper No: GCGW-542 :: CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL PLATING SLUDGE TO IDENTIFY IT’S ENVIRONMENTAL RISKY Özgül Dere, Müge Sari, Aysel Kanturk, Sabriye Piskin Yıldız Technical Univ., Department of Chemical Engineering, Davutpasa St., N.127, Esenler, Istanbul, Turkey. With rapid industrialization, the generation of industrial solid and hazardous waste has increased appreciably and the nature of waste generated has become complex. Metal plating is one of the environmental risky sectors. For this reason characterization studies of this sector’s waste should be determined for environment protection. The subject of this paper is characterization of the sludge generated during conventional purification of the waste water from galvanic process. The characterization of the waste, performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG) to determine chemical composition, mineralogy and thermal behavior. The results led to the conclusion that chemical analysis showed a high metals content in the metal plating sludge can be defined as a environmental hazardous waste. 117

:: Paper No: GCGW-543 :: H2SO3 LEACHING CHARACTERISTICS OF TOXIC METALS RECOVERY FROM PLATING SLUDGE Özgül Dere, Aysel Kanturk, Müge Sari, Sabriye Piskin Yıldız Technical Univ., Department of Chemical Engineering, Davutpasa St., N.127, Esenler, Istanbul, Turkey. Solid waste prevention and recycling also help to reduce climate change impacts. Creating less waste and recovering of waste decrease the amount of heat-trapping green house emission (GHG) emission. One of Turkey’s major concerns is the increasing level of environmental pollution due to the uncontrolled disposal of industrial solid and hazardous wastes. Metal plating is one of the most actively operating industries worldwide. Waste discharged from the plating industry contains a large number of metals, including chromium, copper, iron, nickel, zinc, etc. The specific difficulty with industrial wastes that they are very persistent and may be transported considerable distances by air, water, or the food chain where they tend to accumulate. This article describes the details of leaching studies to estimate the recovery conditions of the metals (chromium, zinc, iron, nickel, copper, etc.) for the sludge generated from effluent treatment plant of plating industries. The effects of sulfurous acid (H2SO3) solution concentration which is not studied before, reaction temperature and time on plating sludge leaching have been evaluated. The leachates are analyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) to determine the metal concentration.

:: Paper No: GCGW-546 :: EXERGETIC ANALYSIS OF A MICRO-TURBINE/ORC COMBINED CYCLE Mortaza Yari, Hadi Shaker, Arash Zarin Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil 179, Iran. This paper presents an exergy analysis of a micro-turbine/ORC (Organic Rankine cycle) combined cycle. The dry organic working fluids selected for this investigation is n-Pentane. Both simple ORC and ORC with internal heat exchanger (IHE) bottoming cycle are discussed. A thermodynamic model was developed. In order to validate the model, the data available in the literature were used. The exergy analysis is employed in order to identify the amounts and locations of the irreversibility within the cycles. The results are presented and the influence of the several parameters: Gas Turbine inlet temperature and pressure ratio, evaporation temperature and evaporator temperature difference on the micro combined cycle second law efficiency and exergy destruction rate are discussed. It was shown that, the second law efficiency for micro turbine/ORC combined cycle, increases with increases in micro turbine inlet temperature, TIT and evaporative temperature, Te and decreases with increases in evaporator temperature difference, ΔTe and ORC turbine inlet vapor superheating degree, ΔTsup 118

:: Paper No: GCGW-548 :: EARLY DETECTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE AN ISRAELI CASE STUDY N. Kliot Department of Geography and Environment Studies University of Haifa According to moderate I.P.C.C. scenarios, within the coming 100 years the temperature in the Eastern Mediterranean is expected to rise by an average of 3.3ºC in the summer and 2.8 ºC in the winter. It is expected that heat waves will increase in intensity and frequency. It is also expected that the annual rainfall will be reduced, there will be fewer rainy days and rise in the frequency of extreme rainfall event. Also, frequency of extreme whether events is expected to rise. The difficulties which face Israeli farming which is technologically a very advanced one, are: first, water stress – shortage in water resources and deterioration in their quality; second, impacts on crops and various livestock and poultry branches. Generally, agricultural long term planning will have to plan for replacing many fruit trees which need cool winter (apples, pears, peaches, cherries – for example) by crops which will be better adapted to heat and dry weather. It is expected that the higher temperatures will sustain more diseases of plants, crops and orchards. Field crops which depend on winter precipitation will be particularly effected by climatic changes. Some, such cotton will require supplemental irrigation. All field crops will be subjected to increased soil erosion. Studies which were conducted in Israel estimated that the future damages to agriculture as a result of water shortages as ranging between $101-$208 million. The income of farmers may drop by 20%. One of the coping methods is a system of insurance in most of the agricultural branches and a special fund to compensate wheat farmers for frequent droughts. The various difficulties and adaptation mechanisms (such as smart agriculture, or complete green house farming systems) will be presented.


:: Paper No: GCGW-549 :: BUILDING BRIDGES; INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH POSITIVE IMPACT PROGRAMMING Tasha Goldberg Ethnobotanical Consultant, Sustainable Solutions PO Box 790250 Paia HI 96779

A global conference on global warming has a responsibility to report the cause and effects of global warming as well as provide specific action tools and support for outlining coping mechanisms. In order to successfully address global warming, we need to accept the reality and mobilize our efforts by sharing tools to be best prepared. To support this effort, the Building Bridges project provides a specific case study that addresses global warming through sustainable development. Building Bridges is an ongoing program that began in 2006. The program grew out of Neill Corporation’s sustainability initiatives to create a transparent supply chain for one its internal companies, Etopa. This process encouraged stronger relationships throughout the supply chain and gave rise to the development of a positive impact program. Building Bridges is a collaboration between the corporate interest of Etopa of Neill Corporation and Double Dragon, the Chinese government, international not for profit organizations, scientists from the Center for Energy & Environmental Policy (CEEP), Sustainable Solutions, artists and local Li indigenous leaders. Through the cooperation and expertise of each party, Building Bridges has successfully installed 35 bioagas units for a village in Tiantou, Hainan China. Building Bridges continues to work with the village in Tiantou to establish educational programs to facilitate the understanding of the link between human and environmental health. The program is currently in the process of gathering data regarding the quality and quantity of natural resources and analyzing public health records in order to measure the success of this program. Building Bridges will continue to support other villages to receive biogas units. A review of Building Bridges to date provides valuable insights and best practices for addressing global warming with a diverse stakeholder interest group. Building Bridges has incorporated the wisdom of yesterday with the innovation of today for a sustainable tomorrow.


:: Paper No: GCGW-550 :: PLANNING FOR THE IMPACTS OF THE CASPIAN SEA LEVEL RISE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE NORTH OF IRAN Yousef Filizadeh1, Kamran Zolfinejad2, Homan Rajabi Islami3 1

Department of Agronomy, Shahed University, P.O.Box: 18151/159 Tehran, Iran. 2 Guilan Department of Environment, Rasht, Iran. 3 Islamic Azad University, Research & Science Campus, Tehran, Iran.

This study analyzes the regulatory and institutional structure surrounding coastal zone management in the Anzali Lagoon District in the north of Iran, in order to identify barriers to and opportunities for the Caspian Sea level rise response. Viewing the problem from a resilience perspective proves valuable as it builds off the social-ecological system concept, embraces change, and attempts to find ways to co-exist with uncertainty. The selection of non-catastrophic the Caspian Sea level rise scenarios and the creation of a variety of high-resolution, location specific, inundation maps are used to identify areas of vulnerability. Focusing on local government, four potential sea level rise response options are identified along with associated barriers. 1) Increase the update frequency for floodplain maps to more accurately reflect environmental changes. 2) Include consideration of a dynamic shoreline when making shoreline armoring, cumulative impacts, and no net loss of ecological function determinations. 3) Use shoreline designations in the Shoreline Management Act to tailor responses to the coastal environment. 4) Leverage the Guilan Province in the north of Iran, consistency and funding provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act to enhance response options. The long-term nature of the Caspian Sea level rise issue provides response opportunities not available in other arenas. By using the tools currently available, local decision-makers can limit the response costs and create a more robust policy framework capable of incorporating uncertainty and adapting to the Caspian Sea level rise.



Fatih Dogan, 2Scott E. Grasman, 3John W. Sheffield


Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Engineering Management & Systems Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 3 Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 2

The need to initiate an economy based upon sustainable energy sources has never been more compelling, if an environmentally and economically stable world is to evolve in the future. There are many advantages associated with this transformation; notably, decreased greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on foreign oil. As the largest emitter of carbon dioxide, the U.S. accounts for almost one quarter of all energyrelated carbon emissions worldwide. The continuation of such releases will only exacerbate global environmental problems attributed to greenhouse gas emissions. The Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T), through a hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicle evaluation participation agreement with the Ford Motor Company, is in the process of establishing a commuter bus service and hydrogen refueling at a station in rural Missouri near Ft. Leonard Wood (FLW). With funds provided by the Defense Logistics Agency through the Air Force Research Laboratory, this hydrogen initiative will build and operate a hydrogen fueling facility that includes on-site generation of hydrogen through electrolysis and steam methane reforming. With additional support from the US Department of Energy, research efforts at Missouri S&T consider opportunities for hydrogen in stationary power applications with the goal of making recommendations related to research, development and demonstration (RD&D) strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international efforts


:: Paper No: GCGW-552 :: CO2 EMISSION TO ATMOSPHERE AND BIOLOGICAL SCALING LAWS António F. Miguel Department of Physics, University of Evora, PO Box 94, 7002-554 Evora, Portugal. Geophysics Centre of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho 59, 7000-671 Evora, Portugal. The increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere by the different countries gives rise to one of the most serious environmental problems of our time: global warming. Countries and living organisms are both complex systems in that they use environmental resources to support their own dynamics. In both cases, survival depends on successful interactions occurring between the entities and their environment. Body mass is recognized as an important factor in animal biology and has often been given central position in scaling laws. These laws offer an exciting potential that can be used in other complex systems, such as countries. Guided by this novel hypothesis the behaviour of countries might obey quantifiable universal laws that capture the essential features of other complex living systems, we analyzed the CO2 emissions of different countries based on the classical scaling laws of living organisms. Based on these laws, we estimated carbon dioxide emissions to atmosphere of 13 nations in terms of each country’s body mass. A comparison with empirical data for 2002 suggests that only one country follows the scaling law (optimal behaviour). Moreover, our results highlight that calls for nations to reduce the same percentage of their CO2 emissions does not accurately reflect real and immediate needs of global environmental protection. We also present some possible guidelines to establish CO2 emissions into the countries analyzed. Countries have a body (structure in space), but also rhythm (structure in time). Based on the idea of similarity between living organisms and countries, optimal features of intermittent flows (rhytmicities) for countries are equally presented.


:: Paper No: GCGW-553 :: CO2 ABSORPTION IN A MINI-MODULE MEMBRANE CONTACTOR G. Pantoleontos1, S. P. Kaldis2, D. Koutsonikolas3, P. Grammelis1, G. P. Sakellaropoulos1,2,3 1

Institute for Solid Fuel Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas , 4th Km Ptolemaidas-Kozanis , P.O. Box 95, 50200, Ptolemaida, Greece. 2 Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 6th Km Harilaou-Thermis , P.O. Box 361, 57001, Thermi, Thessaloniki, Greece. 3 Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 1520, 54006, Thessaloniki, Greece. In this work the separation performance of a gas mixture containing CO2 by either physical or chemical absorption using a commercially available membrane module was validated. The contactor’s efficiency was tested using pure water or aqueous solutions of KOH and NaOH in very low concentrations (0.5 M). In all cases complete removal of CO2 was achieved, while mass transfer of CO2 is enhanced when using chemical solvents, thus leading to the lowest possible liquid consumption compared to the physical absorption of CO2 (with pure water).

:: Paper No: GCGW-554 :: THE EFFECT OF REDUCTIVE MEDIUM FOR DECREASED OF UNDESIRED PARTS OF ÇAN LIGNITE Jale Gülen Yildiz Technical University Chemical Engineering Department (34210), Davutpasa-Istanbul / TURKIYE Turkey has huge lignite reserves although most of them have low quality. In this study, Çan lignite was demineralized by using basic agents. In order to decrease sulfur and mineral matter of coal, basic agents were applied. Çan lignite was stirred with 5% NaOH of 50 ml for 20 minutes. After washing with demineralized water, the lignite was dried in the autoclave at 105 ºC. Then, it was stirred for 20 minutes with 50 ml 5 % aquatic asidic solutions of HNO3, HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4, HCOOH and HF, seperately. The solution was filtered with blue ribbon band, washed with distilled water and dried in the autoclave at 105 ºC. The ash and sulfur analyses were done in order to see the chemical agents effects applied for and also FTIR and X ray spectra were taken. 124

:: Paper No: GCGW-556 :: EXERGETIC PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF VARIOUS TYPE GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS Mortaza Yari, Arash Zarin, Hadi Shaker Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil 179, Iran According to other studies, it was concluded that, Iran has substantial geothermal potential in the north and northern provinces and the temperature of some of which reaches to 240 oC . In order to better exploiting of these renewable resources, the necessity of study in this respect was needed. Thus, the aim of this paper is the comparative study of the different geothermal power plants concepts based on the exergy analysis for a high-temperature geothermal resources. The considered cycles for this study are: A binary geothermal power plant (simple ORC), a binary geothermal power plant (ORC with IHE), a binary cycle with regenerative ORC, a binary cycle with regenerative ORC with IHE, a single-flash geothermal power plant, and a double-flash geothermal power plant. In this respect, a thermodynamic model had to be developed. Model validation was undertaken using available data from the literature. Based on the exergy analysis, a comparative study was done to clarify the best cycle configuration. In terms of the second-law efficiency, exergy destruction rate, and first law efficiency the cycles performance were discussed. Comparison of the different geothermal power plant concepts was carried out and found that the double-flash cycle has about 28% and 11 % higher value of the second law efficiency than the singleflash and ORC with IHE, respectively.



Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Balikesir University, 10110 Balikesir, Turkey Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe St. N., Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada

In this paper a new geothermal energy assisted absorption cooling system is developed to study how it will help reduce energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions to combat the global warming. The first part of this investigation includes a feasibility study of incorporating an absorption cooling system into a geothermal district heating system (so-called: the Bigadic geothermal district heating system). In the second part, a study is conducted to analyze the cooling potential of the water-lithium bromide absorption cooling system for a building in the summer months in addition to the geothermal district heating system which provides the necessary heating requirement. For both cooling and heating cases comparisons are made with the cases of using conventional fossil-fuel based energy sources to investigate how the geothermal as a renewable energy source will help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO2. While the geothermal fluid temperature entering the residence’s main heat exchangers is in the range of 343–349 K, the supply temperature for the generator of the absorption system results in 345 K. Some parametric studies are conducted with a large amount of actual data to reflect the reality in the best possible way.

:: Paper No: GCGW-559 :: USING DRY ICE TO TREAT THE GLOBAL WARMING Haidar Mohamad Ismael, Noor Raad Abdulghani, Duraid Raad Abdulghani, Ruqiya H. Kareem Engineers at Ministry of Planning (MoPDC), MoPDC , Arasat Al-Hindia , Baghdad – IRAQ. Dry ice has a great importance to achieve some roles like: fetching rains, emergency aid, keep & freezing food (airplane refrigerator). The ability of dry ice to freeze is better than the normal ice; because it changes from solid state to be gas (CO2) directly without being liquid , & the gas's temperature will be (- 49° centigrade ), & this process called a Sublimation. Our project depends on this advantage to make earth temperature to be cold during Summer, by putting dry ice in free area & fields, so when Sublimation process happen, one gallon from exhaled cold ( CO2 ) gas, will process to reduce 1.5 gallon of air in (+49° centigrade ) to become in ( +24° centigrade ) which is good temperature for human being . This project has an importance to offset earth temperature and keep the green cover secondly to reduce rang of river water steaming. 126

:: Paper No: GCGW-560 :: COMPARISON OF DETECTED TREND AND EXPECTED CHANGE OF EXTREME CLIMATE INDICES IN THE CARPATHIAN BASIN BY THE END OF THIS CENTURY Rita Pongracz1, Judit Bartholy2, Peter Szabo3, Gyorgyi Gelybo4 Department of Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University, Pazmany st. 1/a, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary. Regional climatological effects of global warming may be recognized not only in shifts of mean temperature and precipitation, but in the frequency and intensity changes of different climate extremes. In this paper, 14 temperature and 12 precipitation extreme indices are analyzed and compared for the Carpathian basin (located in Central/Eastern Europe) following the guidelines suggested by the joint WMO-CCl/CLIVAR Working Group on climate change detection. For the past trends daily meteorological observations from the 20th century are used. In case of the future trends (2071-2100 relative to 1961-1990), daily values of meteorological variables are obtained from the outputs of various regional climate model (RCM) experiments accomplished in the frame of the completed EU-project PRUDENCE (Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining EuropeaN Climate change risks and Effects). Two emission scenarios (A2 and B2) are used to compare past and future trends of the extreme climate indices for the Carpathian basin. The results suggest that similarly to the global and continental trends, regional climate of the Carpathian basin got warmer during the second half of the 20th century, especially, in the last quarter. This regional warming is expected to continue in the 21st century, namely, negative temperature extremes are projected to decrease while positive extremes tend to increase significantly. In case of precipitation, regional intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation increased in the past decades, while the total precipitation decreased in the region and the mean climate became drier. Expected changes of annual precipitation indices are small, but generally consistent with the detected trends of the 20th century. The projected changes in winter and in summer are opposite to each other, namely, the extreme precipitation events are expected to become more intense and more frequent in winter, while a general decrease of extreme precipitation indices is expected in summer.


:: Paper No: GCGW-561 :: ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE MODELING EXPERIMENTS FOR THE CARPATHIAN BASIN Judit Bartholy, Rita Pongracz, Csaba Torma, Ildiko Pieczka, Peter Kardos, Adrienn Hunyady Department of Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University, Pazmany st. 1/a, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary. In the last decade, regional climate models (RCM) nested in global climate models (GCM) became essential tools to make future climate projections with fine spatial resolution. In this paper, control runs of the regional climate model RegCM and PRECIS are discussed and compared for the Central/Eastern European region with special focus on the Carpathian basin. Both RCMs are 3-dimensional, sigma-coordinate, primitive equation models, and for the presented control experiments (using the 1961-1990 reference period), they use initial and lateral boundary conditions from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis datasets (ERA-40). For the validation, monthly temperature and precipitation data sets of the Climate Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia are used. According to the results, model RegCM generally underestimates the temperature, while model PRECIS overestimates it. The largest temperature bias values can be found in summer in case of both RCMs. The precipitation is overestimated by the RegCM simulations, and it is generally underestimated by the PRECIS simulations. In case of PRECIS, a model experiment for the Central/Eastern European region for the 20712100 period is completed using the HadCM3 GCM outputs as boundary conditions taking into account the A2 emission scenario. The results suggest that the temperature increase expected in the Carpathian basin may considerably exceed the global warming rate. The climate of this region is expected to became wetter in winter and drier in the other seasons.


:: Paper No: GCGW-562 :: TECHNICAL - ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF SO3/SO2 REMOVAL FROM ACID SULPHORIC PLANTS IN A PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY AND CONVERTING IT TO AMMONIUM SULFATE Farideh Atabi, Abtin Ataei, Shabnam Shafizadeh Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran In the present study, various methods to control sulfur oxides emission from sulfuric acid production plants, stacks have been investigated. Considering their advantages and disadvantages, functional conditions and the amount of sulfur oxides removal, the researchers investigated various catalytic methods of sulfur oxides removal and FGD methods. The first method was desulphurization by ammoniac (Plant A) and the second one was a combination of the first method and dry scrubbing process with calcium hydroxide as the sorbent material) Plant B). Simulation of the systems was carried out through HYSYS v3.1 software. Considering the simulation results, 110 tones of sulfur oxides production were removed daily in the first method. Moreover, 89.66 tones of ammonium sulfate and ammonium sulfite was produced which are useful products. The Second method has two stages: at the first stage 95.64 tones/day of calcium sulfite were produced and in the second stage 7.755 tones/day of ammonium sulfate and ammonium sulfite were produced which are all among the useful products which can be sold or consumed in the same plant. Moreover, 110 tones/day of sulfur oxides were removed in the second method. Economic index of these two methods were calculated through COMFAR III software with two presuppositions i.e. considering the external costs and not considering the external costs, the internal rate of return (IRR) in the first method was about 46% which is more than that of the second method (18%). Moreover, the payback period in the first method was 3 years which is less than that of the second method (5 years). Net present value (NPV) as a major criterion in economics was calculated, too. In the first method NPV was more than that of the second method which is a sign of an appropriate flow of cash in the first method. In cash flow of implementation of the second presupposition, there would be 39270803 euros save as the result of reduction of external costs. Consequently, the first method has economic priority over the second method for desulphurization of sulfuric acid production plants.


:: Paper No: GCGW-563 :: DISCOVERY OF ANTIMATTER SOLVING GLOBAL WARMING Mohamed Abdelgalil A. Elkholy 1- Manager of Egyptian Bio Aloe Vera & Organic Products Co. 2- Searcher for Elkholy Unified Physics Theory 35 Basateen Road Agamieen. Fayoum, Egypt. When scientists know the scientific rules and fundamental laws of some activities, mankind attains success in these fields. But when scientists cannot discover scientific rules for the problem of global warming, the efforts of mankind, meetings, programs and conferences cannot reach proper solutions until we know the real reasons and basic rules of this problem. According to our new theory, the global warming and the pollution through gases such as dioxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbon are results of an uneven balance between matter and antimatter in the global environment. Due to the higher consumption of fuel and energy during the last hundred years, huge quantities of air oxygen are consumed. Our simple and surprising key discovery is the oxygen specifications which are the antimatter in the earth. According to this understanding, the solution for global problems is to be found in cultivating the desert, keeping and replenishing forests, as well as maintaining and improving the agricultural areas. The extension of green areas in desert regions is sufficient to release more oxygen than the quantity consumed and to put air, heat, light, rains, tides and wind into a balanced position. Also the human demand for food, medicine, work and peace will be satisfied.


:: Paper No: GCGW-564 :: GLOBAL WARMING, DECISIVE FACTOR OF UNIFORMITY SEASONS Mariana Ciobanu1, Marius Ciobanu2, Mirela Mazilu3 1

University of Craiova, Faculty of Engineering and Management of the Technological Systems, Drobeta Turnu Severin. Mehedinti, Calugareni 1, street, Code 220037, Drobeta Turnu Severin, Romania. 2 Inspectorate District of Frontier Police–Mehedinti, Romania. 3 University of Craiova, Faculty of Engineering and Management of the Technological Systems, Drobeta Turnu Severin. Mehedinti. Calugareni 1, street, Code 220037, Drobeta Turnu Severin, Romania.

Climate variability refers to variations in the mean state and other measures (such as standard deviations, the occurrence of extremes, etc.) of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system (internal variability), or to variations in natural or anthropogenic external forcing (external variability). The majority of the global scientific community agrees that climate change resulting from the anthropogenic activities emitting greenhouses gases (GHGs provided by the Kyoto Protocol are CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6) can already be recognized. Effects are visible in the average temperature of the Earth, which has risen by around 0.6°±0.2°C since the beginning of monitoring (the year 1860). Other indicators are the increased melting of the ice during summers and a 10-20 cm rise of the sea level during the 20th century. Although these occurrences might seem insignificant at first sight, the effects on everyday life can become very large. Climate change is believed to lead to a further sea level rise endangering coastal areas with erosion and floods. It will also result in more extreme weather and changes of precipitation patterns on global scale, causing floods and droughts. Furthermore, local ecosystems might change because of changed circumstances, and even global water cycles might be disturbed. In Romania, the impacts of climate change on agriculture, forestry, water management and human settlements are a growing concern. The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) will further elaborate the individual policies and concrete measures to be developed and implemented under the NCCC. Romania ratified the UNFCCC by Law 24/1994 thus manifested clearly its concern for the global climate change and the political will to fulfill the commitments under the convention.


:: Paper No: GCGW-565 :: ARCHITECTURAL APPROACHES OF GLOBAL WARMING WITH RECENT DEVELOPMENTS FROM TURKEY AND OTHER COUNTRIES Pelin Y›ld›z Hacettepe University, The Dept. of Int. Architecture and Env. Des. The recent advances regarding the innovations of new appliances and techniques of global warming are developing in a fast and accelerating velocity all around the world under the orientation of many different disciplines by scientific and practical approaches. Architectural issues concerning the concept global warming are also very important approaches in the case of sustainable development with the principles of green design and the efficient use of energy. Enery technologies developing fastly on behalf of the conservation of enery in the discipline of architecture is an absolute burden to be recognized and has to be taken into consideration starting from the designing phase. On the other hand also in some buildings the transformations of interiors are being recognized by adding new donations of energy supplying materials and elements. Because of the increasing necessities in the way of building new strategies for sustainability which is blocking energy loss in buildings are identified as; subtracting the wall partitions, increasing the dimensions and capacity of glass walls and surfaces with more adequate daylighting, adding new available functions, renewing the materials and texture of the interior. In other words increasing the energy absorbing efficiency is going through new horizons as some phases of green design. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the architectural themes, approaches and every single issue starting from the design process until the tarnsformation of the spaces to areas loaded with energy absorbing facilities. In the first part the introduction of architectural approaches of energy saving appliances in space, in the second part the designing principles of buildings according to qualifications regarding sustainable development, in the third part some basic samples of buildings around the world will be evaluated by detailed work. In the 4th part the samples from Turkey, the studies around architectural issues in Turkey, some information about the outgoing projects in Turkey concerning buildings with the concept of energy saving features will be identified. In the results and conclusions part, the designing principles of the architectural approaches of buildings regarding energy saving, the common properties of the designing principles in these buildings and the position of Turkey with the strategies of sustainability when compared to other countries will be declared. In the conclusion part, some suggestions and proposals for the future of architecture with a sustainable base will be identified.


:: Paper No: GCGW-567 :: A MULTI-PERIOD OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR ENERGY PLANNING WITH CO2 EMISSION CONSIDERATION Hamidreza Mirzaesmaeeli, Ali Elkamel, Peter L. Douglas, Eric Croiset Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. A novel deterministic multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model for the power generation planning of electric systems is described and evaluated in this paper. The model is developed with the objective of determining the optimal mix of energy supply sources and pollutant mitigation options that meet a specified electricity demand and CO2 emission targets at minimum cost. Several time dependent parameters are included in the model formulation, such as forecasted energy demand, fuel price variability, construction lead time, conservation initiatives, and increase in fixed operational and maintenance costs over time. The developed model is applied to two case studies that examine the economical, structural, and environmental effects that would result if Ontario’s electricity sector was required to reduce its CO2 emissions to a specific limit.


:: Paper No: GCGW-568 :: A COMPUTER-AIDED UNIFIED APPROACH FOR SELECTING CO2 CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES: APPLICATION TO POWER PLANTS AND REFINING PROCESSES M. Ba-Shammakh, A. Elkamel King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Department of Chemical Engineering, Saudi Arabia P.O Box 5050 (31261) University of Waterloo, Department of Chemical Engineering, Waterloo, Canada, Ontario N2L 3G1. Climate change is one of the greatest and probably most challenging environmental, social and economical threats facing the world this century. Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, mainly CO2, are likely to accelerate the rate of climate change. Electricity generation, especially from fossil fuel, and petroleum industries contribute the most to greenhouse gases emissions. In this paper, an optimization approach for integrating planning and CO2 reduction is developed for the electricity and refinery sectors. Three different CO2 mitigation options are considered in each case. For the electricity sector, these mitigation options are 1) fuel balancing (optimal adjustment of the operation of existing generating stations to reduce CO2 emissions without making structural changes to the fleet), 2) fuel switching (switching from carbon intensive fuel to less carbon intensive fuel, essentially switching from coal to natural gas) and 3) implementing different technologies for efficiency improvement. The results show that for 1% CO2 reduction target, only fuel balancing need to be applied and even a decrease of about 1.3% in overall cost is obtained. The optimal generation is to increase production from all non fossil fuel power plants and decrease production from natural gas power plant. For higher reduction targets, it is necessary to implement fuel switching. For 30% reduction, 11 boilers out of 27 are switched from coal to natural gas and the cost increases by about 13%. For the refinery sector, a similar strategy is applied. An optimization model was developed to maximize profit from selling final products and to meet a given CO2 reduction target with products demand and specifications. CO2 capture is considered instead of efficiency improvement technologies. When CO2 mitigation options are introduced into the model, only 0.4% CO2 reduction is achieved by simply decreasing production from the hydrocracker (HC) unit and increasing production from the fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. This is because the FCC unit tends to emit less CO2 compared to the HC unit. At higher reduction targets, FCC is switched to run with natural gas. The profit decreased slightly because of the retrofit cost of switching. For 60% reduction, the optimal plan of operation is to switch three units (out of 8) and to capture CO2 emissions coming from four units.



Nexant Inc, Mountain View, California, USA. Chemical Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. c Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia. b

This paper focuses on the reduction of CO2 emissions from electricity generation through capacity expansion planning for utility companies. In order to reduce emissions, different mitigation options are considered including structural changes and non structural changes. This study proposes a robust optimization capacity expansion planning model that can accommodate the decision maker’s risk aversion and yield a solution based upon it. The proposed model is applied to a case study for power generation and its sensitivity to parameters’ variations is compared to a deterministic model.



King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Department of Chemical Engineering, Saudi Arabia P.O Box 5050 (31261) b University of Waterloo, Department of Chemical Engineering, Waterloo, Canada, Ontario N2L 3G1. Hydrogen is often produced from natural gas; however, as natural gas is also a non-renewable resource, it is not considered to be a good choice for producing hydrogen since “extra” greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide) are emitted to the atmosphere when non-renewable resources such as natural gas and coal are refined. Biomass is the most adaptable non-petroleum renewable resource that can be utilized for sustainable production of hydrogen. Biomass consumes carbon dioxide when it grows and emits carbon dioxide when it is consumed. Renewability is apparently a key feature for biomass to be an attractive source for producing hydrogen. Gasification of biomass is considered. Therefore, hydrogen has been chosen to accomplish auxiliary analysis and examine the process integration effects and economics of a final product from biomass gasification. Our intention in this paper is to design a biomass gasification plant for hydrogen production. Aspen Plus is used for simulating the gasification process. Energy requirement and heat duties are obtained from this Aspen Plus model. A pinch analysis is also completed in order to determine the best approach to utilize the “cold” and “hot” streams for minimizing the energy input to the system. Capital and operating costs are calculated for the plant. Direct and indirect costs are also calculated and ultimately the minimum selling cost of hydrogen is estimated for several cases, and the selling cost of hydrogen for the base case is estimated to be $0.82/kg H2. The result of this study has demonstrated that the production of hydrogen from biomass gasification is feasible, providing that the net CO2 emission is 0.28kg/kg H2 produced (this number is estimated by the burning of natural gas required in the process), comparing with using natural gas reforming to produce hydrogen with a net CO2 emission of 15kg/kg H2 produced. Therefore, this study shows that a significant amount of reduction in CO2 emission can be resulted from hydrogen production from biomass gasification rather than using natural gas reforming. The hydrogen produced can further reduce greenhouse gas effect if it is used in the transportation sector. This paper gives a thorough description to the design of the gasification plant and the method of estimating the selling cost of hydrogen.



Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran. 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 1999143344, Tehran, Iran. 3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran, Iran.

Thermal treatment of effluents in the process industries is most often carried out in a central cooling facility. In the centralized treatment system, effluent streams are collecting and combining into a single effluent, the effluent stream generated is likely to have lower energy level, because the energy level of effluent with a higher temperature becomes degraded due to mixing of the effluent streams. Central cooling systems result in inefficient and expensive cooling when cooling tower is specified as the cooling facility. Therefore an alternative policy for cooling systems, distributed cooling systems, should be considered. In this study pinch technology has been improved for wastewater temperature reduction. Having considered design grouping rules on the basis of pinch technology an optimum design of distributed effluent treatment system, ODET, has been introduced. The presented grass root design method allows interactions between the performance of cooling and the design of effluent network to be explored systematically. Also, a counter flow wet cooling tower with mechanical air draft has been assumed to predict the exit water and air conditions of the tower in system. In the presented grass-root design method, optimum water supply has been achieved via exploring through the feasible region. In ODET methodology, the evaporation loss effect, flexible design variables and physical properties have been incorporated within the targeting of the optimal conditions for the cooling tower. Furthermore, the optimum wastewater network has been designed to achieve the targets in practice. Related coding in Visual Sudio.Net 2003, C++, has been developed for the illustrative example to get optimal values in the cooling water design method computations.


:: Paper No: GCGW-575 :: APPLICATION OF EXERGY ANALYSIS IN PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF COOLING TOWER M. Hassan Panjeshahi1, Abtin Ataei2, Mona Gharaie3 1Department

of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran, Iran. of Energy and Environment, Science and Research Campus, Azad University, P. O. Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran. 3Department of Energy Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 1999143344, Tehran, Iran.


Cooling towers are widely used to reject waste process heat to the environment. Heat rejection in cooling tower is specified as the convectional transfer between water droplets and the surrounding air, and also in evaporation, which allows small portion of water to evaporate into the moving air. Therefore, the process involves both heat and mass transfer aspects. Research on cooling towers focused on the energy analysis to investigate the performance characteristics of cooling tower. However, the energy concept, alone is insufficient to describe the energy efficiency of the cooling tower. To achieve the performance evaluation of a cooling tower, the exergy analysis needs to be carried out. In the present study, an exergy analysis is used to indicate the exergy and the exergy destruction of water and air flowing through the cooling tower. For accomplishing this objective a mathematical modeling of a counter-flow wet cooling tower is developed to predict the properties of water and air. This model is based on heat and mass transfer principles and used in exergy analysis to carry out the exergy distribution of water and air in the tower, considering the second law of thermodynamics. The cooling tower simulation model accounts for different filling materials to be chosen for the cooling tower that provides opportunity for optimization of cooling tower performance. To verify the results of the proposed model, the simulation results are compared with the experimental data.


:: Paper No: GCGW-576 :: CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL MAIZE YIELDS AND POSSIBLE ADAPTATION MEASURES IN ARGENTINA María I. Travasso1, Graciela O. Magrin2, Gabriel R. Rodríguez3, Silvina Solman4, Mario Núñez5 1

INTA, Instituto de Clima y Agua, 1712 Castelar, Argentina, 2 INTA, Instituto de Clima y Agua, 1712 Castelar, Argentina, 3 INTA, Instituto de Clima y Agua, 1712 Castelar, Argentina, 4 CIMA, C. Universitaria, Pab. II, P.2, 1428 Bs. As, Argentina. 5 CIMA, C. Universitaria, Pab.II, P.2, 1428 Bs. As, Argentina.

In this work, the impact of future climate on regional maize yields was assessed by means of a crop simulation model considering 12 zones in the Pampas Region regrouped according to the soils, climate and land use. Climatic inputs to the crop model were generated by the regional model MM5/CIMA, developed for 2081-2090 under the SRES A2 and B2, considering grids of 50 km*50 km. The Soil Productivity Index was used to define the aptitude (agriculture, agriculture-livestock, and livestockagriculture) in each zone and the physicochemical characteristics corresponding to the predominant soil series for each category and zone were used as soil inputs. Crop model runs were carried out under typical crop management conditions with and without considering the fertilization effect of CO2. Results obtained indicate that, without considering the effect of CO2, the impact of future scenarios will be negative in most of the region attaining mean reductions of 9% and 6% under A2 and B2 respectively. However, a great spatial variability was observed and yield changes could range between increases of 46% under B2 and decreases of 17% under A2. Enhancing CO2 would lead to increase maize yields by 19% under A2 conditions and 11% under B2, although negative impacts could still occur. Possible adaptation measures related to changes in sowings and supplementary irrigation were assessed as a way to overcome future negative impacts. Without considering CO2 effects anticipating planting dates by 15-30 days could be beneficial, increasing yields under B2 and reducing loses under A2. Irrigation requirements could on average increase in the central and northern parts of the region and decrease in the southern one. However, if CO2 effects are considered, an overall decrease in water requirements could be expected because of the enhanced crop’s water use efficiency under CO2 enriched environments. Uncertainties related to future scenarios and crop responses to CO2 are also discussed.



Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigde University, 51100, Nigde, Turkey of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4, Canada


This paper presents a parametric analysis on the exergetic dimension of hydrogen in reducing global fossil fuels consumption. Some key parameters such as fossil fuel based-global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based-global exergetic efficiency, and fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient are proposed and studied in this regard. In order to verify these exergetic parameters, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are used as the base data in the analysis. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for the present study, it is assumed that the utilization ratio of hydrogen is practically ranged between 0 and 1. As a result, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient will decrease.



Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George St., Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A4. 2 Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Eng. ISEEE, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4.

The life cycle (well-to-wheels) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production and use of transportation fuels from conventional and unconventional fossil fuel sources in Canada and the U.S. are investigated. The pathways studied include reformulated gasoline and low sulphur diesel produced from oil sands, oil shale, coal and natural gas as well as reference pathways from conventional crude oil. A comparison of life cycle assessments (LCAs) completed for these fuels indicates considerable uncertainty in these emissions; results vary between studies based on differences in systems assessed, study boundaries, functional units and product characteristics. This observation illustrates the need for further LCAs, with particular attention to completeness and transparency, of these unconventional pathways so as to more accurately predict their GHG implications, and to allow fair and comprehensive comparisons between pathways. Based on the studies considered in this paper, only one alternative fuel pathway performs better in terms of GHG emissions than production of the fuel from conventional oil: production of Fischer-Tropsch diesel from natural gas. However, the limitations of the data used in this paper must be considered, as must other factors that may limit a switch to the use of natural gas (e.g., limited reserves, price volatility). This analysis also shows that there are considerable opportunities to reduce the GHG emissions from the unconventional fuel pathways, which could change this result. Overall, there is significant potential for the production of liquid transportation fuels from Canadian and U.S. unconventional fossil sources to help meet domestic and perhaps global demand. However, in order to avoid significant increases in GHG emissions, in almost all cases, reducing the life cycle GHG implications of the fuel pathways will be needed to respond to upcoming regulatory initiatives as well as, more generally, to move in the direction of a more sustainable road transportation sector.


:: Paper No: GCGW-580 :: GLOBAL WARMING AND WHEAT PRODUCTION IN ARGENTINA Graciela O. Magrin1, Maria I. Travasso2, Gabriel R. Rodríguez3, Silvina Solman4, Mario Nuñez5 1

INTA-CIRN, Los Reseros y Las Cabañas, 1712 Castelar, Argentina. INTA-CIRN, Los Reseros y Las Cabañas,1712 Castelar, Argentina. 3 INTA-CIRN, Los Reseros y Las Cabañas,1712 Castelar, Argentina. 4 CIMA, UBA, C. Universitaria, Pab. II, P.2, 1428 Bs As, Argentina. 5 CIMA, UBA, C. Universitaria, Pab.II, P.2, 1428 Bs As, Argentina. 2

The aim of this work was to assess the impact of past and future changes in climate on potential wheat productivity. The study was based on long term daily climatic data (since 1930) and crop productivity, regional climatic scenarios based on the down scaling of HadCM3 GCM (MM5/CIMA), and a crop simulation model (DSSAT v4.0). In the central and northern part of the Pampas, potential wheat yield has been decreasing with increasing rates since 1930 (28.3 kg/ha between 1930-2000, and 52.7 kg/ha between 1970-2000) due mainly to winter and spring warming. Further increases in temperature could lead to wheat yield reductions of 7.5% for each °C of temperature raise until 3°C. According to MM5/CIMA climatic projections, in 2080 under the SRES A2 scenario, temperature will rise between 2°C and 3°C and springsummer precipitations will have slight increases. Under these conditions mean wheat yield will be reduced by 4% with a great spatial variability. The zones more affected will be those located in the north (Nor-west of Buenos Aires province, and parts of Santa Fe and Cordoba with decreases between 20% and 30%), while the south-west portion could be benefited with increases near to 20% . If CO2 effects are considered mean wheat yield could increase by 14% in the Pampas. However in isolated sites, located mainly in the central and northern part, yields could decrease up to 10% despite CO2 effects. In the future should be convenient to advance planting dates for taking advantage of the new environmental conditions where frost free periods would be prolonged.


:: Paper No: GCGW-582 :: GLOBAL WARMING AVOIDED EMISSIONS WITH THE ADOPTION OF BIOFUEL POLICIES IN SPAIN Y. Lechón, H. Cabal, N. Caldés, M. Santamaria and R. Sáez CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 22 28040 Madrid Spain. In this context, the Spanish parliament has set also some indicative and binding targets for biofuel introduction by 2008, 2009 and 2010. The objective of this study is to assess the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions of the production and use of biofuels in Spain considering different crop production alternatives including the possible import of the raw materials (rapeseed, soybeans, palm oil, wheat and barley) from different parts of the world. Global warming avoided emissions due to the substitution of conventional transport fuels with biofuels are then quantified. Studied biofuels are bioethanol from cereal crops and biodiesel from crude vegetable oil (rapeseed, soy bean, sunflower, and palm oil) and from waste vegetable oil. Several blends of these biofuels with gasoline and diesel are also studied. It has been carried out the corresponding Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of these fuels that perform equivalent functions. The LCA have been carried out according to the standardized methodology for LCA and the stakeholders have been involved early in the process, setting the scope of the analysis and providing the relevant data. Results shown are the emission of greenhouse gases in the production and distribution of these fuels. The benefits, in terms of GHG savings, of the adoption of the Spanish internal commitments in terms of biofuel introduction and the EU biofuel directive in Spain in 2010, taking into account the forecast of freight transport services and passenger cars evolution and growth, are analysed. Looking towards 2020, further increasing in the share of biofuels has also been considered and the benefits derived of this increase, have been assessed. Several scenarios are studied in order to analyze the effect associated to different ethanol and biodiesel promotion policies.



Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Carleton University 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1S 5B6. 2 Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada L1H 7L7. In this paper, first, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an uncontrolled landfill site filled with municipal solid waste (MSW) are calculated for a case study. Then, GHG emissions from conventional landfill gas (LFG) utilization technologies such as flaring, internal combustion engine (ICE) and gas turbine, and an emerging technology, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are analyzed. These alternatives are compared in terms of their effectiveness in reducing global warming. The results show that SOFC is the best option among the studied technologies. It reduces the GHG emissions by 63% and has a specific lifetime GHG emission of 2.3836 tonnes CO2.eq/MWh when it is used only for electricity production and 1.1217 tonnes CO2.eq/MWh for a cogeneration application.

:: Paper No: GCGW-586 :: EVALUATION OF DROUGHT CHANGES IN ISFAHAN PROVINCE Mohammad Re za Yazdani1, Javad Khoshhal2, Afshin Honarbakhsh3, Mohammad Azad4 1

PHD student of climatology, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran. Supervisor of climatology Group, Literature College, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran. 3 Supervisor of watershed management Group, Agriculture College, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran. 4 Watershed Management Section, Jahade-Keshavarzi Department, Isfahan, Iran. 2

Most parts of the Isfahan Province are located in central arid land of Iran and are sensitive to drought occurrence. There are many ways to define drought using different indicators. In this study precipitation drought were evaluated using annual precipitation time series and different truncation levels including: 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 95 percent. for this purpose 85 rain gauges were selected in study area in the period of 1966 to 1998.Interpolation methods including, kirigging, Co-kirigging, Inverse Distance Weighted and TPSS were evaluated for interpolating truncation levels. An error of each method was calculated. In the selected methods co-kirigging method had minimum error, but TPSS method had maximum error. Drought extension maps were prepared for each truncation level using ILWIS software. Also water volume of probable precipitation is calculated for each truncation level. Results indicated that about half of rainfall events appeared in truncation level of 30% and about 28 percent of it happened in truncation level of 80% which showed high severity of drought in studied area. 144

:: Paper No: GCGW-588 :: EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE POWERED COGENERATION SYSTEMS Aysegul Abusoglu, Mehmet Kanoglu Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Gaziantep, 27310 Gaziantep, Turkey All industrial plants involve environmental pollution by the emission of harmful gases and other hazardous components, which are harmful for human beings and other organisms. Diesel engine powered cogeneration (DEPC) plants burn heavy fuel oil and the exhaust involve undesirable emissions such as solid particulates, sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrite oxides (NOx). These emissions must remain below the maximum permissible values defined by official organizations and international environment protocols. In this paper, exhaust emission characteristics of DEPC plants and the operation of DeSOx (desulphurization) and DeNOx (denitrification) treatment units in these facilities are studied based on the exergy analysis and the linkages between exergy and environmental impacts. Exhaust emission assessment is performed by using fuel savings analysis method and exergetic efficiency. Exhaust emission reduction is expressed using an analogy to fuel savings. The results show that using separate units of power and heat production increase the fuel consumption by 34.8% with respect to existing DEPC plant and the DEPC plant can reduce NOx, CO2, and SO2 emissions by 87.6%, 50% and 41.3%, respectively in comparison to separate power and heat productions.

:: Paper No: GCGW-589 :: THE PREDICTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL WAVE-INDUCED LOADS ON CYLINDRICAL STRUCTURES Serpil Kocabiyik1, Larisa A. Mironova1, and Oleg I. Gubanov2 1

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, A1C 5S7, Canada 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6, Canada The prediction of wave-induced forces on circular cylinders is one of the fundamental steps in design of marine structures. This regards both vertical and horizontal elements as members of more complex surface piercing or submerged structures. An exhaustive answer to the design questions about the environmental loads on these elements is a challenging task so that the amount of research in this field is still very large. In this context, the case of a submerged horizontal circular cylinder in regular wave crests has attached a lot of research e_orts which are predominantly experimental. In this paper a computational method for the twophase flow problem based on a viscous incompressible two-fluid model with a circular cylinder is presented. 145

:: Paper No: GCGW-590 :: THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE ON LOCAL, SUBREGIONAL LEVEL Maria Csete Adaptation to Climate Change. Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. H . 1116, Hungary, Budapest, Albertfalvau. 20. In the focus of the present paper are the examination of the coherence between climate change and sustainability. In our days, there is an increased interest in the topics of both sustainability and of climate change. The most diverse views, facts and ideas are published in relation to these two terms, an endeavor and a phenomenon, respectively, which require the harmonization of viewpoints, co-operation and common thinking. On one hand, this study is intended to help shift sustainability from the level of global clichés, if in a modest way but towards the everyday actions, what is further complicated by a possible climate change and its effects. On the other hand, it aims to highlight the local coherences and interactions between climate change and sustainability. It is well known, that the term of sustainability has almost become everyday usage, and has remained so, as in reality decisions and words were hardly followed by any practical steps. This can be explained, in part, by the interpretation difficulties of the concept, and the discrepancies of interests, as well as the complexity of shifting from a global and philosophical level. Our examinations suggest that among the dimensions (ecological, sociological, economical) and levels (global, regional. local) of sustainability, it is likely that on a local level, progress is easier, as it can be assumed that in a small region or community, the practical implementation of sustainability is a vital challenge to those living there. Similarly to sustainability, climate change is also more and more often in the focus of attention and discussions. In spite of the fact that the causes connected with climate change are still argued, as well as the phenomena of global climate change, our examinations has shown in accordance with the principle of precaution it is needed some action on behalf of local citizens towards prevention and mitigation of damages or towards the adaptation to climate change. However, even everyday people have the bitter experience of the increased frequency of weather anomalies both abroad and within the country, which damages become evident even in numbers, using different damage calculation methods. From the viewpoint of the both term sustainability and climate change a holistic approach is needed to be able to examine the interactions, moreover to find the possible solutions. According to the IPCC report climate change can be one of the biggest dangers, risk of sustainable development. Nevertheless, the third report of IPCC emphasized in relation to sustainability that it can be an advantage in the mitigation of climate change. In the focus of this study are the interactions between the two terms mentioned above, their synergistic effects, and the negative and positive externalities on local level. (IPCC TAR, 2001. and IPCC FAR, 2007.)


:: Paper No: GCGW-591 :: ENGINEERING CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF NORTHERN PASSAGE IN THE 21ST CENTURY Gokhan Inci Senior (Geotechnical) Project Engineer, URS Corporation, 8181 Tufts Ave., Denver, CO 80237, USA. The Panama Canal was constructed between 1904 and 1914 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. It has been an engineering marvel. However, due to geological conditions and the resulting slides, it has been a challenge to achieve a low maintenance performance at the canal. Furthermore, over the last century there have been changes in the specifications of cargo ship designs and it is impossible to fit these newly designed ships into the canal locks. Continuous demand, deforestation, and potentially changing climate require more water to fill the locks and new dams are needed. A direct “northern passage” route between East Asia and Europe was investigated in the 1800s by the British Empire. The 1847 expedition lead by Admiral John Franklin with two retrofitted war ships ended in disaster and closed the Northern PassageNorth America chapter for almost 60 years. In 1878 Fin-Swedish explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld made the first successful attempt to completely navigate the Northeastern Passage from west to east during the Vega expedition. During the 1903-1906 expedition lead by Roald Amundsen, Northern Passage-North America was navigated successfully with a low-draft fishing boat from east to west. In 1915 a Russian expedition led by Boris Vilkitsky navigated the Northern Passage-Siberia from east to west. Today we are faced with the challenges due to global warming or can we consider them as opportunities? This paper presents a pre-feasibility level discussion on today’s Northern Pass option. The Northern Pass could be an economical alternative to the Panama Canal with almost 40% and 25% fuel and time savings from Northern Europe to Eastern Asia and from U.S. Northern Atlantic Coast to Eastern Asia, respectively. The Northern Pass can be ideal for icebreaking super container ships. Northern Pass – Siberia will probably become a commercial sea lane in summer months within the next 5 to 20 years. The Northern Pass-North America which is protected by land can first be operational during summer months, and then year round depending on the engineering design of the canals and the climate.



1 Geophysics Centre of Évora, Rua Romão Ramalho 59, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal. Department of Physics, University of Évora, Apartado 94, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal.

Emission of greenhouse gases and particulate matter resulting from fossil fuel burning into the atmosphere are considered to be the main anthropogenic forcing on global climate. We show here that external cyclic influences of cosmic origin modulate the earth climate and may either reinforce or mitigate the “local” terrestrial forcings. Among external influences is cosmic radiation, whose intensity shows a cyclic variation of period 11 years, accompanying the 11-year cycle of solar activity. We put forward a mechanism to explain how emission of particulate matter into the atmosphere might influence global lightning activity. With respect to global lightning activity, we show why during the 11-year cycle the influence of the increase in particulate matter concentration in the atmosphere may be negligible in some years, while it will be reinforced in other years, depending on the position of the years in the cycle. We also remark that the effect on global warming resulting from fossil fuel burning is also modulated by the cosmic ray flux whose influence is mediated by the variation that it promotes on the cloud cover.


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hitit University, 19030 Corum , Turkey


In this study, the effects on heat transfer, friction factor and dimensionless exergy loss are determined and discussed the equations for the determination of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies in terms of the effects of convergent–divergent longitudinal vortex generators (CDLVGs) in a cross flow heat exchanger. In the experiments exhaust and supply air were used as working fluid, while stainless steel was considered as the plate and winglet material. The effects of the inlet conditions of both working fluids flowing through the heat exchanger on the heat transfer characteristics, exergy loss are discussed. Experimental procedure consists of temperature and pressure drop measurements. The increase in friction factor was about 2.94 times that of the empty channel, depending on Reynolds number. An augmentation of up to 1.20 times in the dimensionless exergy loss compared to the empty channel was obtained. It shows that good overall efficiency is reached if the thermal efficiency of the heat recovery is high. The exergy loss decreased with the increase of the Reynolds number. Finally, the experiments were conducted for cross flow cases and the general empirical correlation for Nusselt number and friction factor was developed and considered to be applicable within the range of Reynolds numbers 3.000 ≤Re≤12.000 for different cases. 148


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hitit University, 19030 Corum , Turkey


This study presents the time dependent performance related to the effect of flow geometry on time dependent forced convection heat transfer for turbulent flow in a cross flow heat exchanger. For evaluating time dependent forced convection, the time dependent Nu number and the time dependent dissipation energy criterion were considered. The maximum improvement in time dependent dissipation energy criterion is obtained for hot and cold fluids where ie= 2.8 – 3 and 2.1 – 2.2 within the range of 48,000 ≤ Re ≤56,000 for 4 and 8kW heater powers, respectively. The general empirical equations of time dependent Nu number are derived as a function of the Reynolds number, corresponding to fin geometry parameters: ratio of heat exchanger length to pitch of winglet La/e, winglet orientation angle,β and ratio of square duct length to winglet height La/Lc. The analysis of time dependent behavior of the heat exchanger is conducted for a change in the outlet temperature of the hot and cold fluid. The variation of the exit temperatures of both fluids with time are obtained for a change in the inlet temperature of the hot fluid. By the aid of experimental results, one can easily see that both Nu number and dissipation energy criterion increase with increasing Re number. In addition, the best performance was obtained for the operating condition of Re = 60,000 and 8 kW heater power.

:: Paper No: GCGW-596 :: EMISSION MARKET AT THE END OF THE COMMITMENT PERIOD IMAI Haruo, ISHII Ryosuke At the end of the year 2012, the .rst commitment period of the Ky-oto protocol comes to its end. Parties responsible to keep its emission level below the assigned amount, have to come up with whatever amount of emission reduction falling short of the target reduction level are ne-cessitated to. ll the gap from the emissions trading market. Knowing this, speculators in the market may attempt to take advantage of such an opportunity, and the party try to purchase emission reduction from the market would be aware of the presence of such traders. Thus we have the same situation as the execution problem in the securities market and we can analyze the behavior from those analyses. In particular, we apply the analysis advanced in Ishii (2007). One special feature would be that the noise trader may also be affected by the well perceived presence of the end period, and we discuss how one may cope with such situation. 149

:: Paper No: GCGW-597 :: GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT? Ayça Emino¤lu K.T.U. International Relations Department 61080 Trabzon/Turkey, In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of “security”, “national security”, and “international security” have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a “low security” issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a “serious threat to international security”. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a consequence of this, there will be a new platform in international system. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether global warming is a threat and which countries are most effected from this threat.



Department of Energy and Environment, Science and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-775, Tehran. 2 Department of Energy Engineering, K.N.T University of Technology, P.O. Box 1999143344, Tehran, Iran. 3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Re-circulating cooling water systems (RCWSs) offer the means to remove heat from a wide variety of industrial processes that generate excess heat. Such systems consist of a cooling tower and a heatexchanger network that conventionally has a parallel configuration. However, reuse of water between different cooling duties enables cooling water networks to be designed with series arrangements. This will result in performance improvement and increase cooling tower capacity. In addition, by integration of ozone treatment in to the cooling tower, the cycle of concentration can be increased. It dramatically reduces the blow-down that, in turn, is environmentally constructive. In this study, a new environmentalfriendly and cost-effective design methodology for cooling water systems was introduced. In this design methodology called Integrated Ozone Treatment Cooling System (IOTCS), achievement of minimum environmental impacts and total cost was afforded through a simultaneous integration of the cooling system components using an ozone treatment cooling tower and optimum heat-exchanger network configuration. Moreover, in the proposed method, optimum design of cooling tower has been achieved through a mathematical model. The IOTCS design method is based on a complex design approach using a combined pinch analysis and mathematical programming that provides an optimum heat-exchanger configuration while maximizes water and energy conservation and minimizes total cost. Related coding in MATLAB version 7.3 was used for the illustrative example to get optimal values in the IOTCS design method computations. The results of the recently introduced design methodology were compared with the conventional method.


:: Paper No: GCGW-599 :: THE NOVEL METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF K4NB6O17 Warda Ouagagui, Ratiba Nedjar, Houria Rebbah Laboratoire Science des matériaux, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers, ALGERIA. Layered hexaniobate K4Nb6O17 is known to be typical photocatalyst, it was prepared by simple solid state reaction method. The obtained material was converted into proton-exchanged form by softchemical method. The density of the materials was measured by pycnomety in CCl4 .The structures of these compounds were confirmed by means of various analytical techniques such as powder xray (XRD), spectroscopic absorption, and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to observe the morphology of the compounds.


Geophysics Centre of Évora, Rua Romão Ramalho 59, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal 2 Department of Physics, University of Évora, P.O. box 94, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal. Aerosols play a major role both in climate change and in air quality. They affect climate through interfering with radiative transfer and hence the atmospheric temperature, and also the air quality. Many epidemiological studies have confirmed that a relation exists between elevated aerosol particle concentration and adverse human health effects. Aerosol particle number and size distributions were measured both indoors and outdoors in the urban areas of Évora and Lisbon. We investigated the indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles and the aerosol size distributions. The impact of the occurrence of a residential fire in the aerosol size distribution is also analyzed. Finally, we speculate of how global increase in temperature can affect concentration of aerosols in the atmosphere, via increased boundary layer convection.


:: Paper No: GCGW-605 :: INVESTING THE EFFECT OF FOREST STAND VOLUME ON SOIL SURFACE EROSION BY GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) Maskani, H.R., Meraji, A Members of scientific board of Environmental Reaserch Institute, Of(ACECR) One of the important problems in forest science is productive bed or forest soil protection, so investigate and research on different aspect of this topic is very important. this article tries to determine the relationship between surface erosion and tree cover, so after a primary study on basins, two nearby district with an area about 4580 hectare were selected and by land inventory it was appeared that these two areas except trees stand volume and climate have approximately similar geological, pedagogical, steep, dominant direction and altitudinal extension, age and stand composition characteristics. so this area is really suitable to achieve the mentioned goals .after selecting statistics community, the maps that are needed to use erosion model (PSIAC) were prepared and separated into 5.8*5.8 meters calls by use of ArcGIS/ArcMAP software and 9 layers that were needed for each cell were prepared and its related measurements have been done and the erosion foe each cell was measured and classified into similar records and about 60 erosive sites for each district achieved. The mentioned information exported to “excel” and final measurements were done. Results showed that trees covering and surface erosion have a mathematical and inverse ratio.

:: Paper No: GCGW-609 :: CARBON SEQUESTRATION: A METHODS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS Christopher J. Koroneos, Dimitrios C. Rovas Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box: 483, GR. 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece All human activities are related with the energy consumption. Energy requirements will continue to rise, due to the modern life and the developing countries growth. Most of the energy demand emanates from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels combustion has negative environmental impacts, with the CO2 production to be dominating. The fulfillment of the Kyoto protocol criteria requires the minimization of CO2 emissions. Thus the management of the CO2 emissions is an urgent matter. The use of appliances with low energy use and the adoption of an energy policy that prevents the unnecessary energy use, can play lead to the reduction of carbon emissions. A different route is the introduction of “clean” energy sources, such as renewable energy sources. Last but not least, the development of carbon sequestration methods can be promising technique with big future potential. The objective of this work is the analysis and comparison of different carbon sequestration and deposit methods. Ocean deposit, land ecosystems deposit, geological formations deposit and radical biological and chemical approaches will be analyzed. 153

:: Paper No: GCGW-610 :: THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION METHODS IN LIGNITE POWER PLANTS Koroneos J. Christopher1, Sakiltzis Christos1, Rovas C. Dimitrios1 1

Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 483 GR. 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.

The green house effect is a very pressing issue of our times due to the big impact it will have in the future of life in our planet. The temperature increase of the earth which is the major impact of the greenhouse effect may change forever the climate and the way of life in many countries. It may lead to the reduction of agricultural production and at the end to famine, in several nations. The minimization of CO2 emissions and the introduction of new energy sources is the only solution to the catastrophe that is coming if inaction prevails. The objective of this work is to analyze the methods of the CO2 removal from the flue gases of power plants that use solid fuels. It is especially fit to the Greek conditions where the main fuel used is lignite. Three methods have been examined and compared thermodynamically. These are: a) Removal of CO2 from the flue gas stream by absorption, b) The combustion of lignite with pure oxygen and c) The gasification of lignite. The lignite used in the analysis is the Greek lignite, produced at the Western Macedonia mines. The power plant, before carbon sequestration, has an efficiency of 39%, producing 330MW of electric power. After sequestration, the CO2 is compressed to pressures between 80-110 atm, before its final disposal. In the first method, the sequestration of CO2 is done utilizing a catalyst. The operation requires electricity and high thermal load which is received from low pressure steam extracted from the turbines. Additionally, electricity is required for the compression of the CO2 to 100 bars. This leads to a lower efficiency of the power plant by by 13%. In the second method, the lignite combustion is done with pure O2 produced at an air separation unit. The flue gasses are made up of CO2 and water vapor. This method requires electricity for carbon dioxide compression and the Air Separation unit, thus, the power plant efficiency is lowered by 26%. In the lignite gasification method, the products are a mixture of CO2, CO, H2 and H2O. The gas mixture is combusted in a combined cycle unit with 43.2% efficiency. When carbon sequestration takes place the efficiency is lowered by 35.1%. The results of the work have shown that lignite gasification method has the highest efficiency with a 10% CO2 removal. On the other hand the lowering of efficiency that comes along with sequestration makes it very uneconomical.



Department of Mechanical Engineering and International Centre for the Environment (ICE), University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK. 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK. The authors have developed an online embodied energy and carbon database for individual building materials; known as the ‘Inventory of Carbon and Energy’ (ICE). It has attracted international interest with over 2,000 downloads by professionals. The ICE database has been applied to determine the embodied energy and carbon of new-build UK dwellings, thereby offering future benchmarks for their reduction in the context of residential building construction. The building sector is a large energy consuming and carbon releasing sector, with the sector as a whole responsible for almost half of the UK’s total energy consumption and carbon emissions. However the additional embodied impact of construction must be considered. With estimates of 7.6 to 10.8 million new dwellings to be constructed in the UK by the year 2050, the embodied or ‘concealed’ impact of such construction may not be insignificant. A model was created and used to analyse the embodied energy and carbon of residential buildings. A broad range of buildings were analysed, determining their embodied impacts. These include semi-detached, detached, terraced, bungalows and low-rise apartment buildings. Embodied energy and embodied carbon benchmarks were created for each building type. The results demonstrated that the average detached house, of floor area 125 m2, had the highest embodied impacts. They were determined to be 11% higher embodied energy than the average detached bungalow; however the bungalow provided a floor area of only 76 m2 and was therefore determine to have the highest impact per unit floor area. Semi-detached buildings were significantly lower embodied impact and they provided a floor area of 73 m3. The average terraced building and low rise apartment was estimated to have comparatively similar impacts. The terraced building, however, provided 68 m2 of floor area compared with the average apartment at 50 m2.



National Technical University of Athens, Lab. of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants Heroon Polytecniou 9, GR-15780 Athens, Greece. 2 Centre for Research & Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications 4th km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, GR-50200 Ptolemaida, Greece. 3 Centre for Research & Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications 4th km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, GR-50200 Ptolemaida, Greece. The paper aims to examine and analyse the plant design of a novel CO2 capture concept for electricity generation from coal and integrated cement production, developed within the framework of the FP6 European Project ISCC. The scheme is based on the steam gasification process of low rank coals with calcined limestone, where in-situ CO2 capture and steam reforming are performed in a single reactor. CO2 is separated reacting exothermically with CaO based sorbents, providing also the necessary heat for the gasification reactions. The produced H2-rich fuel gas can be used in state-of-the-art combined cycles where it is converted to electricity, generating almost no CO2 emissions. After being captured in the gasification process, CO2 is released in a separate reactor where extra energy is provided through the combustion of low rank coal. Regenerated CaO is produced in this reactor and is continuously recycled within the process. The key element of the concept is the high-pressure steam gasification process where CO2 is captured by CaO based sorbents and fuel gas with high hydrogen content is produced, without using additional shift reactors. Four different power plant configurations have been identified as having the greatest potential for a 500 MW ISCC commercial power plant design with CO2 capture. Two of them are based on commercially available/ state of the art components and two represent more advanced solutions, that is estimated will be available in the future. Detailed heat & mass balance and design data on the four different 500 MW ISCC commercial plant designs are provided, concerning the gasifier/regenerator, the ASU or air compressor, the power generation module and the flue gas cooling and CO2 compression train, demonstrating the capability of the power plant to deliver decarbonised electricity while achieving high overall electrical efficiencies, with competitive economics to other technological alternatives for CO2 capture.



Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Balikesir University, 10110 Balikesir, Turkey 2 Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe St. N., Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada.

In this study, the solar radiation data of Balikesir in Turkey are analyzed to assess the techno-economic viability and environmental performance of a hybrid photovoltaic–diesel–battery power system to meet the load requirements of a typical remote farm house. The average daily solar global radiation values range from 1.55 to 7.38 kWh/m2 The NREL’s HOMER software is used to carry out a comprehensive technoeconomic analysis. The effect of photovoltaic-battery penetration through cost of energy (COE), operational hours of diesel generator, unmet load, excess electricity generation, percentage fuel savings and reduction in carbon dioxide emissions (for different scenarios such as photovoltaic–diesel without storage, photovoltaic–diesel with storage, as compared to diesel-only situation), cost of photovoltaic–diesel–battery systems and COE of different hybrid systems are also investigated. Simulations based on an actual system in Cagis are performed for three cases, respectively: Diesel only, Photovoltaic-Diesel and PhotovoltaicDiesel-Battery for a one-year time period. In the simulation, diesel only system produced 63900kWh electric energy and 69.7 tons of CO2. 13.0 kg of PM, 1.53 tons of NOx emission in one year time as a result of diesel fuel usage. PV-Diesel-Bat system reduced emission of CO2 to 42 tons and NOx to 0.92 tons. It is clear that PV-Diesel-Battery system is more economic for diesel fuel price over 2 dollars. While diesel only system is more economic if the fuel price is below 2 dollars, PV–Diesel-Battery system become more economic than diesel only system when the price of diesel cost exceed 2 dollars.


:: Paper No: GCGW-617 :: THE INUNDATIONS IN ROMANIA, CONSEQUENCE THE CLIMATE CHANGES Mariana Ciobanu1, Gabriela Demian1, Marius Victor Ciobanu 2 1

University of Craiova, Faculty of Engineering and Management of the Technological Systems, Drobeta Turnu Severin. Mehedinti, Drobeta Turnu Severin, Romania. 2 Inspectorate District of Frontier Police – Mehedinti, Romania.

Climate Change is one of the major challenges of our century-a complex area of which we still need to improve our knowledge and understanding in order to take timely and correct measures for tackling the climate change challenges in the most cost effective way, while following the precautionary principle. Climate change affects us all. Globally, as well as at national and local levels within our own country. Whether or not these floods are the direct result of climate change, they provide an indication of the kind of future impacts that climate change may have on our local communities. With this Strategy, Romania takes its first steps towards a targeted and coordinated national effort to limit emissions of greenhouse gas emissions and deal with the climatic changes that are to be expected, regardless of efforts to limit emissions. The Romanian Government wishes to consider and address the future requirements for Romania resulting from our future membership of the EU as well as from our international commitments under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, in order to prepare for the most feasible national approach both in the short, medium and long term. Climate changes, through consequences immediately, presently social relocate, economically and polilical irremediably crisis, on long time.


:: Paper No: GCGW-618 :: CO2 MITIGATION WITH THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE Halime Paksoy1, Hunay Evliya1, fiaziye Abac›2, Muhsin Mazman3, Yeliz Konuklu1, Bekir Turgut1, Özgül Gök1, Metin Y›lmaz1 , Selma Y›lmaz1, Beyza Beyhan1 1


Çukurova University, Chemistry Dept., 01330,Adana, Turkey, Çukurova University, Geological Engineering Dept., 01330,Adana, Turkey. 4 TÜB‹TAK MAM Gebze, ‹stanbul, Turkey

Thermal energy storage (TES) provides us with a flexible heating and/or cooling tool to combat global warming through conserving energy and increasing energy efficiency while utilizing natural renewable energy resources. This paper aims to show how CO2 emissions can be decreased by utilizing different thermal energy storage concepts based on the results obtained from three different TES projects in Turkey. The first project is for heating and cooling of a supermarket using Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) coupled to a heat p›mp in Mersin,Turkey. This system has been in operation since 2001. With a 60% reduction in energy consumption, the yearly CO2 emissions reduction contribution of this project is 113 tons. The second project is ATES for heating and cooling of a greenhouse in Adana,Turkey. The system started opeartion in 2006-2007. The greehouse was used as a “solar collector” and source for energy for the ATES system. No fossil fuel was consumed for heating the greenhouse and cooling was also made possible with the ATES system. The energy conservation is 68% and CO2 emissions are reduced by 26 tons/year. The third one is a pilot project using thermal energy storage in microencapsulated phase change materials in a test cabin with a floor area of 4 m2 in Adana, Turkey. Results show that by using 3.5 kg PCM together with insulation panels in the test cabin, 7% cooling energy and 28% heating energy can be conserved. Corresponding CO2 emissions reduction will be 0.5 ton/year.



Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, 20125, Kinikli, Denizli, Turkey. Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, L1H 7L7, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada. 3 Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, 20125, Kinikli, Denizli, Turkey.


Greenhouse gases—especially CO2 produced by the combustion of fossil fuels—cause global warming, and affect climate conditions worldwide. The goal of global energy sustainability implies the replacement of all fossil fuels by renewable energy sources. Using renewable energy sources seems a promising option; however, there are still serious concerns about some renewable energy sources and their implementation, e.g.: (i) capital costs, and (ii) their intermittent nature in power production. Hydrogen appears to be one of the most effective solutions, and can play a significant role in providing better environment and sustainability. However, hydrogen production methods are very important to intend CO2 reduction. Coal gasification, natural gas reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbons still emit carbon dioxide although they produce less carbon dioxide than combustions of the fossil fuels. Some recent studies on life cycle assessment, which is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process, give a complete picture of the environmental burdens associated with hydrogen production. In this study, environmental effects of hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen system in Denizli, Turkey are carried out. The results are compared to emission from fossil fuel power plants. Finally, it is found that the PVhydrogen/ fuel cell system emits about 55 times less CO2 than natural gas power plant, about 168 times less than coal power plant and about 114 times less CO2 than oil based power plant. This analysis is valid if exergetic life cycle analysis is taken into account. It is assumed that fossil fuel based electricity is used for material requirements of the PV-hydrogen/fuel cell system during its components productions and transportations. Otherwise, the system does not emit CO2, but produces small amount of NOx due to fuel cells.


:: Paper No: GCGW-627 :: MODELING EFFECT OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON METHANE EMISSION FROM RICE FIELDS Kruamas Smakgahn Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University at Kamphaeng Saen campus, Kamphaeng Saen district, Nakornpathom province, 73140 Thailand. Wetland rice soils have been shown to be an important CH4 source at the global scale. Improving soil fertility in rice soil by applied chemical fertilizer seems to be influence on CH4 emission. Urea and ammonium phosphate (AP) fertilizer application as top dressing fertilizer is one of commonly cultivation practice in Thailand. In order to obtain mitigation option for CH4 emission from rice field, the revised DNDC model was validated against field observations of CH4 emission from irrigated rice in this study. Chemical fertilizer application induced CH4 emissions by model validation but show not large different among several kinds of fertilizer applied. Urea application treatment induced emission by ~25 % over non top dressing (NT) fertilizer treatment. CH4 emission simulated from cultivation under Ammonium sulphate (AS) was ~8 and 10 % lower than urea and AP, but show less effect on simulated rice yield. Rice cultivation without fertilizer applied (NF) show lowest emissions. Sulphate served as electron acceptor and inhibits CH4 production in AS treatment resulted in low emission. However, the lowest CH4 emission was predicted under NF because lowest electron donors; H2 and DOC were predicted. Changing in soil Eh during rice growing season validated by the revised DNDC model was similar among different fertilizer application. The most effective top dressing fertilizer induced CH4 emission is high nitrogen content fertilizer such as urea, which was normally used in rice cultivation. AS application for rice cultivation is trend to reduce CH4 emission and maintain rice grain yield. Therefore, AS or sulphate containing fertilizer is one of interesting option should be introduced for rice cultivation in order to apply as practical CH4 mitigation.


:: Paper No: GCGW-630 :: ROLE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Anand S. Joshi, Ibrahim Dincer, Bale V. Reddy Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4 In this paper, an attempt is made to discuss various renewable energy sources and their role in sustainable development. These renewables, such as hydro, solar, biomass, wind, geothermal are compared in terms of pollution/greenhouse gas emissions during the operation. The impact of greenhouse gases namely carbon dioxide on the environment is also discussed. Ways to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions are also discussed. It is found that the renewable energy systems emit considerably low greenhouse gases during operation and hence environment friendly and can be utilized for better sustainability. Photovoltaic (PV) system as an example of application of solar energy is discussed for its various applications like solar drying, greenhouses, space, air and water heating applications, solar stills etc. along with electricity production. A brief exergy analysis for photovoltaic (PV) and photovoltaic/ thermal (PV/T) systems is also carried out and also evaluated the sustainability index for better sustainability of the system.


:: Paper No: GCGW-631 :: TOWARDS GREEN CONSTRUCTION FOR REDUCING GLOBAL WARMING Amir Mohammad Yadghar University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Construction causes environmental problems in a wide range from excessive consumption of global resources both in terms of construction and building operation to the surrounding environmental pollution. The duty of modern technologies is to link the built environment with ‘nature’, using environmentally friendly materials and energy. Green is the term to describe environment friendliness and sustainability, a concept of meeting the present needs without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. Choice oaf construction technology, appropriate level of environment impact assessment, monitoring of environmental parameters along side with using of modern structural technologies are the key factors in the environmental management in the construction activities. Study on green design (construction) and using building materials to minimize environmental impact is strongly needed. Buildings and structures should be designed in a way to consume high technology but low energy. Green building design and sustainable construction are critical to addressing the world’s most pressing environmental problems, including global warming, air and water pollution and environment destruction. Buildings approximately consumes %42 of the total world annual energy. Most of this energy is for the provision of lighting, heating, cooling, and air conditioning. Increasing the awareness of the environmental impact of CO2 and NOx emissions triggered a renewed interest in environmentally friendly construction technologies. The main objectives of this paper are to describe the development, role and limitations of current environmental building methods in ascertaining building sustainability which lead to discuss the concept of developing a green construction model. This article discusses a comprehensive review of construction methods, building materials, green construction and global warming. This includes all the green construction technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy savings, environmentally friendly materials and procedures, and other sustainable construction tools necessary to reduce global warming.



Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, L1H 7L7, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada,

Gasification based energy conversion systems are widely used for coal and solid wastes owing to improved conversion rates in power generation applications. The effectiveness of the gasification process is significant to the performance of an integrated gasification combined cycle power generation system. Gasifier performance had been reported in previous works with respect to product gas synthesis and operating condition of the gasifier alone. In the current work the performance of the gasifier and the corresponding effect on the IGCC system is analysed for different operating conditions of the gasifier (air-steam ratios), the IGCC and fuel types used in the gasifier. Different operating conditions refer to variations in inlet temperatures at three locations (gas turbine combustion chamber, gas turbine and HRSG) within the proposed IGCC system. Four different solid fuels were analysed (high carbon coal, low carbon coal, loblolly pine, wood chips) with increasing gasification process (from partial to full gasification). The effectiveness of the gasifier is analysed towards fuel utilization (net work output, efficiency and CO2 emission on relative percentage basis as well as per kg of fuel basis) for eight different temperature settings and four different fuel types. For the proposed IGCC system the results suggest that increase in gasification - (i) increases efficiency, (ii) decreases net work output, (iii) reduces coal consumption and (iv) reduces CO2 emission. With increase in gasification, high carbon coal has decreased net work output with lower consumption, while wood chips consumption is the highest with higher net work output. High carbon coal emits the most CO2 while that for wood chips is the lowest.



Technical Sciences Department, Army Academy, Ankara. Mech. Engineering Depart., Faculty of Engineering, Balikesir University, Balikesir, Turkey. 3 Mech. Engineering Depart., Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, Eskiflehir, Turkey. 2

Thermoeconomics is based on the idea of cost and exergy which determine the potential of unproductiveness in all of the thermal systems and are dependent on the effects of environmental parameters like pressure and temperature. This approach is referred to as exergy cost and is named exergoeconomics. The methodology of exergoeconomics analysis in the present study has been applied on the raw material process of a cement plant which consumes high energy. In this study two sets of analyses have been conducted by using operation data of the process: the exergy analysis according to second laws of thermodynamics and the exergoeconomics analysis. At the end of these analyses, the unit cost of the output product named farine has been calculated and has been found as 0,087 $/kg. This cost has been compared with the farine cost of the cement plant and the results and the effects of exergy consumption on the cost and its environmental consequences have been evaluated.

:: Paper No: GCGW-640 :: CLIMATE VARIABILITY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS OVER INDIA Bhanu Kumar, O.S.R.U. and S.Ramalingeswara Rao Department of Meteorology & Oceanography, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003 (INDIA) This paper aims to investigate climate variability, trends and climate change occurred over India, where climate is basically dominated by a cycle of two monsoon regimes namely the Southwest (SW) and Northeast (NE) monsoons. In this study the long-term trends of climatic element are evaluated by linear trend analysis for the period 1880-2006; results highlight that there are significant warming trends over India on annual and seasonal scales using monthly surface-air temperature anomaly data from Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), while such significant trend in monsoon rainfall is not observed. Next, warming of tropical Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) possibly alters the characteristics of monsoon through El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), which are prominent tropical agents of climate change over India. However, due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, the local climate does exhibit variability from intra-seasonal to inter-annual timescales. The influence of ENSO on rainfall of Indian monsoons is critically examined using 127 years of sub-divisional rainfall data. On the inter-annual timescales of 2-7 years oscillation, the monsoon climate in India is largely influenced by the ENSO phenomenon for the study period. Generally the El Nino event brings dry and warm condition, while La Nina causes wet and cool condition and converse is true for NE monsoon rainfall over south India. Next, the relationships between IOD and rainfall of both SW and NE monsoons are related for period, 1958-2005 and it states that there is a significant direct relationship for the rainfall of both monsoons and IOD during April through July. Thus impact of global warming on SSTs play an important role in altering monsoon characteristics some times. 165

:: Paper No: GCGW-643 :: CYANOBACTERIA FOR MITIGATING METHANE EMISSION FROM SUBMERGED PADDY FIELDS Upasana Mishra and Shalini Anand Department of Environmental Studies, Inderprastha Engineering College, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad 63, Site IV, Surya Nagar Flyover Road, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA. Atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas with high absorption potential for infrared radiation, is responsible for one forth of the total anticipated warming. It is forming a major part of green house gases, next after carbon dioxide. Its concentration has been increasing alarmingly on an average at the rate of one percent per year. Atmospheric methane, originating mainly from biogenic sources such as paddy fields, natural wetlands and landfills, accounts for 15-20% of the world’s total anthropogenic methane emission. With intensification of rice cultivation in coming future, methane emissions from paddy fields are anticipated to increase. India’s share in world’s rice production is next after to China and likewise total methane emission from paddy fields also. Methane oxidation through planktophytes, particularly microalgae which are autotrophic and abundant in rice rhizospheres, hold promise in controlling methane emission from submerged paddy fields. The present study is focused on the role of nitrogen fixing, heterocystous cyanobacteria and Azolla (a water fern harboring a cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae) as biological sink for headspace concentration of methane in flooded soils. In this laboratory study, soil samples containing five potent nitrogen fixer cyanobacterial strains from paddy fields, were examined for their methane reducing potential. Soil sample without cyanobacterial strain was tested and taken as control. Anabaena sp. was found most effective in inhibiting methane concentration by 5-6 folds over the control. Moist soil cores treated with chemical nitrogen, urea, in combination with cyanobacteria mixture, Azolla microphylla or cyanobacteria mixture plus Azolla microphylla exhibited significance reduction in the headspace concentration of methane than the soil cores treated with urea alone. Contrary to other reports, this study also demonstrates that methane oxidation in soil core samples from paddy fields was stimulated by chemical fertilizer or urea application. This investigation directs towards the possibility of utilizing cyanobacteria and/or Azolla for possible mitigation of methane emission from paddy fields, besides their well established role as biofertilizers.



1 CIPSEM, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. Department of Meteorology, Institute for Hydrology and Meteorology, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.

Recent concerns about climate change due to enhanced greenhouse effect needs to be put in its scientific perspective. The delays and time-lags in the manifestation of socioeconomic activities on climate systems means that actions taken now may have repercussions in decades or centuries to come. Therefore, foresight is needed to take action now that will forestall adverse effects in the future. According to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change CO2 is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas that affects the Earth’s radiative balance; and fossil fuel use accounts for about 2/3rds of the CO2 emissions. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact of changing the number of power plants (coal, natural gas and oil) and therefore CO2 emissions on climate trend. To achieve this objective, new scenarios were defined and constructed; Constant Emission, Doubling Emissions and Bisection of Emissions of power plants in the first fifteen years of this century. The input dataset was created and then the Global Circulation Model EdGCM (from the National Science Foundation's Paleoclimate Program and NASA's Earth Systems) was run to simulate the three scenarios in order to illustrate the trend of changes in temperature (surface, troposphere), precipitation and evaporation (surface) for the time period between 2005 and 2100. Finally, the model outputs were analyzed considering the IPCC assessment reports.


Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Nigde, 51200, Nigde, Turkey Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 51200 Nigde, Turkey 3 Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ont., Canada L1H 7K4 2

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are at every stage of conventional food production (planting, harvesting, irrigation, food production, transportation, and application of pesticides and fertilizers, etc.). In this study, a strategic program is proposed to reduce GHGs emissions resulting during conventional food production. The factors which form the basis of this strategic program are energy, environment and sustainability. The results show that the application of sustainable food processing technologies can significantly reduce GHGs emissions resulting from food industry. Moreover, minimizing the utilization of fossil-fuel energy sources and maximizing the utilization of renewable energy sources results in the reduction of GHGs emissions during food production, which in turn reduces the effect of global warming. 167

:: Paper No: GCGW-652 :: ENERGY AND EXERGY ANALYSIS OF A POWDER DETERGENT UNIT G. Bektafl, and F. Balkan Ege University, Chemical Engineering Department, Izmir, Turkey In the recent years, there is a growing interest on minimization of energy utilization in various plants and thereby improving the performance. As an efficient tool for examining the processes, the exergy analysis gains importance. In the present work, the application of exergy analysis to powder detergent unit of a powder detergent production plant located at Izmir, Turkey were performed y using actual plant operational data. Also the energy analyses were considered for comparison. Although there are a number of energy and exergy analyses in various areas of industry, this study will be likely the first one for powder detergent production. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the equipments were calculated and it was concluded that according to the overall balance around the unit, the energy efficiency was 0.76 and the exergy efficiency was 0.40.

:: Paper No: GCGW-653 :: ENERGY AND EXERGY ANALYSES OF THE POWER PLANT AT EREGLI IRON AND STEEL FACTORY Tamer Adanir, Taner Ozdemir Power Generation and Distribution Manager, Power Plant Maintenance Engineer Eregli Iron and Steel Works Co. 67330 Kdz. Eregli Zonguldak, Turkey Iron and steel industry is an energy intensive process in which a considerable amount of primary energy can be saved via optimization of power generation systems. Since steel making involves by product such as Blast Furnace Gas, Coke Oven Gas, Tar, ext. it has a great potential of saving primary energy in comparison to other generation technologies. However, the amount of attainable energy savings depends on the thermodynamic effectiveness of the related system. Maintaining energy losses at minimum level may be ensured only through conducting thermodynamic analyses. Thus, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, an exergy analysis is to be done to quantify the exergy losses of system components, to predict their efficiencies, and then to calculate the total thermodynamic effectiveness of the system. In this study, energy and exergy analyses of the 115 MW conventional power plants of ERDEMIR, the iron and steel factory in Eregli, Zonguldak, Turkey, were presented. The system analyzed consists mainly of five steam turbines and four Turbo Blowers. In this work, the mass, energy, and exergy balances were done for each piece of equipment and then their energy and exergy efficiencies, exergy losses and improvement potentials were obtained. 168


Associate Researcher at the Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou Campus 2 Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications / Centre for Research & Technology Hellas, Greece, The present paper presents the results of the numerical simulations performed in a pulverized fuel boiler co-firing coal and Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF). The co-combustion of SRF with brown coal in a thermal share up to 4% has been demonstrated in two 600MWel pulverised coal boilers at RWE Power’s power plant site in Weisweiler, Germany in the framework of the EU-funded project Recofuel. For the scope of the simulations, the operational data has been collected during the tests and profile measurements of temperature and flue gas composition have been conducted at the furnace exit. The proposed submodels were validated in a lab scale combustion facility, where different biogenic and plastic reference fuels were fired and oxygen profiles were measured. Based on these submodels for SRF the boiler H of the Weisweiler power plant is modeled in reference as well as in co-combustion conditions. The results of the CFD simulations in the baseline case are found in good agreement with the experimental data obtained by the profile measurements. Because no clear effect on the furnace exit temperature is experimentally observed by 2 and 4% SRF co-firing, higher thermal shares of 5 and 10 are simulated in order to evaluate their possible influence on the combustion behavior. Different injection methods for the secondary fuel are also examined by reducing its feeding from all burner rows (8) to 4 and finally to 2. Last but not least, by following the Lagrangian approach for discrete phase modeling, the particles’ burnout and trajectories are calculated. The influence of particles’ diameter on burnout is then evaluated by parametric studies. Summing up, CFD modeling in large scale boilers is proved as a reliable and efficient tool towards predicting specific changes in the combustion behaviour. It is particularly valuable, when the intended investigations cannot be easily realized in the large scale, such us the need to increase the co-firing thermal share in large scale boilers.


:: Paper No: GCGW-664 :: FUEL CONSUMPTION EFFECT OF COMMERCIAL TURBOFANS ON GLOBAL WARMING Onder Turan and T. Hikmet Karakoc School of Civil Aviation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, TR-26470, Turkey The main objective pursued in this study is to parametrically investigate the fuel consumption effect of commercial turbofans on global warming. In this regard, Of the important parameters, specific fuel consumption of a commercial turbofans is taken into consideration. In order to minimize the effect of fuel consumption on global warming, the values of engine design parameters are optimized for maintaining minimum specific fuel consumption of high bypass turbofan engine under different flight conditions and design criteria. The backbones of optimization approach consisted of elitism-based genetic algorithm coupled with real parametric cycle analysis of a turbofan engine. For solving optimization problem a new software program is developed in MATLAB, while objective function is determined for minimizing the specific fuel consumption by considering the following parameters such as the fan pressure ratio (πf), bypass ratio (α) and the fuel heating value [hPR-(kJ/kg)]. Accordingly, it may be concluded that the software program developed can successfully solve optimization problems at 1.2≤π f ≤2, 2≤α≤10 and 23000≤hPR≤120000 with aircraft flight Mach number ≤0.8. Fuel types used in preliminary engine cycle analysis were JP-4, JP-5, JP-8 and hydrogen in this paper.

:: Paper No: GCGW-800 :: THE IMPACT OF EX-ANTE VERSUS EX-POST CDM BASELINES ON A MONOPOLY FIRM Jiro Akita1, Haruo Imaiy2, Hidenori Niizawaz3 1

Graduate School of Economics and Management Tohoku University Kawauchi, Aoba-Ku, Sendai, Japan 2 Kyoto Institute of Economic Research Kyoto University Yoshida, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto, Japan 3 School of Economics University of Hyogo Kobe, Japan

CDM baseline-setting methods may be broadly classi.ed into ex ante methods and ex post methods. Ex post baseline takes into consideration information that becomes available ex post facto, that is, after the CDM project is implemented, in addition to data available prior to the project. Incorporating ex post information, however, inadvertently runs the risk of distorting the incentives of project participants. When output scale is en-dogenously determined, ex post baseline tends to boost output. We show that this may increase total emissions despite the reduction in emissions per output. With ex ante baseline, output is suppressed, bringing about the bene.t of reduced total emissions. But lower output implies reduced consumer and producer surplus. We show that the total social welfare may actually deteriorate because of CDM. 170

:: Paper No: GCGW-801 :: BASELINE-AND-CREDIT MECHANISM AND POST-2012 Hidenori Niizawa University of Hyogo, 8-2-1, Gakuen-nishi-machi, Nishi-ku, Kobe, 651-2197, Japan The number of registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects has exceeded one thousand. Those projects are expected to reduce 1.27 billion ton of GHGs in developing countries until 2012. When we assume the price of CER is ten dollar per ton, the transfer amounts to US$ 2.5 billion per year from 2008 to 2012. This amount of transfer is quite larger than that of other environmental transfer scheme like GEF. The necessary amount of transfer from developed countries to developing countries in the future depends on the extent of emission reduction and its cost sharing between developed countries and developing countries. Developing countries may not be ready to reduce their emission for global purpose by their own expense nor to adopt national binding target. That means that we still need baseline-andcredit mechanism which does not penalize countries when their emission exceeds the baseline. Stern (2008) estimated that climate stabilization would imply annual carbon flows of US$20-75billion by 2020 and up to US$100billion by 2030. Current CDM cannot achieve such a scale of transfer. In this paper, development and current situation of CDM is analyzed and the future prospects are discussed.


:: Paper No: GCGW-802 :: CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY OF WATER RESOURCES AND MITIGATION Z. Sen Hydraulics and Water Resources Division Civil Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University Maslak 34469 Istanbul Turkey All over the world, physical and biological systems are already being affected by climate changes due to anthropogenic activities, particularly regional temperature increases have impacts on water resources. Climate change is strongly affecting many aspects of systems related to snow, ice and frozen ground. Especially, hydrological systems, water resources and coastal zones are under the focus of detrimental behaviors. Groundwater in shallow aquifers is part of the hydrological cycle and is affected by climate variability and change through recharge processes as well as by human interventions in many locations. On the other hand, there is apparent increase in the frequency of destructive floods. Additionally, changes in river discharge, as well as in droughts and heavy rains in some regions, indicate that hydrological conditions have become more intense. Some local trends in reduced groundwater have been reported, but these may be due to human activities rather than climate change. There are also indications of intensified droughts in drier regions. Besides, freshwater lakes and rivers are experiencing increased water temperatures and changes in water chemistry. Scientists in particular and societies in general have to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of weather and climate change through a range of practices including water resources management, irrigation, crop diversification, disaster risk management, and insurance, because climate change poses novel risks often outside the range of experience, such as impacts related to floods, drought, water stresses, salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers and accelerated glacier retreat. It is necessary to concentrate the scientific researches along the aforementioned problems so that sustainable future developments can be maintained with balance and prosperity of the societies. In this regard, this specialized session is organized to discuss and address the above listed issues.


:: Paper No: GCGW-803 :: EXERGY ANALYSES OF DRYING OF BROCCOLI FLORETS IN A HEAT PUMP CONVEYOR DRYER Neslihan Colak1, M. Tolga Balta2, Filiz Icier3, Ebru Kuzgunkaya4, Arif Hepbasli2, Zafer Erbay5 1

Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, 35100 Izmir, Turkey Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir, Turkey 3 Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir, Turkey 4 Geothermal Energy Research and Application Center, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Izmir, Turkey 5 Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Food Engineering Branch, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey 2

In this study, an exergetic assessment of broccoli florets drying in a heat pump conveyor dryer designed and constructed in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey was performed. Based on the experimental data, exergy destructions in each of the system components were determined at different drying air temperatures and velocities. As a result, the exergy efficiency of the conveyor dryer decreased as the drying air temperature increased. Improvement potential rate of the drying chamber at 55 oC and 0.5 m/s was found to be 13.86 kW while the maximum exergy efficiency value was found to be 76.58% at a drying air temperature of 45 oC and a velocity of 1.5 m/s.

:: Paper No: GCGW-804 :: ANALYSIS OF ENERGY AND EXERGY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN SPACE HEATING, AN APPLICATION Zafer Utlu Gülhane Military Academy, Turkey This study presents the analysis of the energy and exergy utilization of the Balikesir space-heating sector (BSHS) in the years of 1996 and 2003 and environmental impacts of their usage. This analyses was based on the actual data for analyzed years are used in the calculations. Total energy and exergy inputs were calculated to be 3.58 PJ and 3.68 PJ in 1996, while they were determined to be 4.89 PJ and 5.03 PJ in 2003, respectively. Annual fuel consumptions in space heating, by appliances are determined for these years, Finally, these relations are applied to the Bal›kesir SHS, while the results obtained are discussed. 173

:: Paper No: GCGW-805 :: RESIDENTIAL SOLAR POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT C. Zamfirescu1, I. Dincer1, T. Verrelli2 and W.R. Wagar1 1

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada 2 Cleanfield Energy, Inc., 1404 Cormorant Road, Unit #6, Ancaster, ON, Canada

This paper presents a review of solar driven heat engine systems that are applicable for residential power (and heat) generation. Converting solar energy to power (and heat) represents a promising path toward combating global warming and achieving a global economy based on renewable energy. In the first part of the paper, the impact of solar energy on the environment and sustainable development is analyzed based on a fossil fuel and solar energy utilization indicator and assumed amount of investments in solar technology for three scenarios. Next, various established solar power conversion systems and their components and performance parameters are analyzed and cross compared. A case study regarding a low-power solar dish ammonia-water Rankine cycle is presented as a representative example. The paper concludes that the development of individual solar dish units for low power and heat presents a promising opportunity.

:: Paper No: GCGW-806 :: OPTIMIZATION OF SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF HYDROGEN IN COMMERCIAL TURBOFANS FOR REDUCING GLOBAL WARMING EFFECTS T. Hikmet Karakoc and Onder Turan School of Civil Aviation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, TR-26470, Turkey The main objective of the present study is to perform minimizing specific fuel consumption of of a non afterburning high bypass turbofan engine with separate exhaust streams and unmixed flow for reducing global effect. The values of engine design parameters are optimized for maintaining minimum specific fuel consumption of high bypass turbofan engine under different flight conditions, different fuel types and design criteria. The backbones of optimization approach consisted of elitism-based genetic algorithm coupled with real parametric cycle analysis of a turbofan engine. For solving optimization problem a new software program is developed in MATLAB programming language, while objective function is determined for minimizing the specific fuel consumption. The input variables included the compressor pressure ratio (πc), bypass ratio (α) and the fuel heating value [hPR-(kJ/kg)]. Hydrogen was selected as fuel type in real parametric cycle analysis of commercial turbofans. It may be concluded that the software program developed can successfully solve optimization problems at 10≤πc≤20, 2≤α≤10 and hPR 120,000 with aircraft flight Mach number ≤0.8. 174

:: Paper No: GCGW-807 :: THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT OF SPRAY DRYERS USED IN A COGENERATION SYSTEM Yilmaz Yoru1, T. Hikmet Karakoc2, Arif Hepbasli3 1,2

Department of Mechanical Engineering,Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Civil Aviation School, Anadolu University 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir, Turkey In this study the environmental effect of 6 different types of spray dryers of a cogeneration system (CHP) of a Ceramic Factory, located in Izmir, Turkey has been investigated. These spray dryers are able to use both fuel burner and waste heated gas. In a measured data period (June 2007), only 2 of spray dryers in this cogeneration system were used natural gas (NG) as an extra support. In analyses, cogeneration system data were used and the environmental effect of 6 spray dryers and total environmental effect of spray dryers has been investigated. The result of energy analyses shows environmental benefits of spray dryers working by waste heated gas.


School of Civil Aviation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, TR-26470, Turkey

The global warming is a kind of sustainability risk. For this reason, Global Warming must be considering as Holistic Risk Management Issue. The global warming risk must be managed effectively since its consequences threats for sustainability of our world. While this is understandable by all of us, a broader view is necessary to manage this risk in both the short and long-term. Risk management mentality is useful to the best management this risk. In this study, the global warming risk is discussed within risk management and sustainability concept. Global warming is tried to frame in terms of risk management. The risk management-based model has been developed. The model based on Enterprise Risk Model to Corporate Sustainability, 2008. This model is called as “Cgw Model” (Enterprise Risk Management Model to Global Warming), introduced as a useable way for a systematic and effective management of the global warming risk. Every risk has two dimensions as threat and opportunity in the holistic risk management concept. This is considered to global warming risk in this study. 175

:: Paper No: GCGW-809 :: HOW CAN WE MAKE BUILDINGS GREENER? Birol K›lk›fl Baflkent University, Mechanical Engineering Department Ba¤l›ca Kampusu, Eskiflehir Yolu 20. Km Etimesgut Ankara TURKEY Energy systems, especially HVAC systems in green buildings are becoming more complex and overburdened with diverse, often conflicting requirements. While designers, constructors, manufacturers, architects, and engineers try to satisfy the demand side (indoors) requirements with minimum energy consumption, little attention is paid to real, long-term, environmental problems on the supply side (outdoors). The interaction between a building with the built environment and the nature in terms of temperature difference between the points where energy is dissipated and where the primary heat or power is produced using primary energy resources are not taken into account. Although depleting nature of fossil fuels and their increasing costs increase the interest about using low-enthalpy waste and alternative energy resources, measures so far has fallen short. This forum will focus on making buildings greener with a three pronged approach: 1- Match low-exergy resources including renewables with exergy-compatible HVAC systems, 2- Provide a quantification factor for exergy efficiency and carbon foot-print. This factor must establish a convenient platform to factor the exergetic efficiency into the life-cycle-cost analysis and design optimization. 3- Incorporate combined heat and power with heat pump technology in a wider spectrum of renewable and waste energy resources and innovative building energy systems. The impact of this new approach will be discussed in terms of energy economy, environmental benefits, and enhanced human comfort.


:: Paper No: GCGW-810 :: CLIMATE CHANGE AND TURKEY Evren Türkmeno¤lu Ministry of Environment and Forestry Sogutozu Cad. No:14/E Yenimahalle Ankara Turkey Climate change is a global human development challenge and it threatens sustainability of ecosystems and brings about serious economic and social challenges for billions of people and whole nations around the globe. Turkey is not an exception, she is highly vulnerable to climate change. As it is known, Turkey is located in the eastern Mediterranean Basin where countries in the highest risk group with respect to the negative impacts of climate change. Simulations predict a mean annual temperature increase of 2-3 oC for Turkey by 2100. In the western half of the country, summer temperatures are expected to increase by up to 6 oC and by 2050 water runoff will reduce by 35-48%, potential evaporation will increase by 15-17%. Turkey is doing her best to contribute to global efforts in the context of climate change while maintaining her sustainable development. Although Turkey does not have any quantitative commitment but comprehensive efforts including adaptation measures in all sectors have been launched.

:: Paper No: GCGW-811 :: IMPLICATIONS OF RATIFICATION WHAT WILL BE THE ROLE OF TURKISH VOLUNTARY MARKET IF TURKEY RATIFIES KYOTO? Dr. G. Asl› Sezer Özçelik JP Morgan Climatecare/Pioneer Carbon Ltd. fiti. Turkiye Ankara fiubesi Ülke Direktörü Turkey is one of the few countries who have not yet ratified Kyoto Protocol (KP). This paper seeks the answer to the following questions and put light to the following concepts: The climate policies in Turkey and the reasons of why Turkey could not ratify, and why she decided to ratify KP. Also the reasons why should Turkey be considered as a country that would benefit from CDM mechanisms are explained. Finally the role of voluntary market to climate mitigation policies of Turkey and its potential to help Turkey be prepared for the post 2012 are briefly explained. 177



The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey

Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality



American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

Anadolu University

Carleton University

Clean Energy Research Institute, University of Miami

Ege University

International Association for Hydrogen Energy


International Society for Low Exergy Systems in Building 1992

Nigde University

The Energy and Resources Institute

University of Ontario Institute of Technology



Ibrahim Dincer, University of Ontario Institute of

Ibrahim Dincer, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada T. Hikmet Karakoc, Anadolu University, Turkey Arif Hepbasli, Ege University, Turkey Adnan Midilli, Nigde University, Turkey Suleyman Gunduz, Turkey Can Ozgur Colpan, Carleton University, Canada Mustafa Tolga Balta, Ege University, Turkey Asli M. Colpan, Kyoto University, Japan Aydin Kilic, Nigde University, Turkey Antonio F. Miguel, University of Evora, Portugal Bale Reddy, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada Antonio Heitor Reis, University of Evora, Portugal Ahmet Duran Sahin, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

Technology, Canada 

International Clean Energy Consortium

CONFERENCE CO-CHAIRS T. Hikmet Karakoc, Anadolu University, Turkey Arif Hepbasli, Ege University, Turkey 

International Sustainable Energy Organisation for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

TECHNICAL CHAIR Adnan Midilli, Nigde University, Turkey 

CHIEF SECRETERY Suleyman Gunduz, Turkey 

International Association for Green Energy

CONFERENCE CHAIR ASSISTANT Can Ozgur Colpan, Carleton University, Canada

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