Answer key and Audio scripts

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Culture Answer key and Audio scripts


Donatella Fitzgerald Jessica Frizell Rachel Harraway




Great Britain

PAGE 4–5 1 & 2 1c, 2b, 3c, 4c, 5c, 6b, 7a, 8c, 9b, 10b 5 The article is about Britain and the attempt to rebrand its image from being traditional to cool.

5 Where is he/ she from?


1 warm beer, cricket, tea and sandwiches, and the Royal Family 2 trendy, hip, and happening 3 He’s best known for preserving cows, sheep and sharks in formaldehyde in the name of art. 4 images of the Royal Family, red buses, black taxis, and cooked English breakfasts 5 It’s a mixture of both.

Sample answers If students wrote down traditional things associated with Britain’s ‘old’ image, e.g. the Royal Family, tea, queues, bad weather etc., then the attempt in the 1990s to change Britain’s image wasn’t very successful. If students wrote down things associated with Britain’s ‘cool’ image, e.g. pop music, art, fashion etc. then the attempt to change Britain’s image was successful. A mix of both old and traditional images associated with Britain would be a truer representation of the country.

What does he/she love most about the USA?

What does he/she miss the most?

To give his children opportunities he didn’t have

The friendliness Open space of the people and sunsets


To earn more money as a doctor

The fact there is Vibrant no real class colours system


To finish his studies

The live jazz music


What do you think?

Why did he/she move there?




1 2000 2 The melting pot means immigrants assimilate into US culture and discard their own customs, while the salad bowl means they integrate without losing their own cultural identity. 3 A combination of two different types of cuisine 4 Hawaii 5 Around 700,000

Family, friends and German beer!

6 What do you think? Sample answers Regional differences in Italy include dialects, food and cuisine, lifestyle, weather conditions, traditions, history and geography.




PAGE 8–9

PAGE 6–7 1

1 tomato pumpkin olive 2 Treaty of Union (UK) Bill of Rights Constitution Act (Australia) 3 Bugs Bunny Pokèmon (Japan) Heidi (Japan/W.Germany) 4 baseball Cricket (UK) Soccer (UK) 5 W.B. Yeats (Irish) Wilfred Owen (English) Walt Whitman 6 Natalie Imbruglia (Australia) Mary J. Blige Celine Dion (Canada)

2 Sample answers Examples of diversity in American life are: race, nationalities, language, politics, food and cuisine, leisure activities, geography, weather conditions.

New Headway Culture © Oxford University Press 2007

1 2

1c, 2d, 3a, 4b


1 2 3 4 5

Name Population Currency Capital city Climate

Australia 19 million Australian dollar Canberra Temperatures are hottest in January and February coldest in July Language English (Australian English) Main tourist Ayers Rock, Sydney and Sydney Opera attractions House, Sydney harbour and Sydney harbour bridge, Melbourne, the Great Barrier Reef True. Australia is 32 times larger than the UK. False. The population is 19 million. False. The currency is the Australian dollar. True. False. Ayers Rock/Uluru is the monolith, the Great Barrier Reef is a coral reef. 2





a b c d

Sydney Opera House Ayers Rock/Uluru the Great Barrier Reef Melbourne and footbridge over the Yarra river

11 – ships. The first fleet of 11 ships to arrive in Australia in 1788 from Great Britain. 42,000 – years. The Aborigines first settled in Australia 42,000 years ago. 1,350 – people. In 1788 the first 1,350 people from Great Britain arrived in Australia. 1815 – The date when the colony of Australia began to grow. From 1815 the colony of Australia began to grow. 1945 – The year when many Europeans began to immigrate to Australia. From 1945 many Europeans immigrated to Australia. 2 – The percentage of the population of Britain and Ireland that moved to Australia during the gold rush in 1850. In 1850 2% of the population of Britain and Ireland moved to Australia. 1850 – The date of the Australian gold rush. In 1850 gold was discovered in Australia. 1 The Aborigines. 2 They needed a new penal colony to replace the United States of America. 3 The prospect of free land to settle on. 4 Many Italians moved to Australia on government assisted schemes to find work and to escape unemployment and poverty in Italy after the war.

7 Anna Mucci

Renzo De Angelis

1 When did he/she leave Italy? 1957


2 Age when he/she left?



3 Why did he/she leave?

To marry Mario.

4 How did he/she get to Australia?

By boat with other young girls.

5 What difficulties did he/she first encounter in Australia?

She couldn’t speak English and she could only communicate with the ‘paesani’.

6 Where is he/she now?

In Sydney, Australia. She feels Australian when she is in Italy, and Italian when she is in Australia.

On a government assisted scheme to find a job. By boat. The journey was paid for by the Italian Government. Life in the Boneghilla camp was hard. Work on the sugar cane fields was hard, long hours and hot weather. In Sulmona in Italy. He feels Italian but his friends call him ‘the Australian’.

7 Does he/she feel Italian or Australian now?

New Headway Culture © Oxford University Press 2007

What do you think? Sample answers Push factors: After World War II in Italy, many towns and villages had been bombed and so many people no longer had a home, therefore they immigrated to Australia to make a new life. The Italian Government offered limited numbers of Italians grants to move to Australia and find work there. After World War II in the country many people in Italy were unemployed and so they new that in Australia they would find work and be able to send money back to keep their families in Italy. Pull factors: Australia was a developing country, many towns and cities were being built and many jobs were available for immigrants. Many Italian men immigrated and then brought their wives over or other members of their families. In Australia Italians were able to live very well, buy their own home and earn money to send back to their families. Many Italians contributed to the building of the Sydney Opera House for example.

CULTURE The Commonwealth

PAGE 10 1

It is the Commonwealth flag and Commonwealth symbol. The Commonwealth symbol is an image of the globe with spears radiating from it that make up the letter ‘C’. The spears do not represent the number of countries in the Commonwealth but symbolise the many aspects of Commonwealth cooperation around the world.


All these are members of the Commonwealth except Zimbabwe, which left the Commonwealth in 2003.


1958 – Empire Day became known as Commonwealth Day in 1958. 1.8 billion – The number of people who are part of the Commonwealth. 1867 – Canada became the first self-governing colony in 1867. 16 – The Queen is Head of State in 16 of the Commonwealth countries. 1947 – India became independent and joined the Commonwealth in 1947. 53 – There are 53 nations in the Commonwealth.


Arguments in favour of a republic: Some people feel no tie, politically, economically or spiritually to England. The Head of State should be an Australian citizen, live in Australia and know what it means to be Australian. 3


The Queen doesn’t live in Australia or know anything about the country. The Head of State should be elected by the people. Arguments in favour of keeping the Queen: The present system of government works well so why change it? The Queen is impartial and non-political. Not clear how an Australian republic would be organized. Not clear who would become president. The politicians could have too much power without the Queen and could even end up as a dictatorship.

What do you think? Sample answers I would vote to keep the Queen as I think it’s a good idea to have a non-political figure as Head of State. The present system has worked well for many years and I think we should keep things the way they are. I would vote in favour of a republic. I don’t see why we should still have the Queen as our Head of State. The British Empire is no longer around and it’s about time we stood on our own as a completely separate country from Great Britain!


She says: 3, 4, and 5 She doesn’t say: 1 (She lives in Rome not Milan); 2 (She speaks French not Spanish.); or 6 (She’s leaving in September not June).

What do you think? Sample answers I feel European because Italy was one of the original member countries of the European Union. Like Italy many EU countries use Euro and I have a European passport. Italy is a part of the Shengen agreement and you can travel from Italy to many European countries without showing your documents and using the same currency. I can study in many European countries and my year abroad will be recognized in Italy, I am free to work in European Union countries. I learn European languages and I take international certificates in those languages which are recognised in other EU countries, and I am evaluated according to the European Framework of reference. All schools in Italy have the European Flag next to the European Flag. I learn English which is an international language and taught in all European Countries. I do not feel European, as we speak different languages, we have different cultures.


English-speaking capitals



PAGE 11 1 2


From largest to smallest. London, Pretoria, Ottawa, Washington DC.

1b, 2c, 3b, 4b 1 An International Student Identity Card. It gives you discounts on transport and accommodation in Europe. 2 An InterRail pass is a train ticket that allows unlimited second class travel in about 30 countries in Europe and North Africa for a specific period of time. 3 You can stay in youth hostels, or travel by train overnight and sleep on the train. 4 The benefits of travelling by InterRail are that you can create your own itinerary, decide how long you want to stay in a particular place and you can change your plans as you go and you can decide whether you want to travel by a fast train or take your time on a slow train. 5 You should take a guidebook, a rucksack, local currency (if the country doesn’t use the Euro) and suitable clothes depending on the country’s climate.

New Headway Culture © Oxford University Press 2007

4 City


Places of interest to visit



Rideau Canal


1 million

Church Square and Church Street

Washington DC 582,000

The White House


The Swiss Re-insurance building (30 St Mary Axe in the city). Canary Wharf and One Canada Square Skyscraper.

7.2 million

What do you think? Sample answer I would like to visit London because I love big cities with skyscrapers. I would like to visit One Canada Square and go up in the lift to the 50th floor.



CULTURE Text messaging

PAGE 13 2

a true story. A film I didn’t like is Closer. I didn’t enjoy it because I found it sad and pessimistic.


c (Text messaging can be a useful educational resource.)

3 1c, 2a, 3b, 4e, 5f, 6d 4 1A, 2B, 3B, 4A, 5A, 6B, 7B, 8A What do you think? Sample answers Advantages: Text messaging is fast and cheaper than making a phone call. An SMS is personal and can be read at any time of day. Messages are instantly recorded, unlike a phone call. It is spam-free, i.e. you do not receive junk messages as can happen with email. It is a discreet form of communication because disturbance to the recipient is minimal. Disadvantages: ‘Text language’ can distort users’ understanding of ‘real’ language and have a negative effect on grammar and linguistic ability. Text messaging can exclude people who don’t have a mobile phone. Writing too many text messages may cause strain and injury to fingers and thumbs. It can be more difficult to understand the tone of a text message than in a phone call.

CULTURE The British film industry

PAGE 14–15 1 & 2 1b, 2a, 3c, 4b, 5b, 6b, 7c, 8a 3 1f, 2a, 3h, 4c, 5g, 6b, 7e, 8d 4 1 1981 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

5 6

1935 2002 1957 1994 1945 1970 1960

1d, 2h, 3b, 4e, 5j, 6a, 7i, 8g, 9f, 10c 1 soundtrack, 2 credits, 3 plots, 4 set, 5 producer, 6 director, 7 extra, 8 cast, 9 screenplay, 10 editor

What do you think? Sample answer My favourite film is Braveheart. I like it because Mel Gibson is my favourite actor, and it is based on

New Headway Culture © Oxford University Press 2007

Pubs in the UK

PAGE 16–17 2 Emma Watches TV. Goes to the gym. Meets friends in the local pub. Goes to the cinema. Rents DVDs.

James Goes to the pub. Plays pool. Plays football at weekends. Goes to watch football matches.

Rajiv Plays guitar in a band. Plays in local pubs and clubs. Goes swimming in summer.

They all go to the pub.


1 popular, 2 tired, 3 demand, 4 pictures, 5 temperature, 6 table, 7 games, 8 organize


1 landlord, 2 illiterate, 3 soft, 4 cider, 5 pickle, 6 gourmet


1 Pub is short for public house. 2 In Roman times. 3 In 1393, King Richard said all landlords had to put signs outside their pubs. The signs contained pictures as most people couldn’t read or write. 4 You can eat snacks, traditional food like ploughman’s lunch, scampi, chicken and chips and also gourmet food. 5 British beer is called bitter and is served at room temperatures. Lager is lighter in colour and served cold. 6 You can play pub games like darts, billiards, pool, cards, dominoes, and skittles. You can do a quiz or play karaoke. You can watch big sporting events on TV. You can listen to live music and concerts.

What do you think? Sample answers Pubs could encourage people to drink less, for example by offering people who have to drive cheaper or free soft drinks. Pubs could be non-smoking. Pubs could offer healthy food on their menus. In Italy, people spend their money on going out, clothes and holidays. People drink less in Italy because there is no ‘pub culture’. There is a similar problem in Italy as people drink more alcohol now and there are lots of pubs and bars that stay open late.





Live music in the UK

School sports

PAGE 18–19

PAGE 20–21

2 3

4 5


1c, 2a, 3d, 4b 1 Over 400 music festivals take place in the UK each day. 2 The Performing Rights Society is an organization that collects royalties for songwriters. 3 Dance music was popular in the 1990s. 4 Playing live is important for bands because it is a way for them to make money and meet fans. 5 In 2006, tickets for major UK festivals sold out within hours. 6 The new Millennium Dome is a music venue with a capacity of 23,000 people.


a b c d e f


cricket, athletics, swimming, netball, tennis, rugby, football, hockey


1 False. The boys play football and rugby in the winter. 2 True. 3 False. Boys and girls play tennis in the summer. 4 True. 5 False. Students studying for a GCSE in P.E. do more than 3 hours of sport a week. 6 True.


Baseball, softball, American football, basketball, soccer, field hockey, kickball, track and field, swimming, tennis.


1 Amy does track and field, swimming and tennis in summer. 2 Amy lives in New York. 3 Amy’s favourite sport is basketball. 4 autumn – fall, athletics – track and field, football – soccer


Kickball is similar to baseball but you kick the ball instead of hitting it with a bat.

Ireland 1 T in the Park is held in Kinross. 2 There are 10 different stages. 3 The ‘T Break’ stage is for local bands who are not famous. 4 At the Reading Festival you exchange your ticket for a wristband. 5 You can also watch comedy and cabaret. 6 The Small Nations Festival is held in July. 7 The festival is for Welsh music and music from other small nations. 8 Workshops include eco-art and belly dancing. 1 You could go to Korn or Ennio Morricone. 2 You can take the Victoria line to Brixton to get to the Brixton Academy. 3 You could go and see Moby. The concert only starts at 9 p.m. 4 You could go and see Ennio Morricone at the Royal Albert Hall. 5 You could go and see Robbie Williams at Wembley. 6 You could go to see Moby.

What do you think? Sample answers Today we can listen to music on various formats, including CD, MP3, Internet, DVD, and mobile phones. Our grandparents probably listened to music on the radio or on vinyl or cassette. Ask students to express which they think are the best types of music played live, as this is subjective.

New Headway Culture © Oxford University Press 2007

football swimming tennis rugby cricket hockey

1 invented, 2 similar, 3 kick, 4 knocked, 5 shoulders, 6 soft

CULTURE Memorial Days

PAGE 22–23 1

In Italy the tomb of the unknown solider is in the Altare della Patria on Piazza Venezia in Rome. In the United Kingdom the tomb of the unknown soldier is in Westminster Abbey in London.


1b, 2c, 3a




1 On the nearest Sunday to 11th November. 2 The day when British soldiers who died at war are remembered in the United Kingdom. 3 It is the British War Memorial. It is in London on Whitehall, off Trafalgar Square. 4 Northern France and Belgium. 5 Poppies grew in the fields of Northern France and Belgium and are a symbol of the people who died there during the first world war. Their red colour symbolizes the human blood that was lost.

4 5

CULTURE Christmas around the world

PAGE 24–25 1

1 Irish. 2 Carols by Candlelight. 3 A small round cake made of pastry filled with dried fruit. 4 Yes. 5 New Years Eve and the celebrations that happen on this day in Scotland. 6 A plant with red leaves, used as a Christmas decoration in many countries.


1 clay, 2 lantern, 3 shelter, 4 wren, 5 holly, 6 coal

1c, 2a, 3b 1 On 27th January. 2 On 27th January in 1945 the Nazi concentration camps at Auschwitz-Birkenau in Poland were liberated by the Soviet army. 3 All of the people who died during the Holocaust in World War II and victims of genocide and persecution in other countries in the world. 4 They can reflect on the horrors of persecution and to appreciate the diversity of people’s background. 5 Some local councils and schools organize different events, for example poetry readings, films, candle lighting ceremonies and vigils.

6 Year

CLIL Geography – Volcanoes

PAGE 26–27 1 2 3

Mount Etna


1 erupted, 2 buried, 3 continued, 4 entered, 5 killed, 6 discovered, 7 erupted.

Primo Levi (1919–1987) Event

1919 Primo Levi was born in Turin. 1944 He was deported to Auschwitz 1945 He was liberated from Auschwitz. 1947 His book If This Is a Man was published. 1982 He returned to Auschwitz with a group of students. 1987 He died in April 1987.

What do you think? Sample answers Yes. Many nations are aware of the dangers of discrimination and political parties which promote discrimination. No. Many people in the world are still being persecuted because of their religion. Many people are still victims of discrimination because of their political or religious beliefs or their race.

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1b, 2a, 3d, 4c. 1 The Pacific ‘ring of fire’ is the name given to the area around the pacific Ocean where 50% of the world’s active volcanoes can be found. 2 Mount Etna is an example of an active volcano. 3 A shield volcano is a type of volcano which has a low gentle slope. It is formed by basic lava which is thin and runny. Shield volcanoes erupt frequently and gently. 4 A dormant volcano is a volcano that has not erupted for the last 2,000 years but is not currently active, but may erupt again. An extinct volcano is a volcano that is unlikely to erupt again and is no longer in an area of tectonic activity and has not erupted since records began. 5 A ‘lahar’ is a mud flow of ice and snow caused by the heat of the erupting volcano.

What do you think? Sample answers People live near volcanoes for many reasons: 1 Because they cannot afford to move away from the volcano to a safer location or because they love their home and do not want to move away. 2 Volcanoes are tourist attractions and so there are usually a lot of employment opportunities in towns and villages near by.



3 The soil on land near volcanoes is very fertile and so agriculture thrives near volcanoes. Advantages: Volcanic soil is fertile and good for farming. Volcanoes are tourist attractions. Some minerals such as gold or diamonds are found in volcanic areas. Disadvantages: Very dangerous in the event of an eruption and towns near the volcano could be destroyed by lava flows, or buried by ash. In lessdeveloped countries emergency aid in the event of an eruption will be poor . Some volcanoes emit poisonous gases.

CLIL History – Railways and the Industrial Revolution

PAGE 29 2 3

1d, 2a, 3b, 4e, 5c. 1 Around 1760. 2 Steam power and the railways. 3 To be able to transport coal from the colliery where he worked quickly and easily to the city. 4 His Rocket was a locomotive to pull freight and passengers on the Liverpool to Manchester railway. It is famous because it was the first train to pull passengers and freight and travelled at 39 km per hour. 5 Railways helped industry, by transporting freight much faster and more profitably. Fresh food also got to market quicker.

CLIL History – The British Empire

PAGE 28 1 2 3

1c, 2e, 3d, 4b, 5a 1d, 2b, 3f, 4e, 5a, 6c 1 Newfoundland, it was discovered by John Cabot/Giovanni Caboto. 2 Because the British navy defeated the Spanish Armada and became the most powerful in the world. British maritime explorers circumnavigated the world and started the British Empire by colonising the countries they discovered. 3 The method of government, the legal system, sports and the English language, and the abolishment of slavery were some of the benefits the colonies gained from the British colonization. Negative aspects were that colonies were that the British developed some of the countries as raw material suppliers to British Industries which meant they were dangerously reliant on a single crop and atrocities were committed in some countries. 4 The American War of Independence.

What do you think? Sample answers The advantages of being a Roman colony far outnumbered the disadvantages. For example, the Romans founded many important cities like London. They built roads, aqueducts, baths, walls and many other things which benefited the colonies. Latin formed the basis of many languages in different countries and the Roman alphabet is what people use in the Western world today. Their laws form the basis of all today’s justice systems in the western world. The disadvantages for colonies, for example, were slavery and religious persecution.

New Headway Culture © Oxford University Press 2007

What do you think? Sample answers air travel, road systems and the motor car, hovercraft I prefer travelling by train as it’s fast and safe and you can read a book or listen to music while you are travelling.

CLIL Biology – DNA in crime solving

PAGE 30 1 Our DNA, our eyes, and our fingerprints. 2 & 3 1 False. Each individual’s DNA is unique (unless they have an identical twin). 2 True. 3 True. 4 False. DNA evidence can also be used to solve ‘small’ crimes like break-ins and car thefts.


1988 – Colin Pitchfork was convicted of murder in 1988. 3,500,000 – CODIS contains more than 3,500,000 DNA profiles. 23 – 23 chromosomes from each parent combine to make diploid cells. 3 million – Approximately 3 million base pairs of DNA vary from person to person. 5 – The Justice Department in the USA is running an experimental programme in five US cities, using DNA to solve smaller crimes such as house break-ins and car thefts.



What do you think? Sample answer DNA may not always be reliable for the following reasons: – the DNA sample may be contaminated at the scene of the crime – DNA samples at the scene of a crime may not necessarily belong to the perpetrator of the crime DNA can also be used by police or scientists in the following ways: – Paternity testing – Identification – Studying the evolution of human populations – Studying inherited disorders

CLIL Physics – Nuclear physics

PAGE 31 1 2

1a, 2b, 3a 1 False. They theorized about the existence of atoms but didn’t know for certain. 2 True. 3 True. 4 False. It’s made up of protons and neutrons. 5 False. Quarks are smaller. 6 True.

CLIL Geography – Tropical rainforests

PAGE 32 1

The most well-known is probably the Amazon Rainforest. The other large rainforests are in the Congo in Africa and in Indonesia.


1 tropical, 2 ecosystems, 3 diversity, 4 temperature, 5 rainfall, 6 vegetation, 7 cut down


Effects of deforestation: We lose 50,00 plant, animal and insect species. Plants which produce pharmaceuticals are disappearing. Less oxygen is produced.

What do you think? Sample answer Less oxygen is being produced for the planet, which will also lead to increasing the greenhouse effect and global warming. We are losing the plants producing many life saving pharmaceuticals so many illnesses may not be cured. Many rainforest tribes and traditions are being lost.

CLIL Science – Global warming and pollution

PAGE 33 1

All of them do. Because to watch TV and use a hair dryer, you use electricity which is made by burning fossil fuels that produce greenhouse gases. To drive a car you use petrol or diesel which also is produced by burning fossil fuels. Rubbish in landfill sites produces the greenhouse gas methane.


Effects of global warming. In the last 100 years sea levels have risen by 0.25m. Global temperatures have increased by 0.6. Temperatures will continue to increase. Extreme weather events. Parts of some glaciers and ice-bergs are melting and ocean currents are changing.

What do you think? Sample answers Good idea: – Nuclear power stations don’t produce CO 2 and therefore pollute less than other forms of power like fossil fuels. – Reduce dependency on dependant on oil and gas from other countries like Russia and Saudi Arabia. – Alternative to fossil fuels which will eventually run out. Bad idea: – Nuclear power plants are very expensive to run. – Difficult to get rid of the nuclear waste. – Risk of another accident happening.

New Headway Culture © Oxford University Press 2007

What do you think? Sample answer Global warming is a direct and tangible result of the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect naturally stops the earth from getting too hot or too cold. When there is an increase in greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, more gases are then trapped in the atmosphere which make the earth hotter. This heat causes global warming.



CLIL Chemistry – The Periodic Table

PAGE 34–35 1 2

1e, 2b, 3d, 4c, 5a


1 2 3 4

1 The Law of Octaves was Newland’s way of organizing the elements, finding similarities between every eighth element. 2 Periodicity means repeating patterns. 3 Because he did not leave gaps for elements that had not been discovered. 4 Because he left gaps for unknown elements. 5 He predicted the properties of elements that had not yet been discovered. periods groups one Be Beryllium, Mg Magnesium, Ca Calcium, Sr Strontium, Ba Barium, Ra Radium. 5 Li Lithium, K Potassium, Rb Rubidium, Cs Caesium, Fr Francium

What do you think? Sample answer Both wanted to arrange the elements systematically according to their properties. Newlands only arranged the known elements, whereas Mendeleev left space for elements that hadn’t been discovered at that time.

CLIL Information Technology – Internet censorship

PAGE 36–37 2

1 False. Only the USA has more web users than China. 2 False. The Chinese government blocks contentious websites and does not encourage people to express controversial political opinions online. 3 True. 4 False. You can only download authorized websites. 5 True. 6 False. In the UK people are allowed to express controversial views on personal websites.

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1 leisure, 2 economic boom, 3 contentious, 4 threat, 5 unauthorized, 6 chat room

4 & 5 1c, 2a, 3f, 4e, 5d, 6b 6 1 weblog, 2 politics, 3 verb, 4 photoblog, 5 newspapers

What do you think? Sample answer Blogging can be considered useful because it is an effective way for people to exchange opinions and challenge each other. It encourages debate and gives ‘ordinary’ citizens a voice. It might be considered a waste of time in that anyone can blog, and therefore information on blogs is not necessarily true or factually reliable. Opinions are subjective, and some people only use blogging as a platform for their own opinions.

CLIL History of Art – The Sherborne Missal

PAGE 38 1 & 2 It’s a missal which is a book used to celebrate Christian Mass. It was made in the 15th century.


1 A book which contains the words and sometimes the music to celebrate Christian mass. 2 From the Latin word missa meaning ‘sent’. 3 It is 694 pages long, more than 20kg in weight and measures 536 by 380mm. 4 King Henry VIII argued with the Catholic Church, England became Protestant and lots of Catholic churches and property were destroyed. 5 Because it contains references to the main writer, artist and patrons. 6 One of its patrons was the abbot of Sherborne and the main writer was a monk in Sherborne. 7 On display in London at the British Library.

What do you think? Sample answers The Italian Renaissance. Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci.




4 Lines Composed upon Westminster Bridge

Philosophy – Philosophy counselling

Examples of … metaphors

PAGE 39 1

Philosophy counselling is a form of individual counselling characterized by an indirect, nonclinical approach, using philosophy to encourage people to develop their own thoughts on relevant subject matters.


Kate has split up with her boyfriend and she thinks it might have been a bad decision.


1 Don’t know. She says splitting up was the best thing to do but now she feels lonely and thinks maybe she was wrong to leave Sam. 2 False. She has. 3 False. They are different. 4 True. 5 False. You don’t need to know anything about philosophy.

What do you think? Sample answer Plato implied that when we love something, we are, in reality, seeking to possess the goodness which is in it, not temporarily, but permanently. The motive force in love is a wish for goodness. Love is always directed towards what is good, and that goodness itself is the only object of love. We spend our lives searching for things that will satisfy and fulfill our needs, therefore give us happiness. ‘Desire’ implies we are always trying to acquire something, and this is because we think that it will do us some good.

LITERATURE The Poem – Lines Composed Upon Westminster Bridge



A sight so touching in its majesty: This City now doth, like a garment, wear Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie All bright and glittering in the smokeless air The river glideth The very houses seem asleep. And all that mighty heart is lying still!

New Headway Culture © Oxford University Press 2007

The city doth like a garment wear the beauty of the morning. (As if the morning is like a cloak wrapped around the city.)


All that mighty heart is lying still. The river glideth at his own sweet will. (Refering to the river as a male – his) References to the sun as he/his. This City doth like a garment wear (a human wearing clothes) The very houses seem asleep.

Wordsworth would not have seen the London skyline with skyscrapers. Motorcars and buses on the bridge. The palace of Westminster (in its current gothic style) was rebuilt after a fire in 1834. The clock tower with Big Ben was also built after the fire.

Sample answer Wordsworth’s poem is often contrasted with London by William Blake. Blake portrays a very different view of London during the same historical period, giving a very dismal and negative view of the city. During the Early 19th century London had many workhouses, and was an industrialized city, with a large population. Many factories had chimneys which blew smoke out into the atmosphere, and many adults and children worked long hours in factories. In Composed Upon Westminster Bridge, Wordsworth shows his sensibility and passion towards nature and he makes a metropolitan city like London appear very beautiful and a calming influence on him.

LITERATURE The Novel – Gulliver’s Travels

1b, 2c, 3a 1 A sonnet 2 Dawn or early morning


What do you think?

PAGE 40 1 2

That mighty heart (metaphor for city of London).

PAGE 41 1

1 satire, 2 early 1700s, 3 Lilliput, 4 rejection, 5 society


The inhabitants are unusual because they are very tall: ‘as tall as an ordinary steeple spire’.


1c, 2e, 3f, 4g, 5b, 6d, 7h, 8a




1 It is impossible for Gulliver to climb over the stile because every step is six-feet high, and the highest stone twenty-feet high. 2 He sees one of the island’s inhabitants in the next field. 3 He is ‘struck with the utmost fear and astonishment’ because the man is so tall. 4 He hears the man’s voice. 5 The seven island inhabitants are servants or labourers of the first man Gulliver sees. The text says they are not ‘so well clad’ as he is. When he speaks, they follow his orders; ‘upon some words he spoke, they went to reap the corn’. 6 The text mentions nine island inhabitants in total: the man in the next field, the man Gulliver saw in the sea and the seven ‘monsters’.

What do you think? Sample answer Travel can change people in the following positive ways; it can open their minds; it can make them more sensitive to how other people live; it can teach them about other parts of the world and the problems that exist there; it can help people learn other languages; it can make people more environmentally conscious; it can make people more independent and resourceful. Travel might change people in the following negative ways; it could reinforce prejudice if people have bad travel experiences; it could make people disillusioned with their own life and make coming home too difficult; if people travel too much they can take it for granted and fail to appreciate the benefits.

LITERATURE The Play – The Importance of Being Earnest

PAGE 42 1 2 3

1c, 2d, 3b, 4a comedy of manners 1 Cecily likes the name Ernest because it inspires confidence in her. 2 Algernon asks for the Rector because he wants to be christened. 3 Examples of irony in the text include: ‘…it is rather an aristocratic name. Half of the chaps who get into the Bankruptcy Court are called Algernon.’ ‘Dr Chasuble is a most learned man. He has never written a single book, so you can imagine how much he knows.’

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4 darling; dear child; dear, sweet, loving little darling

What do you think? Sample answer The title of the play is a wordplay on the adjective ‘earnest’ meaning serious and sincere, and the name ‘Ernest’. ‘Ernest’ and ‘earnest’ are homophones (words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings). It is significant because in the play, the two male protagonists both pretend that their name is Ernest, and gradually discover the importance of being earnest too.

LITERATURE The Theatre – The Globe

PAGE 43 2 & 3 1a, 2a, 3b, 4d, 5b, 6d 4 1 On the south bank of the river Thames in 2




London. Flags were used as advertising. Colour coding was also used - a black flag meant a tragedy , white a comedy and red a history. Totus mundus agit histrionem - the whole world is a playhouse. Re-worded in As you like it by Shakespeare to ‘All the world’s a stage’. A Quarto text was a “stolen” version of a play. These versions were obtained by someone attending a play and copying the lines the actors spoke. The play would then be performed in another theatre. Copyright did not exist in Elizabethan times. To take advantage of daylight as there was no artificial lighting.

What do you think? Sample answer Modern day forms of piracy are: – Photocopying books instead of buying them brand new. – Buying books second hand instead of buying new copies. – Duplicating CDs instead of buying originals. – Buying duplicates of CDs or DVDs. – Downloading music illegally from the Internet. – Buying imitation branded items, for example fake handbags, clothes or jewellery.



A T1 1 The buses in Britain are all different colours. 2 The famous shopping street in London is called Oxford Street. 3 The telescope is not a British invention. 4 The quickest way of travelling from France to Britain is by train. 5 Loch Ness is in Scotland. 6 The last successful invaders of Britain were the Normans, who invaded in 1066. 7 King Henry VIII of England had six wives. 8 Wales has a dragon on its flag. 9 The last execution in the Tower of London took place in 1941. 10 The London Underground’s lines would stretch 408 km, if laid out in one big line. A T2 Not so ‘Cool Britannia’? In the late 1990s, British media and politicians tried to change people’s view of Britain and the British. The traditional ‘Old Britain’ image of warm beer, cricket, tea and sandwiches, and the Royal family was on its way out. ‘Cool Britannia’ – a pun on the song title Rule Britannia - was in. Tony Blair was the new Prime Minister and ‘New Labour’ was in power after years of the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher. Britain was trendy, hip, and happening. London was the coolest capital city in the world. British music was the hottest thing around. Britpop bands like Oasis, Blur, Pulp, and The Spice Girls topped the charts. British designers Alexander McQueen and John Galliano were taking over the world of fashion. British artists like Damien Hirst shocked the world with formaldehyde cows, sharks, and sheep. Unions Jacks were everywhere. But was this attempt to modernize Britain’s image successful? Many tourists still see Britain as a country rich in heritage and history. They associate Britain with images of the Royal family, red buses, black taxis, and cooked English breakfasts. So, did the Government and the media fail in their attempt to rebrand Britain? The truth is that neither Cool or Rule Britannia is a fair representation of the country: Britain is both old and new. You can go clubbing all night, catch the latest music trends, and go for a pint of warm beer in a pub as you watch Trooping the colour on TV. Britain is a country of astonishing diversity and creativity.

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A T3 Joseph My name’s Joseph. I brought my family to the USA because I wanted my children to have opportunities that I didn’t have. When we arrived, it was amazing how friendly people were, and my children made friends very quickly. This was one of the best things about our move here. What I didn’t like was the confusion of city life. It was difficult to adapt to all the traffic, pollution, and people here after a rural life in Uganda. All of my family miss the open spaces in our country, and the beautiful sunsets over our village. Maya Hi, I’m Maya, and I came to the USA to find work as a doctor because I can earn more here than in my hometown of Mumbai in India. I love the fact that there is no real class system in the States, and that if you are prepared to work hard, you can be successful. Before coming, I had no idea how cold the winters were in parts of America, and I still hate the freezing temperatures of December and January. The winter is so grey, and it really makes me miss the vibrant colours of India, particularly those of the traditional saris that the women wear. Hans Hello, my name is Hans. Last year I came to New York to finish my studies, and now I’m hoping to stay here. I love this city! I’m a big fan of jazz music and in New York I can go and hear live jazz every night of the week if I want. I would like to find a job here, although I can’t stand the fact that people work so hard. Many employees only have two weeks’ paid holiday a year, much less than in Europe. I don’t really miss much about my country except my family and friends in Nuremberg … oh, and the German beer! A T4 Anna My name is Anna Mucci. I left my village Castel di Ieri in the province of Aquila Italy in 1957 when I was just 17-years-old. I went to Australia to marry Mario. After World War II there was no work in our village and so Mario left for Australia on a government assisted immigration scheme. They paid for his boat journey. There was a lot of work in Australia. The journey by boat took one month. About 1,000 Italian girls like me were travelling on the boat, going to Australia to join their fiancés and husbands. My first difficulty in Australia was not being able to speak English and only being able to communicate with other ‘paesani’. I missed my family and my village. I bought Italian food in special Italian shops in the centre. Now you can



find pasta and Italian coffee in most supermarkets all over the city. Like many immigrants I used to send money to my family in the Italy, four times a year; at Christmas, Easter, and on the days of San Donato and San Luigi (the patron saints of Castel di Ieri). I was treated very well by the local people, especially when my eldest daughter started school; my next door neighbour explained the Australian education system to me and came with me to meet the teacher to help translate. At first my heart was in Italy and my head was in Australia, but in the 1970s we went to Italy on a family holiday and we found that things had changed. When I left Italy I took some sheets and towels as my dowry. I have never used them and they keep my memory of Italy alive. Now I live in Sydney. I have four grown up children and nine grandchildren. I feel Australian when I am in Italy and Italian when I am in Australia! Renzo My name is Renzo De Angelis. I left Italy in 1952 when I was 17-years-old on the government assisted scheme to find a job because there was no work in my village in Italy and I needed to send money back to my family. I arrived in Melbourne by boat from Naples and was taken with about another 1,000 people on this boat to the Boneghilla camp near Albury. There were thousands of immigrants at the camp and life was hard. We received five shillings a day, and waited to be called for work. About a month after arriving I was sent to Queensland to work on the sugar cane fields. It was December in Australia, and in Abruzzo, December is very cold with snow on the mountains. In Australia it was very, very hot. It was difficult to work in 40?C heat and we worked very long hours. Sugar cane is also very heavy and we had to cut the cane by hand. After a year on the fields I went down to Adelaide to find a job in a factory. Soon after arriving I met my wife. She was homesick for her family in Italy and so we went back to Sulmona, Italy where we live now. I feel very Italian but my friends call me the Australian!

A T5 The Commonwealth of Nations The old British Empire is now known as the Commonwealth of Nations. The modern Commonwealth is an association of 53 independent states, with a total of more than 1.8 billion citizens, almost 30% of the world’s population. The aim of the new Commonwealth is to move away from the old image of colonialism and to promote cooperation and

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understanding between the member nations. The present day Commonwealth is very different from the British Empire of the past Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the Commonwealth and the Head of State in 16 of the 53 Commonwealth nations. However, the Head of the Commonwealth is a symbolic role and the Queen doesn’t have any real power in the member states; she holds discussions with Commonwealth leaders, goes on many state visits to these countries, visits the host country when there is a Commonwealth summit, and also broadcasts a message to the Commonwealth countries on Commonwealth Day. Commonwealth Day is the second Monday in March. In Britain, it is celebrated with a multi-faith service in Westminster Abbey. Until 1958 it was known as Empire Day but it was changed to reflect the new post-colonial Commonwealth. Although Commonwealth Day is not widely recognized, the Queen’s birthday is still a public holiday in many Commonwealth countries. In 1867, Canada was the first colony to become a selfgoverning ‘Dominion’. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and other colonies followed later. India joined when it became independent in 1947. The first African country to join was Ghana in 1957. From 1960 onwards, new members from Africa, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean and the Pacific joined. Mozambique joined in 1995. It is unique as it is a former Portuguese colony, not British. However, membership is not automatic for all ex-colonies; in 2002, Zimbabwe was suspended after not respecting the Commonwealth aims and the country left in 2003.

A T6 A I think Australia should become a republic. I feel no tie, politically, economically, or spiritually to England. I’m an Australian and I think our Head of State should be an Australian Citizen; they should live in Australia and know what it means to be Australian. It should be someone I’ve elected to that position. It’s mad to have the Queen as our head of state. She doesn’t live in Australia and she knows nothing about our country. B I’m sorry but I disagree. I like the Queen. I think our present system of government works well as it is. Why should we change it? The Queen is impartial and non-political. She doesn’t really have any say in the running of the country. It’s not clear how an Australian republic would be organized or who would become our president. Without the Queen, the politicians could have too much power. We could even end up with a dictatorship!



A T7 My name is Manuela and I’m in the fourth year of Secondary School in Italy. I’m 16-years-old, and I study at a secondary school in Rome. One of the objectives of the European Union is to promote education within its countries. Many students in Europe are now following educational courses in countries other than their home country with the Socrates, Erasmus, and Leonardo exchange schemes. These schemes are funded by the European Union and promote student exchanges in education throughout Europe. Students spend one academic year studying or working in a different European Union country. Ten months ago, I applied for a scholarship with Socrates to spend a year abroad in a secondary school in Paris because I speak French fairly well and I love Paris. I hope to return from my year abroad speaking fluent French which will help me in the future at university or perhaps at work. I also want to meet new people, with different attitudes, opinions, and ways of life. At first my parents weren’t very happy with my choice, but now they’ve got used to the idea. My teachers at school have helped me find a school in Paris and a host family. It’s taken a long time to organize everything, but finally here I am, packing my suitcases, with a plane ticket for Paris booked for the first of September! A T8 Well, in Pride and Prejudice, there are five sisters wanting husbands and two new men in town called Bingley and Darcy. They’re really handsome and rich. The big sister Jane falls in love with Bingley, but the second sister Elizabeth doesn’t like Darcy at all because she thinks he’s too proud. A horrible soldier called Wickham also tells her Darcy has a dark past. It turns out though that he’s really a nice man and is in love with Elizabeth. In the end, she decides that she likes him, and everyone gets married. Now Romeo and Juliet is about a feud between two houses – the Montague and the Capulet families. Romeo Montague falls in love with Juliet Capulet and they marry secretly, but Romeo kills Juliet’s cousin and is banished. Then Juliet fakes her own death, and as part of the plan to be with Romeo she writes him a letter but it never reaches him. Everyone is confused and both lovers kill themselves. In the end the two families make peace and promise to become friends. A T9 Over the last 100 years the British film industry has seen some incredible highs and lows. Britain has produced many important film makers, from directors like Alfred Hitchcock who released The 39 Steps in 1935, to

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producers like J. Arthur Rank. His company, The Rank Organisation became the dominant force behind British film-making in the 1940s, with films such as Brief Encounter released in 1945. During the 1980s, producers such as David Puttnam became famous, and in 1981 his film Chariots of Fire won four Oscars. War has had an important impact on British filmmaking, and The Bridge on the River Kwai, released in 1957, is a classic example of a Second World War film. Towards the end of the 1950s a movement known as ‘British New Wave’ cinema led to the production of films such as Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, released in 1960. These films showed hard social realism through a documentary style. Economic recession affected production during the 1970s, and fewer films were made during this time. A notable exception was the film Ryan’s Daughter, released in 1970, about a romantic affair between an Irish girl and a British soldier during the First World War. The release of Four Weddings and a Funeral in 1994 caused renewed interest and investment in British films. It was followed by a series of romantic comedies set in Britain such as Notting Hill and Bridget Jones’s Diary. Britain’s ethnic mix has also played a part in the country’s film-making, and as the century changed, British Asian cinema became more commercial with films such as East is East and Bend it like Beckham, released in 2002. Strong competition from Hollywood has been a permanent feature in the history of British film, but in some cases it is a trans-Atlantic collaboration which is the key to success. The Harry Potter films are USfunded but made in Britain, and we may see more projects of this kind in the future.

A T 10 Emma Hi! My name’s Emma. I don’t go out much during the week because I have to get up early for work. I watch a lot of TV. I go to the gym in my lunch hour as there’s one right in front of my office. At weekends, I like to meet my friends for a drink and a chat down the local pub. Sometimes we go to the cinema or rent a DVD. James Hello, I’m James. I go out most nights with my mates. We usually meet down the pub, have a few drinks, and play pool. I play football at weekends and sometimes go to watch the match at my local club. Rajiv Hi! I’m Rajiv. I play the guitar in a local band. We’re quite good. We often play in local pubs and clubs. I don’t really do any sport. Sometimes I go swimming in the summer when it’s hot – which isn’t that often in the UK!



A T 11 Pub Culture The public house or ‘pub’ is culturally unique to the UK and other British-influenced countries. There are over 60,000 pubs in the UK and they are an important part of British life. Going to the pub is the most popular leisure activity outside the home in Britain. People meet, drink, talk, eat and relax there. The pub has a long history in the UK, dating back to Roman England when tired travellers used to stop to buy food and drink on long journeys. As travel and pilgrimages became more popular during the Middle Ages the demand for pubs grew. In 1393, King Richard II said that all landlords must put signs outside their pubs. As most people were illiterate, the signs contained pictures to illustrate the name of the pub. One of the oldest pubs still open today is the Fighting Cocks in St Albans. It dates back to the 11th century. Pubs serve alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. You must be over 18 to drink alcohol in the UK but you can have a soft drink in a pub from the age of 16. Children are allowed into pubs which sell food. A popular kind of British beer is called bitter, which is served at room temperature. More popular today is lager, which is lighter in colour and served cold. Cider is also popular, especially in the West of England. You must go to the bar to order drinks; there is no table service. Most pubs also sell food and snacks. One traditional pub meal is called a ‘Ploughman’s lunch’. This is a plate of cheese, bread, onion, pickle, and salad. Other traditional pub food includes scampi, chicken and chips, and toasted sandwiches. However, many pubs now offer more upmarket menus, serving gourmet food. Traditional pub games include darts, billiards, pool, dominoes, slot machines, and even skittles. Many pubs also organize weekly quizzes, karaoke, and coverage of big sporting events. Some of them have live music and concerts too. Pubs used to shut at 11 p.m. during the week and 10.30 p.m. on Sundays. However, thanks to a new law, they can now stay open for longer. Some of them are even open 24-hours a day!

A T 12 Fiona I was so happy to get tickets for this year’s T in the Park festival because they sold out in under an hour! It’s great to have a major festival in Scotland because I only live an hour away from Kinross, where T in the Park is held. I camped with my friends and stayed the whole weekend. It’s a huge event – ten different stages and over 170 performers! I particularly like the ‘T Break’ Stage which is where you can see Scottish bands

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who aren’t famous. It’s good to see local talent and know that if the band becomes famous, you saw them first! Nick As soon as you arrive at Reading Festival you exchange your ticket for a wristband, and I’ve collected mine from each year. This was my fifth Reading Festival, so I’ve now got five wristbands! The festival gets better every year. This year I saw loads of my favourite bands like The Arctic Monkeys, Placebo, and The Streets. A great thing about the festival is that there’s also a comedy and cabaret stage where you can watch comedians until 2 o’clock in the morning! The atmosphere is brilliant, everyone’s really friendly and I suppose the only problem is the English weather – but it didn’t rain this year! Bethan The Small Nations Festival is in July, and it’s held on a farm in the countryside in Wales. It’s a really idyllic location, and I love this festival because it’s such a relaxing weekend. It’s not about big rock bands, but is dedicated to music from Wales and other small nations, such as Madagascar, Bulgaria, and Nigeria. It’s a great opportunity to discover completely new music styles, and meet open-minded people from all over the world. There are also some great workshops like belly-dancing and eco-art, in case you’re feeling creative!

A T 13 Hello, my name’s Will. I’m 15 and I go to Sheldon School in Chippenham. At my school, the boys play football and rugby in the winter and the girls play netball and hockey. In summer, we all do athletics and play tennis. Boys play cricket, too. We don’t do swimming as there’s no pool at our school though I go swimming at the pool near my house in the summer holidays. My favourite sport is rugby, though it can be quite dangerous! We have different P.E. kits for summer and winter. In winter, we wear long-sleeved rugby shirts, shorts, and boots. In summer, we wear white T-shirts, white shorts, and trainers. Usually, we do three hours of sport a week. I do more, as I’m going to do a GCSE in P.E. next year. For the GCSE, we have to study things like sport psychology, health, and fitness which is really interesting. After school, I’d like to go to university. You can do a degree in P.E. now too!



A T 14 Primo Levi, was born in 1919 in Turin. He was Jewish. He trained as a chemist and he was arrested during the Second World War as a member of the anti-Fascist resistance. In 1944, he was deported to Auschwitz. His book If This Is a Man, published in 1947, is now an international classic. It is the account of Primo Levi’s last year in Auschwitz, his liberation 1945, and his eight month trek across Europe back to Italy. In total, 650 jews were deported to Auschwitz with Levi but only 20 survived to be liberated by the Red Army. During his lifetime, Primo Levi wrote many other publications about his war-time experiences. He visited schools acting as a testimonial for the memory of the Holocaust. In 1982, Primo Levi returned to Auschwitz with other camp survivors and a group of students from Florence. Levi died in Turin in April 1987. Some people who knew him said he really died in 1945. A T 15 Should auld acquaintance be forgot And never brought to mind? Should auld acquaintance be forgot And auld lang syne? Chorus: For auld lang syne, my dear For auld lang syne We’ll take a cup of kindness yet For the sake of auld lang syne. A T 16 Mount Vesuvius Today two million people live in the immediate vicinity of Mount Vesuvius near Naples. This volcano has erupted more than 50 times since the first eruption in 79 AD, when it buried Pompeii and Herculaneum. After 79 AD, the volcano continued to erupt every 100 years until about 1037 AD when it entered a 600-year period of quiet. In 1631, however, an eruption killed 4,000 people living near the volcano. After this eruption, workers rebuilding houses discovered the ruins of Pompeii. Vesuvius last erupted in 1944.

A T 17 George Stephenson – The railway pioneer The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain at about 1760. Before this date Great Britain’s economy was based on agriculture and trade. In the years after 1760, Britain changed to a mechanized system of production of goods for export. Steam power and the railways were among the most important factors to help increase manufacture of products and make profit for businessmen.

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One of the most important contributions to the first railways in the United Kingdom was made by George Stephenson. He was born in 1781 near Newcastle. His family was poor so he could not go to school. When he was ten-years-old, he began working in a colliery. Stephenson was very clever and good at inventing machines. He became an engineer at the colliery where he worked. In 1825, he built a railway from Stockton to Darlington so the owners of the colliery could transport their coal to the city easily. The locomotive that Stephenson built for this railway pulled 21 coal wagons on its first journey. Stephenson also built the Liverpool to Manchester railway which opened in 1830 and he designed a train called ‘the Rocket’ to travel on it. It was the first train to pull passengers. It also pulled freight and travelled at a speed of 39 kilometres per hour! Railways quickly became very successful and helped to develop trade. They provided a fast and easy method of transport. Industry become more profitable, freight arrived in cities faster, and agricultural products got to market quicker too. George Stephenson changed the face of the civilized world by pioneering railways and beginning a transport revolution which spread around the world.

A T 18 How small is small? The word ‘atom’ comes from a Greek word, ‘atomos’, meaning indivisible. The first theories about the existence of atoms date back to around 450 BC when Greek philosophers theorized that all matter was composed of pieces too small to be seen, in other words, atoms. In 1802, an English chemist and physicist called John Dalton, was the first person to officially say that everything was made from tiny atoms; a human hair is about one million atoms wide. Dmitri Mendeleev’s first periodic table in 1869 also helped support the idea that matter was made of atoms. At that time, people thought atoms were the building blocks of all materials and therefore could not be broken down any further. However, in the late 1890s, an English physicist called JJ Thompson discovered that atoms are divisible and that they are partially made up of very light, negatively-charged particles, which were later called electrons. Ernest Rutherford, a nuclear physicist from New Zealand, is known as the “father” of nuclear physics. In 1911, he proposed the existence of an atomic nucleus. His studies showed that an atom is mainly empty space, with the atom’s mass concentrated in a tiny center, the nucleus. Electrons orbit the nucleus, held in place by electrostatic attraction. Two other physicists called Geiger and Marsden confirmed the existence of the atomic nucleus after many difficult experiments, and a new branch of science was born - nuclear physics!



Since then, scientists have discovered that an atomic nucleus is made of even smaller subatomic particles called protons and neutrons. These are collectively called nucleons. The electrons form a much larger electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. However, protons and neutrons are now known to consist of even smaller particles called quarks. The study of nuclear physics and the structure of nuclei is a very active and productive area of research. There are many practical applications, including nuclear power, smoke detectors, radiology, and of course, nuclear weapons.

A T 19 The three biggest rainforests in the world are the Amazon Rainforest, the Congo Rainforest, and the Indonesian Rainforest. They are found in a belt five degrees north or south of the equator in areas of tropical climate. Rainforest ecosystems can support a rich diversity of plant and animal species. The average temperature in the rainforest is between 25–30°C with an average annual rainfall of between 1,500 and 3,000 mm. This means a lot of rain and sun and a very humid and moist atmosphere. The climate helps plant growth. Rainforests have distinct layers of vegetation. Rainforests once covered 14% of the earth’s land surface but now they cover 6% and experts estimate that the last remaining rainforests could be consumed in less than 40 years. They are being cut down for logging, cattle ranching, roads, buildings, and mining. A T 20 China’s firewall is known outside the country as the Great Firewall of China, in reference to the country’s ancient Great Wall. The firewall censors communication entering and leaving China. It works by filtering words and blocking communication that contains banned words. The filtered words include names of people, references to national and international political issues, and more general words such as ‘bomb’. The firewall system has different levels of censorship for different sites. It uses a very strict censorship policy for some websites, such as non-Chinese search engines, which contain many words to be filtered. If the system finds a communication containing a word to be filtered, it closes the connection between users. The users have to wait several minutes before they can connect again. The firewall is not always effective. Many websites have found ways of getting around it using a proxy server. A proxy server is a computer network service allowing users to make indirect connections to other network services. In this way, people in China can access

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restricted websites via a proxy server outside the country without being detected.

A T 21 The Sherborne Missal The Sherborne Missal is a masterpiece of 15th century English Book production. A Missal is a book which contains the prayers, and often the music, used to celebrate Christian Mass in church. The word ‘Missal’, like ‘Mass’, is taken from the Latin ‘missa’, meaning ‘sent’. The Sherborne Missal is 694-pages long, weighs more than 20kg and measures approximately 536 mm by 380 mm. It is the largest and most elaborate late-medieval Missal to survive the Reformation. During the Reformation, King Henry VIII argued with the Catholic Church because it wouldn’t allow him to divorce his first wife and England became Protestant. Lots of Catholic churches and properties in England were destroyed. Most medieval art is anonymous, but this Missal is unusual as it contains several references to the main writer and artist. A man called John Whas wrote most of the manuscript. He was a monk at St Mary’s Abbey in Sherborne, Dorset, in the south-west of England, which is where the manuscript gets its name from. Another monk, John Siferwas, was the chief illustrator. The Missal is also unusual as it contains references to its patrons, Robert Bruyning, the Abbot of Sherborne, who is depicted at least 100 times, and Richard Mitford, the Bishop of Salisbury. Work on the manuscript took place between 1399 and 1407. The British Library bought the Sherborne Missal for more than £5 million in 1998 and it is now on display in London. It is in excellent condition considering it has survived more than 500 years.

A T 22 Kate Hi Jo. How are you? Jo Oh hello Kate! I’m fine thanks, but how are you? I heard what happened. I’m really sorry! Kate Yeah, Sam and I split up. It’s so sad! I know that it was probably for the best, but now I feel so lonely. I often think I felt better when I was with him. Maybe I was wrong to end it? Jo I Know, it’s not easy. When I split up with Mike I used to think the same. I was really depressed. Kate So what did you do? Jo I couldn’t stand always going over the same old thoughts in my mind so I decided to talk to someone. A friend recommended going to see a philosophy counsellor. Kate Well, I don’t really want to go to a psychologist. Jo Oh no, don’t worry. A philosophy counsellor



Kate Jo

Kate Jo

Kate Jo

Kate Jo

isn’t like a psychologist. They just help you to think about things in a different way. Talking with someone outside the situation really helped me put things in perspective. But how they can solve problems like this just by talking? Well of course, it’s not that simple. Sometimes the problems we have depend on how we see ourselves and our life. Talking things over means you can see things from another point of view. So what sort of things did you talk about? It sounds a bit serious, but we talked about different philosophers ideas of love and compared them to my situation. Plato’s thoughts on love, for example, were interesting for me. Plato? I don’t know anything about Plato or philosophy! You don’t need to know anything about philosophy or Plato when you talk to a philosophical counsellor, just like you don’t need to understand the words of a song to enjoy the music! His office is in town. I went there for four sessions. Each one lasted about an hour. Was it expensive? Well, it wasn’t cheap … I paid 80 euros an hour. But it was definitely worth it.

A T 23 Earth has not anything to show more fair: Dull would he be of soul who could pass by A sight so touching in its majesty: This City now doth, like a garment, wear The beauty of the morning; silent, bare, Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie Open unto the fields, and to the sky; All bright and glittering in the smokeless air. Never did sun more beautifully steep In his first splendour, valley, rock, or hill; Ne’er saw I , never felt, a calm so deep! The river glideth at his own sweet will: Dear God! The very houses seem asleep; And all that mighty heart is lying still! A T 24 There was a stile to pass from this field into the next. It had four steps, and a stone to cross over when you came to the uppermost. It was impossible for me to climb this stile, because every step was six-feet high, and the upper-stone about twenty. I was endeavouring to find some gap in the hedge, when I discovered one of the inhabitants in the next field, advancing towards the stile, of the same size with him whom I saw in the sea pursuing our boat. He appeared as tall as an ordinary

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spire steeple, and took about ten yards at every stride, as near as I could guess. I was struck with the utmost fear and astonishment, and ran to hide myself in the corn, whence I saw him at the top of the stile looking back into the next field on the right hand, and heard him call in a voice many degrees louder than a speakingtrumpet: but the noise was so high in the air, that at first I certainly thought it was thunder. Whereupon seven monsters, like himself, came towards him with reapinghooks in their hands, each hook about the largeness of six scythes. These people were not so well clad as the first, whose servants or labourers they seemed to be; for, upon some words he spoke, they went to reap the corn in the field where I lay.

A T 25 Cecily

Algernon Cecily Algernon Cecily Algernon





Cecily Algernon

You must not laugh at me, darling, but it had always been a girlish dream of mine to love some one whose name was Ernest. [Algernon rises, Cecily also.] There is something in that name that seems to inspire absolute confidence. I pity any poor married woman whose husband is not called Ernest. But, my dear child, do you mean to say you could not love me if I had some other name? But what name? Oh, any name you like - Algernon - for instance . . . But I don’t like the name of Algernon. Well, my own dear, sweet, loving little darling, I really can’t see why you should object to the name of Algernon. It is not at all a bad name. In fact, it is rather an aristocratic name. Half of the chaps who get into the Bankruptcy Court are called Algernon. But seriously, Cecily . . . [Moving to her] . . . if my name was Algy, couldn’t you love me? [Rising.] I might respect you, Ernest, I might admire your character, but I fear that I should not be able to give you my undivided attention. Ahem! Cecily! [Picking up hat.] Your Rector here is, I suppose, thoroughly experienced in the practice of all the rites and ceremonials of the Church? Oh, yes. Dr. Chasuble is a most learned man. He has never written a single book, so you can imagine how much he knows. I must see him at once on a most important christening - I mean on most important business. Oh! I shan’t be away more than half an hour.



A T 26 All the World’s a Stage The Globe Theatre was built on the south bank of the Thames in1599 by the theatre company called the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, which included Shakespeare. On the Globe’s flag there was a figure of Hercules carrying a globe on his shoulders with the motto ‘Totus mundus agit histrionem’. In Elizabethan times, flags outside the theatres advertised the performance with a picture of the play. There was a lot of rivalry between playhouses. Theatres stole plays by sending someone to a performance to copy down all of the lines! These stolen plays were called Quarto texts.

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The actors did not prepare their parts. A person backstage whispered the lines to the actor just before he was going to say them. Female characters were played by young boys. There was no artificial lighting so theatre performances were in the afternoon. The spectators stood in an area around the stage called ‘the pit’. In 1613, the original Globe Theatre burnt down when a cannon set fire to its roof during Henry VIII. The Globe was rebuilt, but in 1642, the Puritans closed it down together with all other places of entertainment. In 1644, it was demolished. A replica of the original theatre, called Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre, opened in London in 1997. The first performance in the new theatre was Shakespeare’s Henry V.