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come in hues ranging from white to yellow to a “candy cane” red and white variety known as Chioggia. It is used in Indian traditional system of medicine, ...

Beetroot: A Health Promoting Functional Food Harsh Chawla1, Milind Parle1, Kailash Sharma1, Monu Yadav1* Abstract: Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae) is generally known as beet root or garden beet. It is native to Mediterranean region. It is widely cultivated in America, Europe and throughout India. Beet root is most commonly dark red in colour, however it also come in hues ranging from white to yellow to a “candy cane” red and white variety known as Chioggia. It is used in Indian traditional system of medicine, specifically for the treatment of fertility, cancer, hypertension and urinary tract disorders. It makes a wonderful dietary supplement being not only rich in nutrients, minerals, amino acids and vitamins but also has unique phyto-constituents, which have numerous medicinal properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-depressant, anti-microbial, antiinflammatory, diuretic and expectorant. It is an excellent food in pregnancy as it is helpful in the growth of foetus. It is one of the natural food, which boosts the energy in athletes. It is used as natural food colour in dairy and meat products. Moreover; various parts of the plant are used as home remedies to cure health problems. Traditionally, beet root was consumed as food. It is now being recognized as a functional food. Overall objective of this review article is to give a brief knowledge about the nutritional value, synonyms, phyto-chemicals composition, pharmacological actions and medicinal properties of Beetroot.

cultivated not only for their leaves but also for their roots throughout the Europe. Several varieties of beet were cultivated throughout the years. In 1700s, yellow beets were originated. In 1747 German chemist Andrews Maggraf discovered the potential source of sugar in beets. In 1800s, Prussians developed another variety called Sugar beet, which has a long pointed white root was cultivated for its sugar content. [3] Originally sugar beets contained 6% sugar content and in 1880s sugar beet with 16-17% was developed. The Beetroot of middle Ages was different from Beetroot of today’s variety. In the middle ages roots were thin and long but today’s Beetroot having plump and round roots are cultivated. Traditionally, beets were consumed as food. Now-a-days, it is being recognized as a functional food.

INTRODUCTION Chenopodiaceae family includes approximately 1400 species divided into 105 genera. [1] Members of this family are dicotyledonous. Beet root, scientifically known as Beta vulgaris is one of the well known plants belonging to this family (Table 1 and 2). It is an erect annual herb with tuberous root stocks. There are basically four varieties of Beetroot namely known as Detroit dark red, Crimson Globe are commonly grown in India and another two varieties are Crosby Egyptian. Different varieties of Beetroot described in Table 8. It is used in Indian traditional system of medicine, specifically used to enhance the activity of sex hormones. It ranks among the ten most potent vegetables with respect to antioxidant property. It makes an excellent dietary supplement being not only rich in minerals, nutrients and vitamins but also has unique phytoconstituents, which have several medicinal properties (Table 5 and 7). Several parts of this plant are used in medicinal system such as anti-oxidant, anti-depressant, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant and carminative. It is one of the natural food which boosts the energy in athletes as it has one of the highest nitrates and sugar contents plant. Beet root contains Betaine [2] (Betacyanin pigment responsible for its red colour) is used as natural food colour in dairy and meat products. It can be taken as salad during pregnancy because it is helpful in the growth of foetus. Mettupalyam vegetables commission Mandy in Tamil Nadu (India) is the major market for Beetroot. Thus, Beetroot has attracted much attention as a health promoting functional food.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION It is native to the Mediterranean region. Different synonyms of Beetroot described in Table 3 and 4. World Scenario It is widely cultivated in America, Europe and throughout the India. [4] Indian Scenario It is mainly cultivated in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. CULTIVATION AND COLLECTION Life Cycle Beet or Beetroot or table Beet is biennial plant that is cultivated for its thick flashy roots in early spring. Beet seeds are planted one half inch deep at three to five- inch intervals and the rows are eight inches apart. Seed germination takes from five to ten days. Roots are formed during the first season. Leafy stem having tall branch and clusters of minute green flowers arises in the second season. Stem will not produce the flowers until their roots mature and live one month at cold temperature. The flowers develop into brown corky fruits, commonly called seed balls. According to the Federal Germination Standard in commercially grown seeds there are approximately 2,800 seeds per ounce and germination rate is 75%. Beets

HISTORY Beetroot is one of the oldest vegetable known to mankind. It is believed that beets were originated along the coast of Mediterranean (Sea beets). In 15th century Beets were cultivated for their leaves by Romans, they ate its leaves as food, which called as Roman beet. Roman beets were white or black in colour but today deep red or yellow colour beets are also available. At the end of 15th century, beets were 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001, Haryana, India. E-mail : [email protected] *Corresponding author

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REVIEW ARTICLE Table 1: Taxonomical Classification of Beetroot Kingdom Subkingdom Super division Division Class Subclass Order Family Genus Species

Plantae Tracheobionta Spermatophyta Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Caryophyllidae Caryophyllates Chenopodiaceae Beta B. vulgaris Table 2: Botanical Description of Beetroot

Root Stem Lower leaves Upper leaves Flowers Spikes Seed

True Binneal Short and plate, producing simple leaves that are arranged in a closed spiral Oblongobtuse,trowelshaped and upto 25 cm long Rhombicovate, Lanceolate and heart shaped Very small with a diameter of 3-5 mm, Greenish or tinged reddish with five petals and bisexual Slender, 15 -45 cm long Horizontal with thin testa, floury albumen and annular embryo Table 3: International Synonyms of Beetroot

S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Name Hong niu pi cai, Tiancai, Ziluobo Aka kabu, Bitto, Bittsu, Kaensai, ShokuyouBiito Cukandar, Guliyo, Muulaa SveklaObyknovennaia, Sveklastolovaia Bederoe, Rodbede Biet, Kroot, Kroten, Rode Biet Beetroot Betterave, Potagere, Betterave, Rouge Potagere Rube, Rote Beete, Rote Bete, Rote Rube, Runkelrube, Rote Ruben Beterraba, Beterraba de salada, Patarrabia, Terraba, Beterraba – vermelha Chukandar Barba, Barbabietola, Bietola commune, Bietolarossa, Bietolarossa e gialla, Barbaietola da insalata PhakkatDaeng, PhakkatFarang Harilik, Punapeet Beta, Rodbeta Remolacha, Remolachacolorada, Remolacha de mesa, Remolacharoja NavadnaPesa, RdezhePesa Harilik, Punapeet

Language Chinese Japanese Nepal Russian Danish Dutch English French German Portuguese Hindi

Country/Region China Japan Nepal Russia Denmark, Greenland Netherlands, South Africa England France Germany Portugal India



Thai Estonian Swedish Spanish Slovenian Estonian

Thailand Sweden Spain Indo-Eueppean Estonia

Table 4: Indian Synonyms of Beetroot S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Name Bitagacha Salada Cuqander Gajarugadde Bit Bita Carkkarivali, Kilankuceti Dumpamokka Beet

Language Bengali Guajarati Hindi Kannada Malayalam Marathi Tamil Telgu Punjabi

are harvested during the summer, when the leaves are dehydrated. They can be harvested when the roots are 2.53 inches in diameter. Beets can be stored for long periods of time if they are very cool and very damp.

Beet grows in friable soil which should be free from large stones. It should be well drained with an abundant amount of organic matter. If the soil is too rich, beets may produce forked roots. Many commercial fertilizers such as green manures, animal manure, crop residue, nitrogen, phosphorus and potash may be added to the soil for well

Soil/moisture Requirement

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State/Region West Bengal Gujarat North India Karnataka Kerala Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Punjab


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REVIEW ARTICLE Table 5: Phyto-constituents of Different Varieties of Beetroot [5-7] S. No.

2 3 4

Phyto-constituents Phenolic compounds- N-cis-Feruloyl 3-o-methyldopamine, N-cis-Feruloyltyramine, N-trans-Feruloyl 3-o-methyldopamine, N-trans-Feruloyltyramine Coumarins-Scopolatin, Esculetin, Umbelliferone, Peonidin, cyanidins. Triterpenes/Steroid-Beta-amirin acetate, Boehmerylacetate, Friedelin Sesquiterpenoids-6-myoporol, 4-hydroxy-dehydro-myoporone and ipomeamarone


Alkaloid-CalystegineB1, Calystegine B2, Calystegine C1, Calystegine B3, Ipomine


Carbohydrates-Starch, Sugars (Fructose, sucrose, glucose), Dietary fiber Vitamins-Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3 (Niacin), Vitamin B6, Vitamin E and Vitamin k, Panthotenic , Cholestrol Minerals-Magnesium (Mg), Copper (Cu), Phosphorous (P), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Zinc (Zn) Amino acids- Threonine, Valine, Cystine, Methionine,Isoleucine,Leucine, Lysine, phenylalanine, Histidine, Arginine, Glutamic acid, Proline, Alanine, Tyrosine Anthocyanins- Carotenoids(beta-carotene) Flavonoids- Tiliroside, Astragalin, Rhamnocitrin, Rhamnetin, Kaempferol Saponins- Oleanolic acid, Hedrageninaglycone, Fatty acids- Pentadecilic acid, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid, Linolenic acid, Palmitoleicacid,Oleic and vaccenic acid Volatile constituents- Pyridine, 4-picolene Tannins


7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Plant Parts Seeds Leaf, Root Root, Leaf Root Tuber root, Leaf Root Root, Leaf Root, Leaf, Pulp Leaf Root, Pulp Leaf Root Leaf Leaf Root, leaf, Pulp

Table 6: Pharmacological Activities of Different Varieties of Beetroot S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Pharmacological Activities Anti-oxidant Anti-oxidative stress Anti-depressant Anti-cancer Anti-mutagenic Anti-carcinogenic Radioprotective Anti-hypertensive Anti-hypercholesterolemic Anti-hyperglycaemic Hematopoetic Anti-bacterial Anti-inflammatory Diuretic Anti-nephrotoxicity Hepatoprotective Anti-proliferative Immunomodulatory

Plant parts Root and Seed Fruit Root Roots Root Root Whole plant Root Pulp Air dried powdered whole plant Root Root Root Root and Leaves Root Leaves Root Root

growth of roots. Optimal pH range of soil for Beetroot lies between 6.0 and 6.8, but the neutral or alkaline soil is considered good for its growth. Beetroot will grow properly, when boron supplement is added to the soil. Beetroot need the constant moisture in soil. Beetroot can tolerate the low light and rare availability of water and organic matter in the soil.

Reference [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [24]

COSMETIC USES Beet for Hair Carotenoids present in Beetroot juice improve the quality, growth, thickness and shine of the hair. Beet for Skin Mixture of Beetroot juice with clay husk like multanimitti is used to keep the skin fair and flawless.

TRADITIONAL USES In ancient time, it was used to enhance the activity of sex hormones and as an aphrodisiac. The Beetroot juice is used to excrete the kidney and bladder stones. Various parts of Beetroot are used traditionally such as roots are used as diuretic, expectorant, diuretic and as a cure for mental troubles. Pharmacological activities of Beetroot are mentioned in Table 6.

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Extract Ethanolic Juice Ethanolic Ethanolic Juice Beetroot dye Betalain Juice Methanolic Aqueous and ethyl acetate Methanolic Ethanolic Ethanolic Aqueous Ethanolic Ethanolic Methanolic Methanolic

CUISINE USES This versatile fruit can be eaten raw, used in salads and as a juice. Betanin extract of Beetroot is widely used as a natural colorant in beverages (juices and Burakovyikvas), cattle products (cooked, smoked, semi-dry or fermented sausages), mainly dairy products (milk, yogurt, kefir, icecreams) and candies (cookies and desserts). Sugar


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REVIEW ARTICLE Table 7: Nutritional Value of Beetroot for Edible Portion Nutrients

Units Macro-components Cal g g g g mg Minerals mg mg mg mg mg mg Electrolytes mg mg Vitamins IU mg mg mg μg mg μg μg mg μg Phyto-nutrients μg mg μg

Energy Carbohydrate Fat Protein Fiber Cholestrol Calcium Copper Iron Magnesium Manganese Zinc Potassium Sodium Vitamin A Thiamine B1 Riboflavin B2 Niacin B3 Folate Vitamin C Vitamin E Vitamin K Pantothenic acid Pyridoxine Carotene ß Betaine Lutein-zeaxanthin

Value per 100 Grams 43 9.56 0.17 1.61 2.80 0 16 0.075 0.80 23 0.329 0.35 325 78 33 0.031 0.057 0.334 109 4.9 0.04 0.02 0.155 0.067 20 128.7 0

Table 8: Different Varieties of Beetroot S. No. 1

Varieties Detroit Dark Red


Crimson Globe


Crosby Egyptian


Early Wonder

Properties Roots are smooth, uniform and deep red. Flesh is dark red with light red zones. It is heavy cropper The roots are globular to flattened globe, medium red with little shoulders. The flesh is medium dark red with distinct zones. It is heavy yielder. Roots are flat globe with a small tap root and smooth exterior The internal colour is dark purplish red with indistinct zones. The variety reaches maturity in 55-60 days after sowing. The roots are flattened and dark red skin, the interior is dark red with some lighter red zones. The top is heavy green with red veins globe having rounded shoulders with a smooth.

from sugar beets is used to make rum, rectified spirit and vodka.

actions and medicinal properties of beet root. It serves as an economical package of health care. It is a fortune of nutrients, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which make it a sound dietary supplement. Beet juice is an excellent therapy to excrete out kidney and bladder stones. Several parts of beet root has numerous medicinal properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective and diuretic. Beet root is not only helpful in hair growth, shine of the hair, but also beneficial for skin. Beet root provides energy to the body and boosts up immune system. It is used as natural food colour in dairy and meat products. Overall, it is a versatile super food, which has numerous uses like medicinal uses, cosmetic uses as well as cuisine uses. It highlights beet root utilization and its potential as value-added products in

CONTRAINDICATIONS AND PRECAUTIONS Drinking of undiluted Beetroot juice can cause diarrhoea, dizziness and burning sensations therefore, dilute it before drinking it. Hypertension and urolithiasis patients should stay from beet juice. Beetroot produce red urine and red faces in some people after chronic administration called Beeturia. CONCLUSION Beet root is one of the oldest vegetable known to mankind. In this review article, we made humble attempt to give a brief knowledge about the nutritional value, health benefits, phyto-chemical composition, pharmacological

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REVIEW ARTICLE with red Beetroot food color antagonizes esophageal carcinogenesis in N-nitrosomethyl-benzylamine treated rats. Journal of Medicinal Food, 13(3):733-739, 2010. 14. Xiaoling L U, Wang Y and Zhang Z. Radioprotective activity of betalains from red beets in mice exposed to gamma irradiation. European Journal of Pharmacology, 615:223-227, 2009. 15. Tripathy G and Pradhan D. Evaluation of in-vitro and antiproliferative activity and in-vivo immunomodulatory activity of Beta vulgaris. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 6(1):127-130, 2013. 16. Chakole R D, Zade S and Charde M S. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Beta vulgaris Linn. Roots. International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research, 2(4):124-130, 2011. 17. Agarwal A, Bavaskar S, Salunkhe P, Manyar N, Kale D and Kawtikwar P. A dearth of antidepressant activity in mice. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Result, 1(2):55-57, 2010. 18. Rose M H, Sudha P N and Sudhakar K. Effect of antioxidants and hepatoprotective activities of methanol extract of Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat models. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 5(6): 2546-2555, 2014. 19. Kujawaska M, Ignatowicz E, Murias M, Ewertowska M, Mikolajyczyk k and Liebert J J. Protective effect of red Beetroot against carbon tetrachloride and N-nitrosodiethylamine induced oxidative stress in rats. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 57(6):2570-2575, 2009. 20. Iglesias R, Citores C, Di Maro A and Ferreras J. Biological activity of antiviral protein BE27 from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Planta Journal, 241:421-433, 2015. 21. Indumathi T and Kannikaparameswari K. Hematopoietic study of the methanolic root extract of Beta vulgaris on albino ratsan in-vivo study. International Journal of Pharma and Biosciences, 3(4):1005-1015, 2012. 22. Naem Rabeh M and Marwa Ibrahim E. Antihypercholestrolemic effects of beet (Beta vulgaris L.) root waste extract on hypercholestterolemic rats and its antioxidant potential properties. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 13(9):500-505, 2014. 23. Onkar P R, Powar P V, Sharma P H and Avari J G. Evaluation of phytochemical and pharmacological activity of Beetroot extracts (Beta vulgaris). The Journal of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, 2(4):145, 2013. 24. Saranyai R and Geetha N. Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by the extract of beet root (Beta vulgaris L.). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(2):361-365, 2014.

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Cite this article as: Harsh Chawla, Milind Parle, Kailash Sharma et al. Beetroot: A Health Promoting Functional Food. Inventi Rapid: Nutraceuticals, 2016(1):1-5, 2015.


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