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IIVR Training Manual No. 59

E-MANUAL ON IMPROVED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES IN VEGETABLE CROPS Sponsored by DOE, Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperation, Government of India , New Delhi

16th -23rd January, 2015

Compiled & Edited by Neeraj Singh Pradip Karmakar Sunil Gupta

Shubhadeep Roy SNS Chaurasia B Singh

ICAR-INDIAN INSTITUTE OF VEGETABLE RESEARCH Post Bag No. 01, P. O. Jakhini (Shahanshahpur) Varanasi – 221 305 (U.P.)

Improved Production Technologies in Vegetable Crops

Correct Citation: Singh, Neeraj; Roy, Shubhadeep; Karmakar, Pradip; Chaurasia, S.N.S.; Gupta, S. and Singh, B. 2015. Improved Production Technologies in Vegetable Crops. IIVR Training Manual No. 59. ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi, India, p. 268.

Published by: The Director ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research Post Bag No. 1, P.O. Jakhini (Shahanshahpur) Varanasi – 221305, U.P., India Phone: 91-542-2635247, 36, 37 Fax: 91-5443-229007 Email: [email protected] Website: http://www.iivr.org.in

Sponsored by: Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation, Govt. of India, New Delhi

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors. IIVR, Varanasi takes no liability for any losses resulting from the use of this publication.

PREFACE India has the advantage of diverse agro climatic conditions, which enables it to produce a wide range of vegetable crops. Here vegetables are grown in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate region of the country. This sector has emerged as an economically rewarding option for diversification in agriculture and is playing an increasingly important role in the country’s nutritional security, poverty alleviation and employment generation. After the great success of Green Revolution in Agriculture, India is now moving towards the Golden Revolution in which commercialization of horticulture through better post-harvest management, primary processing and particularly marketing assumes greater significance in the modern era of globalization. Commercialization of horticulture largely depends upon the use of appropriate technology and market oriented cultivation. In the recent years, the country has witnessed tremendous changes in both the production and productivity of several vegetable crops which has increased manifold. India has emerged as one of the leading vegetable producers of the world with a total annual production of 156.33 million tonnes from an area of 8.99 million hectares. Vegetables being the rich source of antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and fibre, people prefer more of vegetables in their diet these days due to increasing health consciousness, the changing consumption pattern, living standards and lifestyle. But still per capita consumption of vegetables is 130g/person/day, which is much lower than the recommendation i.e. 300g/person/day. This is because of the huge postharvest losses due to perishable nature of vegetables. Added to this India’s vegetable sector is suffering from inadequacy of infrastructure and unorganized marketing facilities. Therefore an urgent action is required to increase the productivity of vegetables and reduce the losses at different stages of marketing. At the same time upgrading of infrastructure and organized functioning of domestic vegetable markets is required to increase the profitability of small vegetable growers. The price of vegetable varies from one zone to another according to the season, production and marketing. Rapid price fluctuation in vegetables causes’ vegetable grower’s suffering in getting the desirable price of their produce. A marketing network of vegetables in the country will certainly help the growers in getting/transporting their produce in other part of the country for better price. There is also an urgent need to have proper planning for foreign markets and export-oriented vegetable production, adopting Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) with due consideration to Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) of chemicals at a competitive price to endure in the global vegetable markets. More importantly there is a need to train the growers as well as other stakeholders of the vegetable sector of the country on improved production technologies and marketing aspects of vegetables. In view of these issues, the training on “Improved Production Technologies in Vegetable Crops” sponsored by DOE, Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperation, Govt. of India has been organized at IIVR, Varanasi during January 16th to 23rd, 2015. The lectures delivered by various resource persons during this training programme is being brought out in the form of a training manual with a view to provide ready reference to the participants, teachers, researchers and extension workers engaged in the field of vegetable crops. We would like to acknowledge The Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation, Govt. of India, who has sponsored this training programme. We would like to thank all the scientists of ICAR-IIVR whose technical inputs have flourished this training manual. Finally we are very thankful to our beloved Director, Dr. B. Singh who is always very supportive and directed us to make this training programme successful.


Foreword Vegetables are important constituents of Indian agriculture and nutritional security due to their short duration, high yield, nutritional richness, economic viability and ability to generate on-farm and off-farm employment. Vegetables form an integral part of staple diet in India where 42% population is vegetarian and vegetables are sources of daily requirement of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Our country is blessed with diverse agro-climates with distinct seasons, making it possible to grow wide array of vegetables. However, growth of vegetable sector across our country is uneven with 1 state in the productivity range of 25-30 t/ha, 4 states in the range of 20-25 t/ha, 7 states in the range of 15-20 t/ha, 10 states in the range of 10-15 t/ha and 6 states recording less than 10 t/ha vegetable productivity. Compared to total area (2.84 million ha), production (16.5 million tonnes) and productivity (5.8 t/ha) of vegetables in the country during 1950-51, there had been phenomenal increase in area (2.99 folds), production (8.88 folds) and productivity (2.98 folds) of vegetables during the last 6 decades. However, there still exists a wide gap between the potential and average national productivity. There is also a gap between scientific production technologies of vegetables and its application at farmer’s field. State level officials and field functionaries should be well versed with the modern techniques of vegetable production so they can guide farmers at the field level. Therefore, this Model Training Course of eight days duration on “Improved production Technologies in vegetable Crops” will be very helpful for the field functionaries including state agricultural officials about the insight of challenges faced by the farmers and improved production techniques developed in vegetables to tackle the problems of scarcity of natural resources (land and water), changing climates, low and uneven productivities across different states, post-harvest losses, inadequate processing and export, quality concerns, emergence of new diseases and pests, and low factor productivity in vegetable crops. The topics covered in this training are very relevant and according to the need of the hour. I would like to congratulate Drs Neeraj Singh, Shubhadeep Roy, Pradip Karmakar, SNS Chaurasia and Sunil Gupta who have done marvelous job to compile the lecture notes and bring out this training manual which will be helpful for the vegetable stakeholders of all spheres.

(B. Singh)

Participants of the Training Programme S. N. 1. 2.

3. 4.





Name and Designation


Mobile No./ E-Mail

Dr. Suneel Kumar Goyal Assistant Professor Sh. L.S. Rautkar Assistant Director of Horticulture

KVK, I.Ag.Sc., B.H.U., RGSC, Barkachha, Mirzapur Joint Director of Horticulture, Ledy Elgin Hospital (Rly. Station road) Jabalpur (M.P.) KVK, CIAE, Bhopal (M.P.)

9554878752 sunil.svbp @gmail.com 09827301457

Sh. R.S. Yadav SMS (Horticulture) Sh. R. Shivakumarappa Assistant Director of Horticulture Dr. V. Ramsundar Assistant Director of Horticulture Sh. Apal Das Sr. Agril. Dev. Officer (Agro.) Sh. Kulendra Deka Agriculture Development Officer Sh. Dhrubajyoti Nath V.L.E.W.


Sh. Surajit Dutta V.L.E.W.


Sh. Umaram


Dr. Jagdish Chander SMS Dr. Jitender Mongia SMS



Dr. Ramswaroop Punia SMS


Dr. Jai P. Rai Assistant Professor Sh. Jagdish Prasad A.H.I. Sh. Sanjay Kumar Singh A.H.I. Sh. D.P. Singh, H.I. Sh. Chhangur Ram Maurya H.I. Sh. P.S. Kanel A.D.H. Dr. A.K. Chaturvedi SMS (Hort.)

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Joint Director of Horticulture, Krishnagiri, Tamilnadu Sim’s park, Coonoor, Tamilnadu

09893326048 [email protected] 09003009062 [email protected] 9443032203, adhcoonoor @gmail.com

Sub-Divisional Agril. Officer, Bijni, Chinang, Assam District Agriculture Office, Harisinga Circle, Udalguri (BTAD), Assam District Agriculture Office, Jhakhlibill Pathar, Barsa, Mushalpur District Agriculture Office, Chithila, A.D.O. Circle, Fakiragram, Kokrajhar District Horticulture Officer, Chanduali DDH, CEV, Gharaunda, Karnal, Haryana Deputy Director Horticulture, C.E.F. Mangiana, Sirsa, Haryana Deputy Director Horticulture, Gurgaon Haryana KVK, I.Ag.Sc., BHU, RGSC, Barkachha, Mirzapur Distil Hort. Officer Bahraich

9435023099 [email protected]

Horticulture officer Jaunpur


D.H.O. Fatahpur D.H.O. Office, Ghazipur (U.P.) Government Farm Richi, Khandwa, M.P. KVK, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Bhadohi

9125102501 9455806549

09864193646 kulendra_deka@rediffmail. com 9864725411

9435326306, 08471996290 [email protected] 9506710140 94165-44074 Sihagjagdish@gmail. com 9996788110

9812163920 rspunia65@ gmail.com 9415816734 drjaibhu@ gmail.com 9956442049

9893106252 9415994059





Vegetable Production in India: Issues and Strategies B.Singh



Vegetables and Human Health: An Overview T.K. Koley



Integrated Nutrient Management in Vegetable Crops R.B. Yadava



Principles and Methods of Water Harvesting T.D. Lama



Integrated Water Management in Vegetables D.K Singh



Weed Management in Vegetables R.N. Prasad and Anant Bahadur



River Bed Cultivation of Cucurbitaceous Vegetable Crops Sudhakar Pandey and Pradip Karmakar



Improved Production Technology of Brinjal Rajesh Kumar, Major Singh and S.K. Tiwari



Improved Production Technology for Cucurbits Pradip Karmakar, Sudhakar Pandey and D.R. Bhardwaj



Production Technology for Chilli and Sweet Pepper Rajesh Kumar and J.K. Ranjan



Production Technology of Tomato Rajesh Kumar and Major Singh



Advances in Package of Practices of Okra S.K. Sanwal and B. Singh



Improved Production Technology of Indian Bean Nagendra Rai



Improved Production Technology for Cole Crops (Brassica oleracea) B.K. Singh and Jyoti Devi



Improved Production Technology for Root Crops B.K. Singh and Pradip Karmakar



Production Technology of Exotic & Underutilized Vegetables P. K Singh



Organic Farming of Vegetable Crops R.B. Yadava



Integrated Pest Management of Vegetable Crops


A. B. Rai 19.

Biological Control of Major Vegetable Insect Pests Jaydeep Halder



Diagnostics and Management of Important Bacterial Diseases of Vegetables Sujoy Saha, M. Loganathan, A. B. Rai and Arpita Singh



Quality Seed Production in Vegetable Crops P.M. Singh and Rameshwar Singh



Post-Harvest Management and Minimal Processing in Vegetables Sudhir Singh



An Outlook of Marketing and Export of Vegetables in India Shubhadeep Roy and Neeraj Singh



Technology Transfer in Agriculture: Some Issues Neeraj Singh and Shubhadeep Roy



Intellectual Property Rights: Acts and Issues Shailesh K. Tiwari and Shubhadeep Roy



Grafting Techniques in Vegetables J. K. Ranjan, Rajesh Kumar, Pradip Karmakar and Pragya



Improved Production Technologies of Leafy Vegetables Pragya, Jyoti Devi and J K Ranjan



Nursery Management for Raising Healthy Vegetable Seedlings S.N.S. Chaurasia



Protected Cultivation in Vegetables S.N.S. Chaurasia



Transgenics in Vegetable Crops Major Singh



Plant Pathogen Interaction and Host Defense Responses Ankita Sarkar, Asha Sinha, B. K. Sarma and H.B. Singh



Vegetable Based Cropping Systems for Different Agro-climatic Zones of India J.S. Bohra



Marketing and Export of vegetables H. P. Singh



Vegetable Production Under Hydroponic Systems Tashi Dorjee Lama



Diverse Group of Vegetable Viral Diseases, Diagnostics and their Management V.Venkataravanappa B. Mahesha and M. Manjunath


Improved Production Technologies in Vegetable Crops

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN INDIA: ISSUES AND STRATEGIES B. Singh ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi- 221 305

1. Introduction Vegetable are important constituents of Indian agriculture and nutritional security. Our country is blessed with diverse agro-climates and distinct season, making it possible to grow a wide range of vegetable crops. The growth in vegetable sector is driven by consumer demand, and the need for farmers to enhance incomes through high value crops. In an estimate, 31% (375 million) of Indians are vegetarian; therefore vegetables play a significant role in nutrition of the diet of vegetarian, especially as sources of vitamins (A, C, B1, B6, B9, E), minerals, dietary fiber and phytochemicals (Dias, 7). Leguminous vegetables are also a major source of protein for the vegetarian. The neutraceutical industry looks at Indian bitter gourd as a potential health capsule without any side effects. In India between 1999 and 2012 per capita consumption of vegetables has doubled (120 g to 230g/day), while cereal consumption has declined by 10 %. But based on projections to 2030, further increases in vegetable production will be needed to meet the demand for fresh, export and processing under changing food scenario. Most of the supply increase could be achieved through higher per-unit productivity and reduction in postharvest losses, but production also needs to be boosted in non-traditional areas, and in home and village gardens, where consumption levels are particularly low. By adoption of modern production technologies such as improved varieties/hybrids, IPM, INM, proper training of farmers, better marketing opportunities and developmental policies of Government culminated in significant increase in vegetable production and productivity in the country. Further, attempts have been made to critically analyze an overview of research developments in the field of genetic improvement, production and protection technology and future strategies to promote the vegetable research in India. 2. Present status of the vegetable Globally, India ranked second in vegetable production and contributed 15.8 and 14 % to global vegetable area and production, respectively. During 2012-13, India produced 162.18 million tons of vegetable from an areas of 9.20 million hectare area with an average productivity of 17.63 t/ha (NHB, 1). India ranked first in production of okra in the world (73 % of world production) and second in brinjal (27.55 %), cabbage (13 %) and tomato (11 %). Productivity of vegetables in India and its global ranking during 2012-13 are given in table 1 and 2. The major vegetable growing states in India are West Bengal (1.35 million ha), Uttar Pradesh (0.82 million ha), Bihar (0.83 million ha), Andhra Pradesh (0.65 million ha) and Gujrat (0.52 million ha) with production of 26.73, 17.70, 14.63, 11.85 and 9.38 million tons, respectively. There had been uneven growth in area, production and productivity (Table 3) of vegetable in the country.


Improved Production Technologies in Vegetable Crops Table 1: Productivity of important vegetables in India and world Vegetable Highest productivity Productivity in Average world (world t/ha) India productivity (t/ha) (t/ha)* Brinjal Egypt (49.2) 18.6 25.0 Cabbage Japan (66.0) 22.9 27.7 Cauliflower Pakistan (24.8) 19.6 16.9 Okra Saudi Arabia (13.3) 12.1** 6.9 Tomato Spain (74.0) 20.7 32.8 Source: *NHB 2012-13, ** NHB 2011-12

Table 2: India’s global ranking for area, production and productivity of vegetables Vegetable Area Production Productivity Brinjal 2 2 8 Cabbage 2 2 8 Cauliflower & Broccoli 2 2 5 Okra 2 1 4 Tomato 2 2 11 All vegetable 2 2 10 Table 3:Vegetable productivity in different states of India Productivity (t/ha) States 25-30 Tami Nadu 20-25 Kerala, J&K, UP, Punjab, MP, Arunchal Pradesh 15-20 Karnataka, West Bengal, HP, AP, Gujrat, Bihar, Delhi, Tripura, Maharastra, Pudducherry, 10-15 Tripura, Odisha, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand,Assam, Goa, Meghalaya, Jharkhand,