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PROJECT TITLE- A Study of CSR and Social Business as a panacea for Social Problems of India. 3. NAME OF COLLEGE- Sri Guru Gobind Singh College of Commerce ..... Urban areas in India alone generate more than 100,000 metric tonnes of ..... initiatives to make India a cleaner country and every citizen should make ...
FINAL REPORT University of Delhi INNOVATION PROJECTS- 2015-16 1.



PROJECT TITLE- A Study of CSR and Social Business as a panacea for Social Problems of India


NAME OF COLLEGE- Sri Guru Gobind Singh College of Commerce

4. • • •

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS Meenu Gupta, Department of Commerce, [email protected], +91-9873089779 Aradhna Nanda, Department of Economics, [email protected], +91-9891119738 Rasleen Kaur, Department of Commerce, [email protected], +91-9560809220


MENTOR- Mr. Ajay Chaturvedi, Rural Social & Economic Development and Consultancy, [email protected], 9810979219

6. • • • • • • • • • •

STUDENTS INVOLVED IN THE PROJECT Aditya Kwatra, Commerce, [email protected], +91-9990389453 Divy Rangan, Commerce, [email protected], +91-9555501750 Gurjyotsna Kaur, Commerce,, [email protected], +91-9711785408 Jasmeet Sachdeva, Economics,[email protected], +91-8130933180 Niyati Bansal, Commerce [email protected], +91- 8130922430 Rashika Sethi, Economics, [email protected], +91-7042254999 Rohan Gupta, Commerce, [email protected], +91- 9650178502 Sajal Jain, Economics, [email protected], +91- 9868429095 Shivi Kalra, Economics, [email protected], +91- 8826972909 Srishti Gupta, Commerce, [email protected], +91- 9711186280

Table Of Contents 1. About the Project …………...................1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Abstract……………………………………………………………………….....2 Introduction…………………………………………………………………….3 Objectives……………………………………………………………………….4 Research problems…………………………………………………………..5 Methodology techniques……………………………………………….15

2. Results and Discussions…………….......16 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Introduction…………………………………………………………………….16 Key Findings…………………………………………………………………….17 Field Visits……………………………………………………………………….56 Seminars Conducted ……………………………………………………….66 Survey Undertaken………………………………………………………….71 Corporate Social Responsibility Analysis………………………….78 Social Business Analysis…………………………………………………..89

3. Innovations shown by the project...101 4. Conclusion and future direction…...106 5. References…...................................117 6. Media Coverage…...........................120 7. Annexure….....................................123

About The Project


PROJECT CODE- SGGSCC 303 PROJECT TITLE- A Study of CSR and Social Business as a panacea for Social Problems of India



Out of the 1/6 of the world‘s population that falls below the poverty line, India has 33% of the world‘s poorest . 1.2 billion people. According to the Planning Commission, 25.7% of people in rural areas and 13.7% in urban areas live below poverty line. Eradication of the poverty remains the biggest challenge before the world. Social Business and CSR spending is considered to be key factors in eradicating poverty. ―Social business‖ is a concept which was originally developed in the context of poor countries, but many countries world-wide are experimenting with this model as an alternative to solve social problems for customers. Unlike a profit-maximizing business, the prime aim of social business is not to maximize profits, although generating profits is desired. The owners of social business do not get dividend out of the business profits. The profits stay back with the companies for expansion and improvement. With the advent of Companies Act, 2013 and spending of two percent of corporate profits on CSR initiatives becoming mandatory, the huge corpus so generated by corporate if utilized to promote social business in India, can accelerate the process of poverty eradication to an unthinkable pace using the same market mechanism which accelerated the global prosperity for the rich in the first place.

The social problems are complex in nature. Therefore it is difficult for the government to solve these problems single handedly. Although NGOs are playing their role towards mitigating these problems, a lot needs to be done. The corporate sector is expected to contribute in the form of Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives. The introduction of compulsory CSR spending in Companies Act,2013 was expected to be a game-changer. The total CSR spending after the enforcement of the law has increased many times. But at the same time, the corporate are devising easy-way out in observing the legal formalities, just by giving away donations to charitable trusts and NGOs. They are least bothered whether their funds are actually used for the desired purpose or not. It has been learnt that some of them are even using this provision for money- laundering purposes by exploiting the loopholes in law. It is desirable that through government intervention, some steps should be taken for effective utilization of these funds. Although, more clarity is required with respect to CSR Rules and other compliance requirements, corporate India has come a long way from being a corporate citizen to becoming a responsible corporate citizen and CSR should move from charitable to sustainable goals, and this could be done through the medium of social business. An attempt has been made under the project to suggest some measures to channelize this CSR pool towards meaningful contributions, which can bring about a seachange in current pathetic levels of social problems. The major idea is to route these funds towards setting up of ‗Social Business‘ which is the key to address the concerns in a sustainable manner.



Today, the researchers and business practitioners look into the potential of business-society relations more strategically. There is an agreement that companies need to devise their business strategies , keeping in mind the societal stake holders‘ expectations . Therefore, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become one of the most influential topics both in academic world and in real life practices. Besides CSR, the concept of ―social business‖ has also attracted the attention of many practitioners from different disciplines. The current mindset of corporate for CSR acknowledges potential trade-offs between short-term profitability and social and/or environmental goals, but it has started recognizing this as an opportunity for building competitive advantage through building a social value proposition into corporate strategies. There is an entire continuum of CSR strategies available, ranging from simple form of donations to active engagement in Corporate Social Responsibility to Social Business. While the underlying goal of any strategy is solving a specific social problem, the mechanisms, philosophies and impact of these strategies would differ significantly. These days, CSR and social business are being seen as different concepts but these two concepts have some things in common. Both want businesses to take the interests of all stakeholders and especially the nonshareholders, while taking a larger and serious role in addressing social and environmental problems. CSR efforts normally focuses on very limited aspects of social problems. In general, CSR projects aim to reduce social and environmental adverse impacts of their business. But, social business movement is anticipated to defy more specific social problems such as nutrition, unemployment, health problems, waste management, etc. In addition; individuals who owned social business idea, are better than big companies at scanning problems. The main motive of compulsory CSR spending by the government is to bring some change for the betterment of the citizens as a company basically uses the society‘s resources to generate their living by earning profits. But the companies are taking this as an opportunity to create more profits rather than doing something for making a change in the lives of the general people of the country. Despite a large number of initiatives taken by the government, NGOs and corporates to tackle the social problems, much still needs to be done, given the vast population of the country and their ever increasing problems. When CSR was made a mandatory initiative for the corporates earning a particular amount of profits or more, it was expected that a major improvement would be seen in the plight of social problems. But the way the entire activity has turned out, does not seem to be satisfactory. If the corpus of huge CSR funds generated could be directed to set up and running of social business, it is sure to make remarkable changes in the Indian Economy.




To identify and specify the extent of major problems of social nature in India like food, health, housing, sanitation, poverty, education, waste collection and disposal, cleanliness and electricity.


To review the progress of various measures initiated by government, non-profit organisations and the corporate efforts through its CSR initiatives in dealing with these social problems.


To find out examples of various social businesses operating in India relating to the aforementioned ten areas of social problems.


To gather various examples from other countries, of social businesses successfully catering to their social problems.


To examine how far these patterns of successful social businesses can be applied in the context of social problems in India.


To identify the various measures that should be taken to promote social business in India.


To find practical solutions to deal with two major social problems: waste management and healthcare.

Research Problems


Identification and specification of ten major social problems of the Indian society like Electricity, Education, Sanitation, Water, Food, Health, Housing, Poverty, Waste Management, Cleanliness and Hygiene. Health, Cleanliness and hygiene, Waste Management and Sanitation are interrelated problems and have been the centre of our research.

Studying the measures initiated by the Government and Not-for-Profit Organizations for tackling these problems.

Studying the impact that Social Entrepreneurship can create in context of India after reviewing its success abroad.

Understanding the impact of CSR and reviewing of CSR initiatives before and after implementation of the Companies Act 2013.

For the purpose of the project, ten major problems of Indian economy were picked for detailed study. The key findings of the study so conducted with respect to four major areas namely, Sanitation, Waste Management, Cleanliness and Hygiene and Health are reported later in the report. A glimpse of each sector is portrayed here-

1. ElectricityOf the world‘s 1.3 billion people who live without access to power, a quarter — about 300 million — live in rural India in states such as Bihar. Night time satellite images of the sprawling subcontinent show the story: Vast swaths of the country still lie in darkness. India, the third-largest emitter of greenhouses gases after China and the United States, has taken steps to address climate change in advance of the global talks in Paris this year — pledging a steep increase in renewable energy by 2030. But India‘s leaders say that the huge challenge of extending electric service to its citizens means a hard reality — that the country must continue to increase its fossil fuel consumption, at least in the near term, on a path that could mean a threefold increase in greenhouse-gas emissions by 2030, according to some estimates.

6 2. EducationEducation problems in India have been in existence for quite some time now and these continue to dog the concerned. India has reached remarkable achievement in economic sector and this has brought a lot of changes in the education sector. But these changes have not turned to be sufficient to solve the extent of Education Problem of India. The problems of education system in India are of grave concern and this concern has not been ignored. The budget for education has been increasing over the years. The present government has undertaken many new initiatives like Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Abhiyan, SAKSHAM for education of person with special needs and SWAYAM ( Study Webs of Active – Learning for Young Aspiring Minds ) Progrram.

7 3. SanitationThe extent of sanitation problem is becoming worse in India. Over 70% of the households in the analysed cities don‘t have access to toilets or a sewage system. Almost 60% of the world‘s population who has to rely on open defecation live in India. It is a common sight in Indian cities to have open channels carrying waste water along the streets which is not only aesthetically questionable but also poses a threat to the health of the people living in those areas. The open channels, regularly clogged by solid waste material that is dumped in the streets, often have to be cleaned by hand. But even if there is a sewage system in most cities, the water is carried to nearby rivers or lakes and enters them without any treatment which causes heavy pollution of these water bodies. Even in Maharashtra, which is one of the richest States in India and where the megacity of Mumbai is located less than 20 cities have a sewage treatment plant. Sanitation is the biggest blot on the human development portfolio in India. The sanitation situation is disastrous (India Environmental Portal). In the past much more money was spent on water supply whereas sanitation was neglected. More initiative towards awareness and public funding is needed to deal with the problem.

8 4. WaterThe cities in India are also complaining about water shortage not to mention many villages which completely lack safe drinking water. In the list of 122 countries rated on quality of portable water, India ranks a lowly 120.Although India has 4% of the world‘s water, studies show average availability is shrinking steadily. It is estimated that by 2020, India will become a water-stressed nation. Nearly 50% of villages still don‘t have any source of protected drinking water. According to 2001 census, only 68.2% households have access to safe drinking water. The department of drinking water supply estimates that 94% of rural habitations and 91% urban households have access to drinking water. But according to experts these figures are misleading simply because coverage refers to installed capacity and not actual supply. The ground reality is that of the 1.42 million villages in India, 1, 95,813 are affected by chemical contamination of water. The quality of ground water which accounts of more than 85% of domestic supply is a major problem in many areas as none of the rivers have water fit to drink. It is bacteriological contamination of water which leads to diarrhoea, cholera and hepatitis which is widespread in India.

9 5. FoodIndia is now facing an acute shortage of food. Indian soil is unable to feed her growing population, for which huge quantities of food grains are imported from the foreign countries like U.K., U.S.A., Australia and Burma. The following are the principal causes of food-shortage in our country: • Want of improved methods of cultivation through science and technology. • Poverty and ignorance of Indian farmers. • Wastage of food in feasts and picnics. • Wastage of food in wrong process of cooking. • Wastage of food for ignorance of preserving method. • Want of cold storage facility. • Defective food habits. • Dishonesty of dealers. • Excessive growth of population

10 6. HealthThe private healthcare sector is responsible for the majority of healthcare in India. Most healthcare expenses are paid out of pocket by patients and their families, rather than through insurance. This has led many households to incur Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) which can be defined as health expenditure that threatens a household's capacity to maintain a basic standard of living. One study found that over 35% of poor Indian households incur CHE and this reflects the detrimental state in which Indian health care system is at the moment. With government expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP falling over the years and the rise of private health care sector, the poor are left with fewer options than before to access health care services. Private insurance is available in India, as are various through government-sponsored health insurance schemes. According to the World Bank, only about 25% of India's population had some form of health insurance in 2010. In 2014, Indian government study found this to be an over-estimate, and claimed that only about 17% of India's population was insured. In major urban areas, the quality of medical care is close to and sometimes exceeds first-world standards. Indian healthcare professionals have the advantage of working in a very biologically active region exposing them to treatment regimens of various kinds of conditions. The quality and amount of experience is arguably unmatched in most other countries. Despite limited access to high end diagnostic tools in rural areas, healthcare professions rely on extensive experience in rural areas. However non-availability of diagnostic tools and increasing reluctance of qualified and experienced healthcare professionals to practice in rural, under-equipped and financially less lucrative rural areas is becoming a big challenge. Although rural medical practitioners are highly sought after by residents of rural areas as they are more financially affordable and geographically accessible than practitioners working in the formal public health care sector. India spends only 1% of its GDP on health, which is half that of China, who is already planning on increasing that by a substantial amount. While we‘re comparing public expenditure, contrast this with Russia and Brazil, whose spending on health is around 3.5% of their respective GDPs.

11 7. HousingAlong with food and clothes, housing or a shelter is one of the three most important requirements of Human Being. If the total population of about 1200 million population is divided by 5, the country requires housing for 240 million families. Of this 2.4 million, around 30% are either house-less or live in thatched collage or houses made of tree and plant live in and bamboo and mud houses. The requirement of house building is a massive program and the Indian Government is aware of it but cannot do much about it because of the following reasons:• Lack of investment and funds. • Lack of building materials like red bricks, timber, steel sections, flats, angles, rods etc. as well as glass, tiles, sanitary-wares and cement and sand, as well as lime and plaster. • Lack of a definite housing program. • Non-availability of low cost housing ideas to be built for village and slum areas.

12 8. PovertyDespite the country's meteoric GDP growth rate (about 9%), poverty in India is still pervasive; especially in rural areas where 70% of India‘s 1.2 billion population live. It is one of the fastest growing economies in the world and yet its wealth is hardly redistributed across the population. India‘s government is well aware that poverty is a giant barrier to overcome if it is to fully develop the nation. A wide range of anti-poverty policies have been introduced since the 1950s, which nonetheless took effect after 20 years of implementation. If the decline in poverty went from 60% to 35% between the 1970s and the early 1990s, globalization and liberalization policies have made this trend go backwards in the 90s. One of the biggest financial inclusion initiatives to combat poverty, PRADHAN MANTRI JANDHAN YOJNA was announced on 15th August,2014 by the Prime Minister of India.

13 9. Waste ManagementIndia‘s rapid economic growth has resulted in a substantial increase in solid waste generation in urban centres. Urban areas in India alone generate more than 100,000 metric tonnes of solid waste per day, which is higher than many countries‘ total daily waste generation. Large metropolitan cities such as Mumbai and Delhi generate around 9000 metric tonnes and 8300 metric tonnes per day respectively. Due to rapid economic growth, Indian cities are expected to only intensify their consumption patterns. However, India‘s per capita waste generation is significantly lower compared to that of developed world. Traditionally, less economically developed countries suffer from poor-quality waste management services due to their lack of infrastructure. But their waste generation rates are usually low and hence issues related to scale do not tend to arise. On the other hand, richer economies enjoy very efficient waste management services owing to their superior infrastructure and community awareness of sustainability issues. But they grapple with issues of scale including problems such as scarcity of land for disposal and disposal technologies.

14 10. UnemploymentUnemployment is the core problem for any developing country in this world. It is the root of poverty and exploitation. Unemployment leads to deprivation of basic necessities of life. It is a major social issue which needs immediate attention. Unemployment measures are recorded by the Ministry of Labour and Employment of India. The major step taken by the Government of India in this direction is Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 which guarantees 100 days of employment to an unemployed person in a year. In India, the major problem is of underemployment. This refers to that unemployment when a person accepts employment which is lower in position as compared to the skillset possessed by the individual. In order to reduce unemployment, a new scheme Back To Work Family Dividend was introduced to help job seekers with families, including lone parents, to return to employment. Under the scheme, job seekers returning to work retain the element of the welfare payment which they receive for their children.

Methodology and Techniques


 Holding team meetings on the weekly basis for due discussions & division of the tasks to be accomplished.  Holding meetings with the mentor to assess the progress of the project and to discuss the future course of action for the project.  Survey of literature using the secondary sources including internet, research papers, text books, newspaper etc.  Division of team into units based on competencies. One unit collects the literature to support the research while the other undertakes the field visits etc.  Team visits to seminars & workshops on CSR, Social business, Innovations in Waste Management.  Conducting waste management workshop cum seminar in the college as well as a residential society to aware people about the extent of existing problem and suggest measures to reduce the problem of waste management.

 Meetings with suppliers to gain first hand information on working of the waste convertor machines and all the whereabouts and formalities to be observed in installation of machines.  Field trips and site visits to inspect & understand the machines installed at various places by these suppliers.  Conducting surveys through survey forms to study the level of awareness among people and analyze the data.  Field surveys to various less developed areas in and around Delhi to collect first hand data about the existing conditions in those areas, to deliberate upon them to suggest possible solution .

Results and Discussions


INTRODUCTION The present scenario is that India is making much progress economically but still much needs to improve in the social sectors. In the growing trend and support for the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, we laid stress on waste management issues prevailing in India and how to overcome them. It is one of the key areas which needs to be emphasized upon. Improvement in this sector can lead India to develop progressively. The areas of sanitation, electricity, cleanliness and hygiene, health are closely related and therefore, are also covered. The extensive research made includes the identification and specification of different problems and extent of these problems, also the various measures initiated by the government, NPOs and NGOs in the country and examples of social businesses operating inside and outside India. During the course of this project, the team inspected various aspects of Corporate Social Responsibility and collected a lot of secondary data.. A comparison of CSR activities of ten companies listed on NSE, before and after the mandate in the Companies Act 2013 was done and analyzed..

A discussion has been made about the concept of social business, its utility in addressing of social problems, how they are different from traditional business model and what are the challenges faced by social entrepreneurs. Examples of various social business have been collected and an idea has been formed regarding the replication of these models in Indian conditions.



SANITATION INTRODUCTION "Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal― (according to The World Health Organization). Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, grey water), industrial wastes and agricultural wastes.



We can easily make out that the number of households with latrines in their premises has increased in India from 36.7% in 2001 to 46.9% in 2011. This accounts for a total of 10.2%. Whereas the number of households with no latrines has decreased by about 10.5% with being 63.6% in 2001 to 53.1% in 2011.

19 EXTENT OF PROBLEM The World Health Organization and United Nations Children‘s Fund (UNICEF) estimate that there are more than 620 million people practicing open defecation in the country i.e. over 50 per cent of the population. More than half of 1.2 billion people in India live without toilets. According to the Census 2011, less than 31 per cent of Indian population has access to sanitation facilities. According to official reports, 78.27 million individual household latrines were constructed under the Total Sanitation Campaign (renamed as Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in 2012) between 2001-02 and 2010-11. However, according to the Census of India, over the same period, number of households having latrines within premises increased by only 21.2 million. Moreover, the latest Census data reveals that the percentage of households having access to television and telephones in rural India exceeds the percentage of households with access to toilet facilities. This, despite the Indian government spending close to Rs 1,250 billion on water and sanitation projects in the last 20 years. In 2013, the UPA government mounted the sanitation budget to Rs 15,260 crores against the revised estimate of Rs 13,000 crores. The extent of sanitation problem is becoming worse in India. Over 70% of the households in the analysed cities don‘t have access to toilets or a sewerage system. Almost 60% of the world‘s population which has to rely upon open defecation lives in India, but this number also includes many people in rural areas. It is a common sight Indian cities to have open channels carrying waste water along the streets which is not only aesthetically questionable but also poses a threat to the health of the people living in those areas. The open channels, regularly clogged by solid waste material that is dumped in the streets, often have to be cleaned by hand. But even if there is a sewerage system in most cities the water is carried to nearby rivers or lakes and enters them without any treatment which causes heavy pollution of these water bodies. Even in Maharashtra which is one of the richest states in India and where the megacity of Mumbai is located, less than 20 cities of 249 have a sewage treatment working. The Minister for Rural Development Jairam Ramesh recently said that ―sanitation is the biggest blot on the human development portfolio in India. The sanitation situation is disastrous‖ (India Environmental Portal).

20 PROPOSED SOLUTIONS  Maintenance of public toilets: The Government should keep regular check on maintenance of public toilets and ensure clean public toilets in every area.  Survey: The Government should conduct detailed surveys in every rural area regarding sanitation facilities and should lay detailed analysis of the problems. Also, basis the conclusions of the surveys, the government should take necessary actions to solve the problem.  Awareness: Efforts should be made by student groups to change the mindset of people. The more people will think about keeping their surroundings clean, the more effort they will apply towards it.  Education: Special sessions should be organised in every rural area regarding sanitation and hygiene to educate rural people to follow basic sanitation practices.  Promoting sanitation: Many diseases are spread from person to person by germs in feces. Some experts believe health problems from poor sanitation can be prevented only if people change their personal habits, or ―behaviours,‖ about staying clean. But this idea often leads to failure because it does not consider the barriers that people face in their daily lives, such as poverty or lack of access to clean water. Thus, when behaviour does not change, people are blamed for their own poor health.  Sustainable Sanitation: When planning or making changes in household or community sanitation, keep in mind that every sanitation method should do these things:  Prevent disease – it should keep disease-carrying waste and insects away from people, both at the site of the toilet and in nearby homes.  Protect water supplies – it should not pollute drinking water, surface water, or groundwater.  Protect the environment – ecological sanitation can prevent pollution, return nutrients to the soil, and conserve water.  Be simple and affordable – it should fit local people‘s needs and abilities, and be easy to clean and maintain.  Be culturally acceptable – it should fit local customs, beliefs, and desires.  Work for everyone – it should address the health needs of children and adults, of women and men.

21 A CASE STUDY: X-RUNNER BACKGROUND Lima is the second-driest capital city in the world owing to its desert location and the impacts of climate change. Faced with an acute shortage of water, the state-owned water utility recently announced that it would not build sewers for any communities in Lima that became formal after 2004. This decision leaves 3 million residents without access to the city‘s water or sewage system, and so without water-based toilets. The utility is, therefore, exploring alternative, waterless sanitation solutions, including one developed by xrunner, a pioneer in sustainable sanitation. Most Lima residents who lack sewage system access currently use pit latrines, which pose a number of hygienic risks. Moreover, for logistical and cost reasons, people generally close up latrines when full (rather than having them emptied) and build new ones, rapidly using up available space and increasing the risk of ground collapse due to soil contamination.

Run as a social business, x-runner has developed a system that satisfies the needs of users while meeting modern standards of sanitation and waste treatment. Its portable dry toilet separates liquid from solid waste, collecting the latter in a bin lined with a compostable bag. The system includes a weekly pick-up service whereby full bags of solid waste are collected from customers‘ homes and treated at a hub facility through a composting process. X-runner‘s sanitation service is designed to be both economically and practically attractive to consumers in Lima. To subscribe, customers pay an initial fee of USD 35 for the toilet plus a monthly fee of USD 14 for the pick-up service. In a pilot program involving 50 households, the toilet proved to be aesthetically appealing and comfortable for people of all ages to use. At the end of the pilot, 93% of users opted to keep the toilet.


23 OBJECTIVES This project will test whether x-runner‘s sanitation solution is scalable and sustainable in economic, ecological and social terms by offering it to 550 households in Villa El Salvador and San Juan de Miraflores, two Lima districts that are not covered by a water-based sewage system. In particular, the project seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of the dry-toilet technology and hub system; the existence of demand for a dry toilet, the weekly pick-up service and the compost produced at the treatment facility; and the ability of x-runner‘s business model to become self-financing and to improve customers‘ lives. By February 2015, x-runner aims to: • Have a product design ready for production • Develop an efficient system for processing waste from 550+ households per week • Establish a professional sales team consisting of community members, and employ 18 people in total • Collect 20 tons of solid human waste a month • Produce 11 tons of compost a month • Reduce the cost per user to 7 cents a day APPROACH Sewers are still considered the safest method of urban sanitation. Where they fail or become obsolete due to lack of water or because communities have developed too fast for the sewage system to keep up, xrunner can fill the gap. Its sanitation system has been designed in collaboration with the residents of slums and other underserved communities to meet their specific needs. The toilet is hygienic and easy to use, clean and maintain – involving no complex mechanics, electrical parts or chemicals – and the service is reliable and of high quality.

What most clearly distinguishes x-runner‘s solution from the host of alternative sanitation technologies that have emerged in the last few years, however, is that it encompasses the collection and ecologically sustainable processing of the output of its toilets, thus, providing a ―cradle-to-grave‖ solution. The pickup service offers a platform not only for implementing dry toilets, but also for testing and scaling up other new technologies. To realise its goal of proving the sustainability of its sanitation solution, x-runner has developed a business plan together with the Agora Partnerships, a Latin American business accelerator, and will continue improving it with NESst (Non-profit Enterprise and Self-Sustainability Team). After completion of this project, x-runner will find a subsidiary in Peru while maintaining a non-profit arm, Sansisol, to carry out research, innovation development, treatment methods and quality controlling on an ongoing basis.

24 BENEFICIARIES This project will bring hygienic, affordable sanitation to 550 households, or a total of about 2750 people, in Villa El Salvador and San Juan de Miraflores.

IMPLEMENTATION IN INDIA This business can be implemented in India for sustainable sanitation. This will serve the rural people who face problem of sanitation and will prevent diseases due to sanitation problem. This requires:     

Efficient party to undertake this project and spread awareness about the project Analysis of areas which face problem of sanitation, so that the target market can be established Coordination with the government for implementation of the business in different areas of the country Development of huge network which supports the plan Effective coordination between households and company providing services is also necessary.

GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Government of India launched a new urban sanitation policy in which it emphasizes behavioural change, alongside technological advances, as the key to effective sanitation. The Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) has announced an award plan, as part of this initiative, to motivate cities and urban local bodies to achieve total sanitation. The Nirmal Shahar Puraskar (Clean Cities Award), designed along the lines of the rural sanitation rewards scheme, honours cities that achieve total sanitation, including open defecation-free (ODF) status and 100 percent safe waste disposal. At a national workshop to launch the policy, Mr. M. Ramachandran, Secretary, MoUD, said, “The policy attempts to address the many institutional issues, the plight of the urban poor, especially the manual scavengers, the lack of awareness on sanitation, integrated planning, and the lack of technical knowhow and capacity- which causes most of our infrastructure facilities to not operate efficiently.‖ According to the 2001 Census, almost 26 percent of urban households do not have access to sanitation, and untreated waste water from households accounts for 80 percent of the pollution of surface water. The MoUD consulted widely in formulating the national urban sanitation policy in order to tackle these issues. In 2005, an inter-ministerial national task force on universal sanitation in urban areas was formed to frame the national policy. Representatives included other ministries and states, along with academics and NGOs to formulate a holistic, pragmatic solution to the sanitation challenge in India.


A national task advisory group on urban sanitation has been established to mobilize governments and civil society to create community-driven Nirmal Shahars, or totally sanitized cities and towns. The MoUD also developed guidance notes for states and cities to design strategies, detailing key institutional, financial, and social indicators required for implementation. States and cities must change collective behaviour regarding sanitation to ensure sustainability of resources, and accountability for doing so is made local. WSP provided the MoUD with technical and logistic support. A key highlight of the policy and the award plan is that the focus is not on infrastructure development alone but outcomes and behaviour change. Under the policy, all states are required to develop state sanitation strategies according to the national guidelines. Six states have already started doing so, and one city has started a citywide sanitation planning process, also in line with the policy. It is a good sign that the Government is taking initiatives like Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, cleanliness drives in school, waste management initiatives at school level, etc. Starting these initiatives at school level will not only lead to a better situation but it will also put it in the minds of the youth that it is not the sole duty of the government to make the country clean. The citizens, especially the youth of the country has to take up initiatives to make India a cleaner country and every citizen should make sure that he/she is practising these initiatives at an individual level. This initiative will further lead to encouragement of other people living around that individual.


WASTE MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION Waste is defined as an unwanted or unusable material which has no further purpose. Waste Management is the process of dealing with wastes. Often, the first sight you see when you leave your home in the morning is the big dump of waste by the corner or the overflowing of drains. It is terrible until you become used to it. It is not peculiar that India is becoming the largest rubbish dump in the world. In India, an integrated approach to waste management is essential. Such an approach can lead to economic growth as well by creating a more efficient environment for industrial and services sector. India provides home to 17% of world population and is becoming powerful everyday but the major hindrance to this, as put in the words of Sunita Narain, director of the non-governmental Centre for Science and Environment, ―We are drowning in our excreta.‖ You just can‘t ignore the fact that the majors rivers, (Ganges and Yamuna) in this country are already prone to highly toxic wastes. Some part of these rivers don‘t flow at all. The major problem for waste management is that a very small percentage of funds is provided by the Government which often limits the improvement in this sector. Waste management industry is yet to establish fully in India.


  

In India, around 0.1 million tones of wastes is generated everyday which amounts to around 36.5 million tones annually. The urban local authorities spend around Rs 500- Rs 1500 per ton on waste management. Around 60% is for collection, 30% on transportation and less than 5% on final disposal. Only 68% of total waste generated is collected and about 28% of this gets treated by concerned authorities. If this situation continues then, it is estimated that the total waste generation will add to 165 million tones by 2031 and to 436 million tones by 2050. This proves that the issue of waste management requires immediate attention. If the waste generated is treated well, it could lead to formation of energy. There are a total of 2200 waste-to-energy plants in this world of which, the European union has 445, China has 150, USA has 86 compared to India which has just 8. As per the World Health Organization, 22 diseases can be prevented by improving waste management in India. According to a survey done by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), around 15346.2 tones per day plastic waste is generated in 60 cities of India.

Source :

28 NGO AND GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES With growing urbanization and rapid increase in population, waste management has become an important challenge for this country. It is high time that NGO‘s and Government come forward to improve the scenario regarding wastes management. Some of the major initiatives are :  

  

Waste Ventures: It is a social enterprise which aims at creating sustainable waste management systems. It was founded by Parag Gupta who wanted to create an innovative structure for waste management which includes door-to-door collection and carbon credits for environment conservation. Clean Ahmedabad Abhiyan: ―Zero garbage on road‖- the slogan for this Abhiyan was a remarkable initiative towards this direction. It was formed by concerned citizens and voluntary organizations. The main aim is to find permanent solutions to health hazard and sanitation problems caused by decomposing garbage on roads. Public awareness was encouraged as people were asked to separate between wet garbage and dry garbage. Shuddham, an NGO working in Pondicherry towards residential waste management: It promoted the much needed awareness and encouraged source separation. A large number of resident population participated enthusiastically for waste management services. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: It is a national campaign by the Government of India aimed at cleaning the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country. It was officially launched on 2nd October, 2014 by the Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi. It is India‘s biggest cleanliness drive till date. Role of Government: The Government should fully concentrate on certain areas which are unmanageable by the local bodies. It should restrict itself to limited areas to be more efficient. It should also keep aside a good amount of funds for waste management activities.

29 PROPOSED SOLUTIONS There is an urgent need to address the issue of waste management problem in India. The proposed solutions to interpret this problem are as follows:    

Proper institution building: The most important aspect of waste management is the linkage between required institution and effective entrepreneur participation. CSR should be done much above the required percentage of 2% in this sector. Awareness Programs: Awareness seminars and programs could be held in societies and colleges to make people aware about the consequences of ill treatment of wastes and effective waste disposal solutions. Emphasis on source separation: Emphasis should be laid on source separation itself as ‗Prevention in better than cure‘. Learning values: Children should be made to follow the policy of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. They should be taught to separate different types of wastes- Biodegradable and Non-Biodegradable.


30 INDIA HAS THE CAPACITY TO PROCESS JUST A THIRD OF E-WASTE IT GENERATES In 2005, the Central Pollution Control Board estimated that 1.4 lakh tonne of e-waste was being generated in the country. The board has also estimated that by 2010, the quantity would touch 8 lakh tonne. A recent calculation by a foreign university suggested that the country might actually be generating 17 lakh tonne of e-waste. If this estimate is realistic, then the e-waste recycling/dismantling capacity available in the country is just 26% of what is required.


NUMBER OF DISMANTLING/ RECYCLING FACILITIES 16 16 9 52 15 24 3 7 2 1 2 1 3 151

CAPACITY (‘000 TONNE PER ANNUM) 111.9 73.9 67.5 50.3 50.0 32.6 28.0 20.8 6.6 3.0 1.7 0.6 NA 446.9

Source: Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change Research: Atul Thakur

31 CONCLUSION A small step towards waste management is enough to instill hope that India could achieve tremendous growth and become a developed country. India has outstanding potential in terms of natural resources, manpower and diversity. It can achieve more if waste is treated well. If each individual at his/her personal level aims at minimizing the wastes generated, then these efforts if multiplied can help solve the problem to a great extent.

32 IN HEADLINES Swachh Bharat Gets A Makeover In Rural India Source- Times Of India Date- 3rd August, 2016 The Union Ministry of drinking water and sanitation is bringing in a host of ―out-of-the box‖ ideas to give PM Narendra Modi‘s pet Swachh Bharat campaign a reboot in rural areas. The Ministry, which is led by Chaudhary Birender Singh, realised that the usual run-of-the-mill approach won‘t work if rural India has to become open defecation free (ODF) by 2019. Since 2014, when the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) was launched, around one crore toilets have been built in rural areas as against the target of 12 crore by 2019. From organising monthly ―chai pe charcha‖ of collectors of better performing districts with rural development minister to holding virtual classrooms to motivate villagers to use toilets, the ministry is trying to give a boost to the programme. The ministry is selecting ―champion collectors‖ – who are ahead of others in meeting the target – from 116 districts. Parmeshwaram Iyer, secretary of drinking water and sanitation, said that in the last three-four months there has been a shift in the focus of the campaign. ―From the earlier emphasis on only building toilets, we are now trying to move towards bringing behavioural change among the people to use toilets. There has been a realisation that not enough emphasis was being put on usage,‖ he said.


CLEANLINESS AND HYGEINE INTRODUCTION The one significant area where India lacks in is Cleanliness and Hygiene. India is home to the largest slums in Asia (ref: The Financial Express). We can observe a deep contrast in the Indian mentality. We consider our guests next to God, (‗ATITHI DEVO BHAVA‘), yet we take little care of our surroundings. This issue can prove to be one of the biggest reasons for unexplored tourism in India. The old saying ―Cleanliness is next to godliness‖ seems to be futile to Indian ears. It is logical to conclude that if God is the purest being and heaven is an immaculate home, then cleanliness is a divine virtue which should be aspired for by believers of every religion. A change in the mentality of citizens needs to be brought out. Little initiatives which already have attempted to change the mindsets of Indian citizens like the advertisements and campaigns need to be complemented with strict rules and regulations for bringing out the desired change. We need to incorporate the thinking into the mindsets of people that cleanliness is a responsibility of all of us. EXTENT OF PROBLEM     

According to UN, India has the largest number of people defecating in open-597 million. According to WHO‘s rankings, India ranks ninth in terms of air pollution. Also, Delhi is the world‘s most polluted city. 13 of the most polluted cities happen to be in India. According to WHO, an average of Rs 6500 per person was lost due to the lack of cleanliness and hygiene.  According to UNICEF, 13% child deaths in 2010 in India were caused due to diarrhea-an outcome of poor sanitation.  A 2013 World Bank study reported that environmental degradation and pollution cost India 80 billion dollar per year. (Facts: The Financial Express) PROPOSED SOLUTIONS  The government should come up with ideas in enforcing new laws for maintaining cleanliness and also use fines or penalties whenever required. E.g.: Anti littering laws can be made to tackle spitting, littering and urinating on the streets.  Fines can then be imposed on those who break the law.  The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is also a very good initiative by the Prime Minister of India to encourage people to keep clean their surroundings.  Social figures like famous actors or celebrities, activists and politicians can go way further in spreading education about this issue and making the masses aware of the importance of keeping the surroundings clean.

34 SOCIAL BUSINESS MODELS WHICH CAN BE ADOPTED IN INDIA  Collection of fecal sludge and safe disposal or reuse: On-site sanitation (septic tanks and pit latrines) in cities of developing countries: Encouraging the development of products from excreta and identifying and developing markets for these products will help combat uncontrolled discharge of excreta, which is imperative to achieving public and environmental health objectives. In addition, it will also trigger private enterprise involvement in scaling-up and replication of such approaches. Urban-poor households will benefit from these improved business opportunities through lower costs for services, and improved quality and reliability, and availability.  School toilet cleaning and maintenance services, training and hygiene education.  Creating jobs and income with mobile UDDTs (Urine Diversion Dehydrating Toilets) and UDDT business in India. (Source: akvopedia) CONCLUSION We know that the changes do not come overnight. However, through little and unanimous attempts and good practices of people, we can improve a lot. Sometimes associating the problem with habits and morale of people can work out better than merely imposing laws to eliminate problems from the society. Therefore, it is the mindset that we need to change first before making any significant amendment in the laws.


35 IN HEADLINES North Delhi Municipal Corporation Can Now Repair Drains In Illegal Colonies Source – Times Of India Date- 12th August, 2016 NEW DELHI: North Delhi Municipal Corporation can now finally use its own resources to carry out repair and maintenance of drains in unauthorised colonies. Also for the first time, councilors have been given the go-ahead to use their funds for carrying out development work in these colonies. ―Earlier, the corporation was not allowed to spend on development works in these colonies and projects are carried out using MLA funds. This year, we have decided to give councilors the discretion to use their funds for carrying out development work in these colonies,‖ said Pravesh Wahi, standing committee chairman of North Corporation. The corporation has released Rs 25 lakh to each councilor to carry out development work in their wards. This step is being seen as a move to woo voters ahead of the municipal polls due to 2017. The corporation was earlier only authorised to pick up garbage and sweep roads in unauthorised colonies. As a result, most of these colonies faced waterlogging issues during the monsoon. But after requests by several councilors, the corporation has now directed the engineering and environment management services (DEMS) departments to ensure that drains are repaired and maintained in all unauthorised colonies under their jurisdiction. In the letter dated June 30, the engineering and DEMS departments of North Corporation were directed to carry out repairs and main tenance work of storm water drains. ―Engineers may ensure that repair and maintenance work of drains in an unauthorised colony is confined only to the length and breadth originally constructed by the executing agencies so as to ensure that they are not extended beyond the permissible boundary limits,‖ the letter states. There are around 1600 unauthorised colonies in the city out of which around 450 fall under the jurisdiction of North Corporation. East Corporation has 250 unauthorised colonies and South Corporation around 900. Sources said that soon the south and east corporations may follow the north body‘s footsteps.


HEALTH INTRODUCTION "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease", as defined by the WHO. Health is determined not only by medical care but also by determinants outside the medical sector. There are several other determinants of health which include environmental, biological, socio-economic factors. Better health is central to human happiness and well-being. It also makes an important contribution to economic progress, as healthy populations live longer, are more productive, and save more. Indian Healthcare Industry is divided into two broad sectors - Public and private sector. Public healthcare system comprises of the central government. The government focuses on providing basic healthcare facilities in the form of Public Healthcare Centres (PHCs) in rural and urban areas. In India, private sector is responsible for providing majority of secondary and tertiary healthcare with major concentration in metro cities.

EXTENT OF PROBLEM According to the latest National Sample Survey (NSS) released in 2016, over 80 per cent of India‘s population is not covered under any health insurance scheme. The data reveals that despite seven years of the Centre-run Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), only 12 per cent of the urban and 13 per cent of the rural population had access to insurance cover. Around 86 per cent of the rural population and 82 per cent of the urban population were not covered under any scheme of health expenditure support, the data showed. Further, it was found that coverage is correlated with living standards, as in urban areas, over 90 per cent of the poorest residents are not covered, while the figure is 66 per cent for the richest residents. According to the report, ―The poorer households appear unaware or are beyond the reach of such coverage, both in rural and urban areas.‖


Private doctors emerged as the single-most significant source of treatment in both rural and urban areas. The survey found that 72 per cent of the treatment provided in rural areas and 79 per cent in urban areas was availed in the private sector. In the previous round of this NSS survey, the corresponding figures were 78 per cent in rural areas and 81 per cent in urban areas, which shows that the overall share of public sector have seen a slight increase. The biggest hurdle in seeking medical treatment was ―financial constraint‖, reported by over 55 per cent and 60 per cent people in rural and urban areas, respectively. In rural areas, the next most important reason was ―no medical facility available in neighborhood‖, accounting for 15 per cent cases, while this figure was just 1.3 per cent for urban areas.

38 PROBLEMS 1. Rural Versus Urban Divide: India still spends only about 4.2% of its GDP towards healthcare goods and services (compared to 18% by the US). Additionally, there are wide gaps between the rural and urban populations in its healthcare system which worsens the extent of the problem. A staggering 70% of the population still lives in rural areas and has no or limited access to hospitals and clinics. The rural population mostly relies on alternative medicine and government programmes in rural health clinics. Whereas, the urban centres have numerous private hospitals and clinics which provide quality healthcare i.e. provision of better doctors, access to preventive medicine, and quality clinics.

39 2. Need for Effective Payment Mechanisms: Another key problem of India‘s healthcare system is the high out-of-pocket expenditure (roughly 70%) for common people. This means that most Indian patients pay for their hospital visits and doctors‘ appointments directly with cash after care with no payment arrangements. According to the World Bank report and National Commission's report on Macroeconomics, only 5% of Indians are covered by health insurance policies.

3. Low government expenditure: India faces a growing need to rectify its basic health concerns in the areas of HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrhea. Also, children under five are born underweight and roughly 7% (compared to 0.8% in the US) of them die within 5 years of their birth. Moreover, only a small percentage of the population has access to quality sanitation, which further exacerbates the situation. Even after such high demand, the Indian government spends only about 30% of the country‘s total healthcare budget for primary healthcare. This is just a small fraction of spending of US and UK every year.

4. Large unregulated private sector: The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) 2014 report shows a decrease in the use of public hospitals over the past two decades—only 32% of urban Indians use them now. However, a significant portion of these private practitioners are under-qualified, the report reveals. A recent study in rural Madhya Pradesh revealed that only 11% of the sampled healthcare providers had a medical degree, and just 53% had completed high school.

5.Fragmented health information systems: Getting quality, clean, up-to-date data has become a difficult task in the health sector in India. This is despite the presence of various agencies ranging from NSSO to the Registrar General of India to disease-specific programme-based systems to survey malaria to HIV. Data collected is incomplete (in many cases it excludes the private sector) and many a time, it is forged.


Setting up primary health care centres in rural areas. Health-based start-ups like Zoctr, Healthcare at home, Vatsalya, Care24, Zozz etc. can address a lot of issues plaguing instant access to healthcare in India. Healthcare is undergoing a major change and smartphones will soon replace doctors for more than 80 percent of health-related problems. The Health care sector in India can be transformed by the following Scientific and technical solutions for infectious diseases.  Strengthening internet penetration in India.  Scientific and technical advances related to agriculture.  Scientific advancement in food and nutrition.  Making women aware of their rights to demand good quality of care.  Bringing accountability by highlighting lapses in the health delivery process.  Increasing uptake of appropriate health services at the right venues.  Improving quality of care and population health as measured by life expectancy and other measures of wellness.  Cost containment and pooled risk-sharing by the population to allow financial access to care as well as avoid catastrophic ruin.  Providing access to care to all citizens in an equitable manner.  Ensuring achievement of government‘s commitment to increase public spending on health from less than 1% to 3% of GDP.  Improving quality, performance efficiency and accountability of public and private health systems.  Introducing policy and legislative changes to contain the rising costs of medical care and drugs.  Increasing availability of health services through direct expansion of public health services.  Increasing insurance and risk pooling to include financial protection.  Introducing a predominantly tax-paid universal medical insurance plan that offers essential coverage to all citizens.

41 A CASE STUDY : YUNUS CENTER FOR SOCIAL AND BUSINESS HEALTH INTRODUCTION The Yunus Centre for Social Business & Health is named in honour of Professor Muhammad Yunus, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to advance social and economic opportunities of the poor through work on microcredit. The Centre is directed by Professor Cam Donaldson, Yunus Chair in Social Business & Health and one of the world‘s foremost health economists.

OBJECTIVE The work of the Yunus Centre for Social Business & Health cuts across the three main societal challenges listed in Glasgow Research Strategy - inclusive societies, healthy lives and sustainable environments. Focussing on health and wellbeing, we aim to transform the lives of vulnerable communities through pioneering research in the following three areas: • Micro finance • Social business • Health economics

VISION Our vision is of a unique interdisciplinary centre of excellence, researching the impact of social business, microfinance and wider Third Sector provision on the health and well-being of vulnerable and disadvantaged communities in Scotland, the UK and overseas.

BUSINESS MODEL We undertake applied economic evaluations of health interventions and population health policies in collaboration with research groups locally, nationally and internationally. Within GCU, we work closely with the Safeguarding Health through Infection Protection Programme and the NMAHP Research Unit. We also work closely with Health and Social Care Partnerships in Scotland on developing frameworks for managing scarcity. This work links closely with that of the Centre on microcredit and social business as the Third Sector‘s potential role in providing services and public health intervention is increasingly recognised.

42 The group has a track record of methodological research investigating and developing techniques for the elicitation of preferences and social values. Recently this work has focussed specifically on understanding the value attached to health gains at the End of Life. PROJECTS • Measuring Societal Views-Societal views and the relative value of life-extending, end of life technologies. • Medchamps-MedCHAMPS (Mediterranean Studies of Cardiovascular Disease and Hyperglycaemia): analytical modelling of Population Socio-economic transitions. • Prevention IMPACT-Prevention IMPACT: developing and evaluating economic models for planning optimal cardiovascular prevention strategies. • ReMoDe-A feasibility study for a trial of Recovery versus Mindfulness models for Depression (ReMoDe). • EQWEL-Establishing QALY weights for end of life. Project title: Establishing QALY weights for end of life (EQWEL).

43 GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES 1.National Rural Health Mission: National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is an Indian health programme for improving healthcare delivery across rural India. NRHM was initially launched to address the infirmities and problems, prevailing across the primary healthcare system in India. This mission aims to provide universal access to equitable, affordable, and quality healthcare that is both accountable and responsive to the needs of the people. 2.New Health Policy: In January 2015, the government started their second healthcare initiative, the New Health Policy (NHP). This policy emphasises sourcing of care from the private sector. Public spending on health in India is shared by the central government and the twenty-nine states, with the primary and secondary health system being funded by the states. 3. E-Health: In July 2015, the Prime Minister launched E- health campaign, along with the Digital India campaign. The broad aim of E-health is to provide effective, economical and timely healthcare services to all individuals, and especially to those people who have little access to healthcare services. This service will be linked to Aadhaar numbers, which will make lab reports and OPD appointments easier. An eHospital App has also been launched with an Online Registration System (ORS). This initiative allows us to avoid the hassles of registration and other formalities required at hospitals. 4. Sehat: A unique initiative for healthcare 'Sehat' (Social Endeavour for Health and Telemedicine) has been launched at a government run Common Service Centre (CSC) to empower rural citizens by providing access to information, knowledge, skills and other services in various sectors through the intervention of digital technologies and fulfilling the vision of a ‗Digital India‘. 5.The government has also announced that 3,000 Jan Aushadhi Stores (JAS) will be opened under Pradhan Mantri Jan Aushadhi Yojana (PMJAY) across the country by the end of March 2017.

CONCLUSION We conclude that India lags far behind many countries across the world in terms of healthcare. Health is India's one of the biggest social problems still existing in India. Although government has launched various schemes in this sector to improve health conditions of people specially in rural areas, but the problem still exists in abundance. This is because there is growing burden of diseases, and inequitable distribution of resources among various states and among poor and rich. The problem of inequitable distribution is increasing with time.

44 IN HEADLINES 1) Brave New Workplace: How Reforms Of Labour Laws Can Enrich Both Enterprises And Workers DIPANKAR GUPTA | Jun 21, 2014 Source- Times Of India With a new government that promises to act, there are all kinds of wish lists in the mail. The need to alter our labour laws figures prominently in many of them, but all too often from an interest specific perspective that misses out the whole. The Industrial Disputes Act, for instance, is foundationally flawed because at every step there is a number to climb over or duck under. If a unit has more than 100 workers, then there is one set of rules; if less than 20, but more than 10, then another. Industries are also categorised as small, micro and medium, and once again different regulations govern each of them. Stay employed for 240 days at a stretch and you will get retrenchment wages, if less than that go whistle in the park once you are fired. All of these heighten the atmospherics of hostility in the workplace. The truth is that these numerical thresholds encourage distrust between employers and employees; in fact, they bring out the worst in them. For example, if job permanence is granted only when there are a 100 or more registered workers on the muster, employers will naturally tend to knock this number down by hiring casual or contract labour. This in turn generates another flurry of laws that makes the industrial sector look like a battlefield. But the moment we take these numbers out of the picture, look at the difference this makes. If, without threshold markers, all workers are permanently on the muster, then employers will see no advantage in keeping their units small and functionally inefficient. Nor will one set of workers, namely those on the muster and in large units, be privileged over the others. However, to make this happen, labour too must accept conditions under which they can be dismissed, provided the process of job termination is transparently just. That both sides must give and take becomes apparent only after numerical qualifiers are removed. This is not a wonderland we are talking about. We can see aspects of these, some in full-blown form, in large parts of Europe. Contrary to popular belief in CII and FICCI, even in America hiring and firing is not all that easy. However, for such a scheme to get off the ground at home, the crucial first step is to rid our labour laws of the many thresholds that dog it. For starters, entrepreneurs need to be able to right size their company's bench strength from time to time, but only with good reason. What could these reasons be? They are principally three: indiscipline, bankruptcy and restructuring. All of them can be allowed if the management also undertakes to bear a portion of the cost of dismissal of the worker. Remember, unlike Europe, the unemployed in India enjoy no medical, unemployment or other such benefits. If our labour laws are changed and all employees become permanent (except, of course, those in construction and seasonal industries), dismissal would entail in every instance the payment of severance wages, or retrenchment benefits, as the case might be. You cannot just take away without giving something back in return. This immediately stops the management from being whimsical in getting rid of its workers. Now that there is a monetary sum that they must pay up for firing somebody, such a step will be taken only when

45 there is no alternative but to do just that. In fact, under these altered conditions, management would do well to retain and retrain the workers rather than dismiss them; firing would then become the last option. In fact, keeping workers happy might be the name of the new competition between entrepreneurs. Now that there are no thresholds and all workers are permanent, they can join unions without fear of management reprisal. Nor should this simple act of signing up signal that employees have suddenly become hostile, radioactive material. To take full advantage of this provision, every enterprise should be allowed just one union. This step then undermines another numerical qualifier. It does not matter now how many members a union should have in order to be 'recognised' by the management. The union is still the first port of call when an industrial dispute takes place. In case it fails to resolve the issue, then its functioning is complemented by an internal conciliation committee which has representatives from both workers and management. If within a designated period, this committee too is unable to sort out the problem, the matter then goes up to the labour tribunal whose decisions are final and must be delivered within a fixed time frame. While constituting this adjudicating body, we would do well to follow the Supreme Court's recommendations on the constitutionality of tribunals. But we must start this process by first shaking off the many thresholds that cling to our existing labour laws. Once that happens, a brave, new, enterprise-rich and worker-friendly world opens up. For employers to get control over the enterprise they must respect workers' yearning for permanence. On the other side, for workers to enjoy permanence, they must yield to a reasonable and time-bound process of dispute resolution. Remember it takes two hands to clap, but just one to slap! The choice should be simple. The writer is director, Centre for Public Affairs and Critical Theory, Shiv Nadar University. 2) Mithila Phadke In Mausynram Source- Times Of India Date- 24th July, 2016 Sixty -five km away from Shillong, in a tiny rain-swept village of Mawsynram, where average rainfall is 467 inches (11861 mm) ;this kind of rainfall is not seen anywhere else. One could barely see four feet around them. One could touch the clouds , smell them and even taste them. It is a place where residents use grass to soften the sound of defening rain on their roofs, dry their drenched clothes chulhas as often as thrice a day and won‘t bat an eye when a mass of clouds floats right into their homes. ―slap khyndai sngi: it means ‗nine-day rain‗ in khasi; the areas in Shillong and surrounding region have experienced sixty seven monsoons. This results in noise and damping inside the house which is disheartening for the residents . Kids enjoy the monsoon as it mean holidays for them; this is because when it has been raining a great deal for a week or more at a stretch

46 then holidays are declared. Also there are times when the sound of deafening rain on the tin roof makes it impossible to hear the teacher. Rain also posed a problem for kids, because plastic slippers were too expensive to afford. Soil erosion is one of the outcome of heavy rain . aside from potatoes and turnips that a handful of the residents cultivate for their kitchen, produce in sourced from outside . the sad part about this is that the wettest place on earth experience acute shortage when the monsoon ends. Reservoirs in the area run dry in winter and residents get water supply for just two hours in morning and two hours in the evening . There is a need to solve the problem of water crises. Sohra has faced a similar problem. The Sohra EcoRestoration project was launched in 2010 with support of planning commission. Trees are planted , locals got involved in a campaign and gradually, Cherrapunji‘s forest cover has increased considerably. Efforts were made to expand in Mawsynram and other place in khasi hills. Residents of Mawsynram , a village in Meghalaya which gets a record-breaking 11,861 mm of rain a year , are used to clouds floating right into their homes. But once the monsoon is over, they have to queue up at taps and fight for water.

3) CHINA- From Smog To Diamonds Source- Times Of India Liu Min, an expectant mother in Beijing, is worried about her baby's future. She gets anxious when she thinks of the youngest lung cancer patient in China, who's only eight years old. Air pollution is definitely on the minds of Beijing citizens—and now it‘s driven an artist more than 4,000 miles away to take action. Dutch designer and architect Daan Roosegaarde has created a 23-feet-tall, air-cleaning ―Smog Free Tower‖ and he‘s ready to ship it to Beijing if he gets a green light from the mayor‘s office, with whom he says he‘s had five rounds of talks. His tower works like a huge outdoor air purifier, and Roosegaarde says it can clean 30,000 cubic meters of air in an hour. That means in one-and-a-half days, it could clean the air contained in a typical football stadium. It works through ionization technology, similar to how hair sticks to a balloon‘s surface. The tower consumes a small amount of power, equal to a home-use water boiler. He says he has successfully cleaned a park in Rotterdam and now he‘s looking for partners in China to build and install his towers there. The tiny toxic particles known as PM 2.5 can be inhaled into the lungs. Research from Berkeley Earth, a non-profit that conducts scientific investigations on climate change, shows that 1.6 million people die each year of air pollution in China—a harsh reality of modernization. Beijing has rolled out various measures, including tax reductions for buying hybrid cars, but the four-day stretch of smog at the beginning of December, the worst of the year, reveals there is still a serious problem. The choking haze is a scourge that residents like Liu Min know well. ―I would really like to do it in Beijing first. It is the city


[that] inspired me to do this,‖ Roosegaarde says, adding that he was convinced after more than two years of trips to the Chinese capital. Now he faces a new hurdle: the mayor‘s office keeps postponing. ―It's a very sensitive, political topic.‖ He says he has been approached by air conditioner makers too, including household names in China such as Gree Electric Appliances Inc. and Broad Group, but he decided to work with public interests first, through local government and possibly Tsinghua University, who has also shown interest, according to Roosegaarde. ―You have to build trust; it's China,‖ he says. Roosegaarde first came up with the idea of a Smog Free Tower while visiting Beijing as a speaker at a design event in 2013. He runs a studio in the Netherlands that produces design and architecture projects, with contracts and commissions from museums and local governments. The tower is the first project he started with his own money. In July, he listed the project on Kick-starter with a goal of raising 50,000 euros ($54,350) and it ended up raising 113,153 euros in two months. One of the rewards he offers donors is a ring set with a cube formed from collected smog particles, which are 42 per cent carbon. And if you place ―carbon under high pressure, you get a diamond.‖

Roosegaarde‘s latest goal is to install his towers in 20 to 25 public parks in Beijing. He plans to offer leases to bring down costs. He would like to expand later to other developing nations like India and Mexico, which face similar air pollution problems.


ELECTRICITY INTRODUCTI0N The Electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 275.912 GWh* as of 31 July 2015. Renewable Power Plants constituted 28% of total installed capacity and Non-Renewable Power Plants constituted the remaining 72%. The gross electricity generated by utilities is 1106 TWh** (1106,000 GWh) and 166 TWh by captive power plants during the 2014–15 fiscal. The gross electricity generation includes auxiliary power consumption of power generation plants. India became the world's third largest producer of electricity in the year 2013 with 4.8% global share in electricity generation surpassing Japan and Russia. During the year 2014-15, the per capita electricity generation in India was 1010*** kWh with total electricity consumption (utilities and non-utilities) of 938.823 billion or 746 kWh per capita electricity consumption. Electric energy consumption in agriculture was recorded highest (18.45%) in 2014-15 among all countries. The per capita electricity consumption is lower compared to many countries despite cheaper electricity tariff in India.

*GWh=Gigawatt hours,**TWh=Terawatt hours,***KWh=Kilowatt hours




Heavy public sector involvement: The public sector is known to be lax with respect to efficiency and targets. The public sector idea was good when private players could not generate enough capital to set up plants. Also, it was a good idea to provide power to the poor as public sector is not known to be highly profit-oriented. Currently, about 86 GW and 62 GW of installed capacities are owned by the Central and State Governments respectively. Not meeting plans (related to electricity): These are statistics of achievements in power generation by five year plans: 7th plan: 96% 8th plan: 53.8% 9th plan: 47.5% 10th plan: 51.5% 11th plan: 88.1%* The GOI makes detailed plans along with private and state players with respect to generation including location of plants, sources of fuel etc. If all involved parties were to actually execute all the plans they have on paper, we wouldn't have any problems. *The 11th plan figures seem impressive because it had a mid-term appraisal in 2009 where the target was lowered due to economic slowdown.

Power generation statistics across different five year plans

51 3. Inadequate last mile connectivity It is the main problem to supply electricity to all users. The country already has adequate generation and transmission capacity to meet the full demand temporally and spatially. However, due to lack of last-mile link-up with all electricity consumers and reliable power supply (to exceed 99%), many consumers depend upon diesel generator sets using costly diesel oil for meeting unavoidable power requirements. The distribution companies should focus on providing uninterrupted power supply to all the consumers who are using costly DG sets‘ power. Emergency supply power line shall supply power when the normal power supply line is not working. Emergency power supply would be charged at higher price without any subsidy but less than the generation cost from diesel oil. Nearly 80 billion KWh electricity is generated annually in India by DG sets which are consuming nearly 15 million tons of diesel oil. 4. Coal scam: While the monetary losses of coal scam (2004-2009) have been highlighted by the media, the loss of resources have been completely ignored. Here companies are generating power virtually for free and using up as much coal as they wish. If coal reserves are to be used up, the price of import (3 times that of domestic coal today) will make power generation impossible.

52 5. India's coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants are inefficient and lead to greenhouse gas (CO2) emissions. Compared to the average emissions from coalfired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants in European Union (EU-27) countries, India's thermal power plants emit 50% to 120% more CO2 per kWh produced. 6.. Shortages of fuel: Despite abundant reserves of coal, India is facing a severe shortage of coal. The country isn't producing enough to feed its power plants. Some plants do not have reserve coal supplies to last a day of operations. India's monopoly coal producer, state-controlled Coal India, is constrained by primitive mining techniques and is rife with theft and corruption; Coal India has consistently missed production targets and growth targets.

Source: Central Electrical Authority Report dated 31-1-16

53 PROPOSED SOLUTIONS  There is a need for alternate energy which will not only, offset the demand of conventional fossil fuel, but also, pave way for cleaner solutions. A green growth economy is the need of the hour.  There is a need to move away from traditional methods of generating electricity. Dependence upon a single source of power like thermal power plants must be stopped. Any state having excess power should share it with neighbouring states and Indian states need to move away from this dependence as well.  Making the communities or colonies mini-power generating locations. This can be done by producing our own solar electricity on our roof tops through solar power. The government should come up with a user and investor friendly policy on solar roof-top energy generation. With every other household generating its own electricity, the entire system automatically becomes more efficient and less corrupt.  A Bengaluru-based start-up HameshaON has come up with an innovative product that guarantees zero power loss due to theft and commercial reasons. The product designed by them enables peak reduction without causing any inconvenience to customers. It also eliminates the need for power cuts and automates the entire power distribution, billing and payment processes.

Source: Wikipedia

54 A CASE STUDY : OFF GRID ELECTRIC Off Grid Electric, a Tanzanian-registered business that manages sales of solar services from its headquarters in Arusha, and its Seychelles-registered business manages investment, hardware and software development. By March 2014, Off Grid Electric had a staff of approximately 90 people and several hundred local agents.

THE BUSINESS MODEL Off Grid Electric designs small solar-home-systems in partnership with Fosera, a German solar company. The systems, with brand name ‗M-Power‘ are currently manufactured in Thailand. Off Grid Electric provides an agreed level of service from a solar-home-system installed in a customer‘s home. The customer pays for the service using mobile money, with a minimum payment of one day‘s use. A network of local agents is used to find customers, install systems and provide on going customer support. Use of tailored smartphone apps linked to a complex database allows customer, system and payment information to be integrated. Cloud-based servers keep data secure. The entry-level service is two bright lights and a phone charger for eight hours per day. Customers can add further appliances at an additional cost.

HOW IS IT PROMOTED? Off Grid Electric works area by area to recruit customers. Work in an area starts with a publicity campaign and installation of some demonstration systems. Local people who are interested to become agents pay a (refundable) fee for training and become responsible for recruiting customers and installing systems in their neighbourhood. After a system is installed, the payment control is set up by the agent, who shows the customer how to operate the system and then the customer is required to make their first payment.

HOW MUCH DOES IT COST AND HOW DO USERS PAY? US$1 = 1,600 TZS (Tanzanian shillings) April 2014 = Rs. 49 Customers pay a deposit of TZS 10,000 or Rs 306 and a daily fee of between TZS 300 and 1,000 (Rs 9 and Rs 30), depending on the level of service that they have chosen. All payments are made using mobile money. Many people in Tanzania can use this through their own mobile phone, or else through a local mobile money kiosk. But those without easy access aren‘t excluded, because their Off Grid Electric agent can take cash and make the payments for them.

ACHEIVEMENTS Sales started in Tanzania in April 2012. By the end of March 2014, Off Grid Electric systems were in use in over 10,000 households, bringing benefits to over 45,000 people.

55 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS Reducing kerosene use cuts greenhouse gas emissions i.e. the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) default value for the saving is 0.092 tonnes/year CO2e per kerosene light point. With between two and three kerosene lamps replaced by each Off Grid Electric system, the saving from systems currently in use is over 2,300 tonnes/year CO2e. Further cuts result from the reduction in soot (black carbon) emissions.

THE FUTURE Off Grid Electric has already begun rolling out its solar-powered electricity services across Tanzania, bringing in an increasing range of appliances with TV next in the pipeline. When the company‘s regional expansion process is well established, it will start operations in other countries.



VISIT TO BAWANA INTRODUCTION The Innovation Project team organized two visits to village Bawana, Delhi on 16th March 2016 and 21st May 2016. The aim of the visit was to know and assess the problems faced by the people living in that area and find a sustainable solution to help them in the best possible manner. We know that majority of the Indian population lives in villages. But regrettably, these people live in abject poverty. They don‘t have good roads. There are few good doctor and hospitals. There are insufficient facilities for educating the masses. The bulk of the people in these villages are illiterate and ignorant. "Bhaiya Ji, are you a government representative? A woman asked one of our team members. "No. I am not from the government‖, he answered humbly. She then added, ―People come and go to our village but do nothing to reduce our miseries‖. (A real incident from village Bawana). This incident shows how people in the village has lost any hopes of improvement or help from outside.

ABOUT BAWANA Located in the North Western part of Delhi, Bawana is surrounded by the villages of Bajitpur, Daryapur, Majra Dabas, Pooth Khurd, Holabmi Khurd, Kheda Khurd etc. The village is currently represented by Sh. Ved Prakash (Aam Aadmi Party) in Vidhan Sabha. There are many schools (both private and government) and 2 colleges namely, a girl‘s college under Delhi University named Aditi Mahavidyala and Delhi School Of E-learning located in Bawanagaon. Just like the rest of India, where people from rural areas are migrating to urban areas in search of a better life, Bawanagaon is no exception. People from Bawanagaon migrate to the capital city. People also migrate to Bawana to be employed in the industrial area. (Source- Wikipedia)


PLACES VISITED The team visited two places in Bawana:

1. BAWANA INDUSTRIAL SECTOR This is probably the best planned industrial area of North Delhi with about 24,000 industries built by different companies. It has been established in the last 10 years. It has a huge electricity plant, which provides electricity 24*7 to the all the industries in the area. The area

58 is dominated by owners of the factories and labour class (both males and females) who work for about 10 hours daily. It is a well developed area with almost all basic facilities like electricity, water, hygiene available to the people. 2. BAWANA VILLAGE This village is 5 km far from the industrial sector. Around 200 families reside in this village and their lives are miserable. It is an underdeveloped village with uneducated population.

Bawana Industrial Sector

Bawana Village

59 SOCIAL ISSUES SURROUNDING BAWANA We went to Bawana as social researchers. We collected statistics which may or may not be directly useful for the project but which do speak of the state of the village. The village has a dense population with inhabitants living nearer to one another. There is also a high incidence of poverty in the area. We met people who have migrated from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar etc. to Bawana and are working in the Industrial Area. High levels of illiteracy, inadequate health care and extremely limited access to social services are common among these people. The most mentioned category of problem in the industrial area relates to connectivity via Metro and sanitation in Bawanagaon.

PEOPLE INTERVIEWED AT BAWANA We interviewed a number of residents of Bawana and workers in the industrial area. In case of industrial sector the common problems faced is of proper connectivity from city, shortage of labour etc.

60 ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES In the industrial sector, the government has played a major role in the development of the area which can be seen in the form of well-maintained infrastructure. People are satisfied with the role of the government in the area. Also, the government is working on developing proper connectivity from the industrial sector to major places. But the government has failed to play its role in the development of the Bawana village. We were informed by the people that the elected representative are inattentive to their woes. They have complained a lot but no action has been taken so far.

SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS  Authorities need to ensure a compulsory connection of clean water and sanitation services to all the houses. Governments can also ensure establishment of multiple public toilets, which will help dramatically. The lack of public toilets leads to open defecation and in turn spreads infections. Public toilets should also be maintained properly. Education status of the society has to be improved. Increased awareness of different diseases and sanitation problems will lead to informed decision making and better hygiene practices.  Proper transportation facilities should be provided to the people commuting from Bawana to Delhi.  Proper waste management system should be decided and implemented.  Supply of clean water should be ensured.

PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP) MODEL PPP model would be an ideal solution for the problems faced by people living and working in Bawana. It will be helpful in improving the transportation facilities to and fro the industrial sector. In the village, government needs to pay a lot more attention. Major work has to be done by the government. All the basic amenities such as toilets, electricity, sanitation etc. have to be provided. The private sector can play a major role in solving the problem of sanitation. CONCLUSION A question that comes to our mind is that ―Why do these people expect someone else to do things for them?‖ No nation has been developed because of the virtue of its government but citizens. The villagers should now not be dependent upon outsiders for their development. It will be wrong to say that the villagers would not like to do something for themselves. Though, the government and the private sector are required to make them do that. Our country doesn't lack anything. It is not the population, poverty, unemployment which is hindering the progress of the country. But it is just the right attitude lacking in people which makes it difficult for this country to progress. When this changes, everything will automatically take course and lead this country to the state where no one can conquer it. Without that attitude, whatever we do would collapse forever.


Date – 29th-30th September, 2015 Our team attended an exhibition, ―CSR Exhibition & NGO Expo‖ organized at Gurgaon, Haryana by the Aditya Birla Group, where many companies participated to showcase their CSR activities. It was an assembly of India‟s Strongest, Sustainable & Socially Responsible Brands, Corporations, Foundations, PSEs & NGO's. Leaders from Corporations and Organizations namely, Aditya Birla Group, Reliance Foundation, Maruti Suzuki Foundation, Max India Foundation, DLF Foundation, Sulabh International, WockHardt Foundation, Jindal Steel Works Foundation, Kajaria Ceramics, Unicharm etc. spoke at the exhibition.

62 In the exhibition, many NGOs from all over the country participated in the event to showcase their workings. Many startups with innovative ideas on waste management, paper recycling, sanitation, hygiene, technical education for youth etc. also presented their models.

The CSR Good Book was released at the event. The book is a collection of CSR Activities done by big corporations like Aditya Birla Group, Canara Bank, DLF Foundation, ESSAR, Ford India, Fortis, Fullerton, Hero, Muthoot, ONGC, SAIL etc.



Our team attended the 2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WASTE MANAGEMENT INNOVATION : Research, Learning and Propagations at TERI University, Vasant Kunj, Delhi. The Conference held on 15 January 2016 aimed at fostering innovation solutions in the solid waste sector, developing a research and technology agenda to tackle the problems and enhancing peer to peer learning.

64 The conference was attended by around 100 delegates including students, professors and speakers from various fields. The conference was divided into 3 broad sessions. Session 1 : Waste Management in India: Current scenario Chair: Dr. Namrata Pathak, Director and Scientist at Department of Science and Technology, Government of India

Session 2 : Waste Management- A way forward Chair: Dr. S.K.Nigam, Additional Director at CPCB, Government of India Session 3: Sustainability-Think Green Chair: Prof. Arun Kansal, Head at TERI University These interactive sessions were conducted through demonstrations and presentations and showed audience the huge scope of development in India, if the millions of tons of waste is managed properly and converted into some useful tangible products by affordable technological means.

MEETINGS WITH DEALERS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT MACHINES It is a huge problem in India that the citizens of our country are not able to manage their waste properly which is leading to the creation of dump yards in several areas. The Government is taking initiatives like Swachh Bharat Abhiyan but it is the responsibility of the individual citizens to start managing their waste. With reference to the Hindustan Times report dated 9th Feb, 2016, 4.7 million tonnes of waste is generated daily in the world and in India only, 0.14 million tonnes of the same is generated daily. While doing the research, we learnt that the awareness of the importance of managing waste is needed to be spread among the common people. In line with that we organised two seminars at the community level and educated the masses about waste management machines. During the research, we learnt about various companies like SMS Hydrotech, Ecoman, Green Revolutions Engineering Pvt. Ltd., Urban Solutions etc. which manufacture and/or distribute waste convertor machines. Meetings were organized with these vendors and following was discussed1. Main motive of installation of these machines. 2. Cost of the machine. 3. AMC. 4. Benefits of installing these machines. 5. Cost-Benefit Analysis 6. Different services offered by the vendors etc.

65 After conducting several meetings with the vendors, we could find out the prices of different types of machines. Following is a comparative analysis:


SMS Hydrotech

Green Revolutions Engineers

Urban Solutions



100-110 kg



Initial cost

Rs 5,50,000

Rs 4,66,000

Rs 5,62,223

Rs 4,50,000


5% extra

5% extra

5% extra

5% extra


Not included

Not included

Not included

Not included

Installation charges



Not included



1 year

1 year

1 year

1 year



The team conducted two seminars to create awareness about “Innovations in Waste Management”. One of the seminars was conducted in the college itself while the other in a residential society at Rohini, Delhi. The details of both the seminars are as follows:


Our Innovation Project team conducted a seminar on Innovations in Waste Management and the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan under the guidance of Mr. Swagat, chairman SMS Hydrotech. The seminar aimed at sensitizing the youth about the importance of waste management in an interactive manner. The seminar was a great success. Nearly 200 people attended it and took active part in all the activities which were organised. The event was kick started by Mr. Swagat who gave a speech wherein he explained the importance of waste management, told the students about the machines which are available for waste management, their working procedures and innovations in waste management. The speech was followed by 2 activities for engaging the attendees. First activity: The attendees were divided into 10 groups and each group was given a video on a problem related to waste management and they were supposed to conduct a discussion on the same. Post that each team shared their inferences and an innovative solution to tackle the problem. Second activity: The groups were supposed to prepare skit on waste management and the best teams were rewarded. The session was the first in its own kind as students were encouraged to propose solutions to the problems on the basis of their own understanding and creativity. The outcome was that students came with out-of-the-box solutions to deal with the problem of waste management. Following is the Youtube same:






The Innovation Project Team: 303 with the Investigators at the Seminar at Rohini On 1st May, 2016, our Innovation Project team organised a seminar on waste management in a residential society called Ahinsa Vihar, Rohini, New Delhi. In the seminar, around 100 residents gathered to attend the seminar on waste management, so as to implement it in their real lives. The attendees included people from all ages. The Secretary of the society inaugurated the seminar and ensured that he would ensure proper waste management practices in their society.

The program consisted of;  Discussions- First of all there was a general discussion about the general practices of people present related to waste management. Then, a small Power Point Presentation was shown to enhance the knowledge of the people present.  Waste Segregation Fun Activity- In the activity, people were asked to segregate different types of wastes and put it inside a proper dustbin as per the classification. Top winners were awarded and they shared their knowledge and ideas about incorporating waste management techniques in the daily lives.

69  Quiz- It consisted of questions related to waste, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, etc. This helped people to refine their knowledge about waste management in a fun manner. The quiz was well received by the audience.  Feedback form- A feedback cum survey form was distributed in the end. After this people from the audiences were asked to come on stage and share their experience and contribution in the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and Waste Management. Even children were encouraged to share their thoughts.

70 At the end, the project members presented the waste converter machine, and emphasised on the installation of these machines in the society. Various machines like waste converter machine, bio-gas plant, etc. were shown and their models were explained to the residents.

Stills from the Seminar



Our Team has conducted a survey to know the views of people regarding the important issue of Waste Management focusing on the efforts done by the people and their willingness to do something for the society in this regard.  People interviewed- 200 people  Survey site(s)- Different locations of Delhi namely Rohini, Pitampura etc.


19 48 121





OBSERVATON: The majority of the interviewees are of the age group 20-30 years (Youth).

Following is the question-wise analysis of the questionnaire: QUESTION 1.

72 OBSERVATION: More than 85% of the people understand that Waste Management is not only the responsibility of the Government but also, their own.


OBSERVATION: The analysis clearly shows that each and every individual has at least 1 dustbin at their houses which means that they are concerned about making their houses waste free by throwing garbage in the dustbin. But what about further treatment of the waste? Now, let‘s see what people generally do with these wastes.


OBSERVATION: The analysis clearly shows that people generally sell the e-waste generated to the scrap seller to get some money in return. The Second Preference is to give it to someone in need of that thing. Only 2% people said that they properly dispose off the waste by spending some money and giving it to the recycling facility.


OBSERVATION: Paper Waste is the waste which is generated in large amount by each and every household but all have different ways to dispose it off and so does the interviewees. Their First preference is to sell it to the scrap seller and get some money for that. The Second Preference is to burn it or give it to someone to use it for the same purpose.


OBSERVATION: Gau Grass Seva is an initiative started in the area of Rohini and Pitampura in Delhi in which the team roams in the area allotted to them and whosoever wants to give left over food can do so, which is further used to feed cows and now-a-days it‘s the first preference of the interviewees to treat their food waste.


OBSERVATION: Plastic Waste is considered to be the most hazardous waste. Generally, people reuse the plastic bags again and again. The Second Preference is to throw it in the dustbin which is obviously a environmentally unacceptable. QUESTION 7.

OBSERVATION: This clearly proves that most of the people are aware of the waste converting machines that are used to treat food waste and hence, protect the environment. Now let‘s check the willingness of the people to use these waste converting machines.


OBSERVATION: This clearly shows that more than 90% of the people are unwilling to segregate the waste as BioDegradable and Non-Biodegradable Waste. This may be due to ignorance and lack of awareness.


OBSERVATION: This proves that food waste gets generated in ample amount in most of the houses. People need to be cautious of the fact that a large section of the society still does not get to eat food even twice a day.


OBSERVATION: Each and every individual is willing to donate some amount money for the betterment and for the provision of the waste management in the society.


OBSERVATION: More than 60% of the people are unwilling to segregate the food waste as per the prescribed standards. This is mainly because of lack of proper mechanism for waste disposal and there is apprehension if their segregated wastes will be disposed properly or not. There is also lack of awareness in the society regarding waste segregation methods.


• •

The old saying ―cleanliness is next to godliness‖ seems hardly audible to the ears of Indians where the opposite seems to be truer. The most basic step to cure any problem is the willingness to solve the problem. While it was observed that most people in the society have dustbins at home and are willing to contribute for the waste converter machine, majority of them are unwilling to segregate different types of waste. The major issue being lack of awareness of waste management. People rarely know, what to do with e-waste or plastic waste. There is lack of incentive to attract people towards this sensitive issue. They should come forward voluntarily. Since the concept of waste converter machines is new in the context of India, a lot of incentive from the government in the form of subsidies on these machines is the need of the hour. These machines can help in the creation of self sustainable units of waste segregation. Also, the current mechanism of waste disposal needs a drastic change and “waste to energy” plants need to be installed at the government offices. Last but not the least, public awareness programmes need to be organized .



Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) refers to the way a company undertakes activities that positively affect the well-being of employees, local communities, the environment and society as a whole. These actions are expected to earn the trust and respect from all the stakeholders. The last half decade has witnessed a great deal of activity in terms of CSR and has drawn the attention of practitioners and scholars and a consensus is building about the enormous potential of CSR to address environmental and social problems. It is being given due importance by the Government as well. As, it is made mandatory for companies registered under the Companies Act 2013 to contribute a specific sum of money for the CSR Initiative, making India, the first country in the world to make CSR mandatory. COMPARISON OF CSR ACTIVITIES OF COMPANIES India`s new Companies Act 2013 (Companies Act) has introduced several new provisions which change the face of Indian corporate business. One of such new provisions is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The concept of CSR rests on the ideology of give and take. Companies take resources in the form of raw materials, human resources etc. from the society. By performing the task of CSR activities, the companies are giving something back to the society. Ministry of Corporate Affairs has recently notified Section 135 and Schedule VII of the Companies Act as well as the provisions of the Companies (Corporate Social Responsibility Policy) Rules, 2014 (CRS Rules) which has come into effect from 1 April 2014. Section 135 of the Companies Act provides the threshold limit for applicability of the CSR to a Company i.e. (a) net worth of the company to be Rs 500 crores or more; (b) turnover of the company to be Rs 1000 crores or more; (c) net profit of the company to be Rs 5 crores or more. Further as per the CSR Rules, the provisions of CSR are not only applicable to Indian companies, but also applicable to branch and project offices of a foreign company in India. Every qualifying company requires spending of at least 2% of its average net profit for the immediately preceding 3 financial years on CSR activities. The activities that can be done by the company to achieve its CSR obligations include eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, promotion of education, promoting gender equality and empowering women, reducing child mortality and improving maternal health, combating

79 human immunodeficiency virus, acquired, immune deficiency syndrome, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, employment enhancing vocational skills, social business projects, contribution to the Prime Minister's National Relief Fund or any other fund set up by the Central Government or the State Governments for socio-economic development and relief and funds for the welfare of the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, other backward classes, minorities and women and such other matters as may be prescribed. In the light of the compulsion of corporate social responsibility, the members of the team researched 10 companies of different sectors and listed on National Stock Exchange to analyse their activities pre and post the CSR provision in Companies act 2013. They are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Sun Pharmaceuticals Cipla Wipro Infosys Tata Motors Maruti Suzuki ITC Limited Hindustan Unilever SBI Axis Bank


81  Sun Pharma -Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited is an Indian multinational pharmaceutical company which manufactures and sells pharmaceutical formulations with a vision to make good health affordable and accessible to the local communities and society at large. It has taken active part in contributing towards the society in many ways like Daiichi Sankyo Joint Initiative, Ranbaxy Science Foundation, Ranbaxy Science Scholar Awards for Young Scientists and many other ways. It has spent Rs 4.5 Crores in 2012-13 for uplifting the society and nearly Rs 4.6 Crores in 2014-15.

 Axis Bank -Axis Bank Limited is the third largest private sector bank in India. It has the vision of Creating socio-economic impact in the lives of vulnerable and underprivileged sections of the society, Enhancing sustainable livelihood through interventions in the areas of natural resource management, agriculture, livestock etc, Promoting measures to eradicate hunger, poverty and many other areas. It spent nearly Rs 38 Crores towards CSR in 2012-13 and Rs 136 Crores in 2014-15.

 Maruti Suzuki -Maruti Suzuki mainly deals in production of cars. It was earlier a government owned company but in 2007, the government of India sold its complete share to Indian financial institutions and no longer has any stake in Maruti Udyog. As a part of its CSR initiatives, Maruti Suzuki has taken significant steps in the areas of road safety, skill development, community development and employee engagement programs and it spent nearly Rs 23 Crores in 2013-14 toward CSR.

 Cipla -Cipla is a drugs manufacturing company founded in Mumbai in early 1930's. It has identified the following themes to make a difference and effectively contribute to the society- Health and Sanitation, Education, Environment Sustainability, Rural Development and Creation of livelihood opportunities; and few other.

 Tata Motors -Tata entered the commercial vehicle sector in 1954 after forming a joint venture with Daimler-Benz of Germany. It has taken active part in contributing towards the society. It has imitated the Kaushalya, Aarogya and many other activities in order to uplift the underprivileged section of the society. It has contributed vast sums of money toward J&K relief fund and at various places. It has even undertaken certain drinking water projects being completed benefitting about 96,200 lives since inception of this initiative.

 Wipro -It was initially set up as manufacturer of vegetable and refined oils in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India under the trade names of Kisan, Sunflower and Camel later on it changed its focus and became an IT company. It has spent large amount of funds for helping children studying in India and well as outside India, for engineering education, health, energy, water and many more areas. Nearly one in three employees or more than 48,000 Wiproites are contributors to Wipro Cares making this possibly the largest such initiative in India and one of the largest in the world.

82  ITC Limited -ITC Limited is currently functional in five segments: Fast-Moving Consumer Goods, Hotels, Paperboards & Packaging, Agri Business & Information Technology. Considering its social responsibility it has taken many initiatives for the Promotion of education, Promotion of gender equality, Ensuring Environmental security and at many other places mentioned in the report above. It spent nearly Rs 82 Crores in 2012-13 which increased by many folds that is Rs 214 Crores till 2014-15.

 Hindustan Uniliver Ltd- HUL is India's largest Fast Moving Consumer Goods Company touching the lives of two out of three India. HUL presently has 35 brands spanning 20 distinct categories such as soaps, detergents, shampoos, skin care, toothpastes and many others. HUL is committed to operate and grow its business in a socially responsible way. The USLP has three global goals which are to help more than a billion people take action to improve their health and wellbeing, reduce the environmental footprint of our products and enhance the livelihoods of people as we grow our business. It invested about Rs 83 Crores towards social activities in 2014-15.

 State Bank Of India- State Bank of India is an Indian multinational, public sector banking and financial services company. Considering their social responsibilities they have contributed funds for Natural Calamities, Adoption of girl child, Children's welfare, Healthcare and many other activities mentioned above. In 2012-13 it spent nearly Rs 123 Crores in different ways and in 2014-15 about Rs 139 Crores.  Infosys Limited – It is an Indian multinational corporation that provides business consulting, information technology, research, development, software engineering and outsourcing services. In 1996 the Infosys foundation was instituted in order to fulfil the social responsibility and there after they have been continuously contributing for the upliftment of the society. They nearly spent Rs 240 Crores in 2014-15.

83 THE COMPANIES ANALYSED PHARMACEUTICALS  SUN PHARMA : Sun Pharma is particular in complying with the law. CSR spending has increased after Companies act 2013.

 CIPLA : CSR spending is in accordance with the companies act, 2013. FMCG  ITC LIMITED: ITC has doubled its CSR spending after enactment of Companies act 2013.  HUL: It has increased its spending by 40% AUTOMOBILES  TATA MOTORS: It has won many awards with regard to CSR activities and is leading the way in CSR spending.

 MARUTI SUZUKI: It has increased its CSR spending and will undertake many new projects in future.

BANKING  SBI: CSR spending has decreased as it is not particular with law, although it makes its contribution by involving in various social activities.

 AXIS BANK: It has increased its spending by more than two times after Companies act of 2013. SOFTWARE  WIPRO: It has done various initiatives mainly in Education sector.  INFOSYS: It has increased its CSR spending by 26 times. It has done remarkable contribution to welfare aspect of society.

84 IN HEADLINES CSR, Business As Usual Source: The Economics Time Date: 5th September, 2016 Written By: Vishnu Padmanabhan & Jasveen Bindra The introduction of mandatory corporate social responsibility (CSR) spending under the Companies Act, 2013, has unleashed a wave of spending on social sector programmes: around Rs 6,300 crore in 2014-15. This has been a game-changer for Indian philanthropy. But while the quantity of largesse is impressive, can the same be said for its quality? It is less clear if CSR spending is creating the impact it seeks as many companies do not base their decisions on rigorous evidence. By definition, companies affected by the CSR rules are healthy and profitable. In such successful companies, business decisions are based on hard data and return on investment calculations. CSR decisions need to be subject to the same rigour as other business decisions. Is there compelling evidence that the programme works? Will it work in different contexts? Before launching new products, successful companies conduct due diligence: exploring the market and understanding competition. This iterative, rigorous approach is equally critical to CSR investments. Growing evidence from impact evaluations can guide companies towards implementing solutions with proven impact, and allow them to steer clear of well-intentioned, but ultimately ineffective, ideas. For instance, a substantial amount of CSR spending in India — around 23 per cent of total CSR spending in 2014-15 — has been directed towards education, an understandable cause given that nearly half of Class 5 children cannot read a Class 2 textbook, according to the Annual Status of Education Report (Aser) 2014. Yet, several rigorous evaluations have shown that many of the traditional investments in educational inputs (like more textbooks or computers) have had little impact on learning outcomes. This iterative, rigorous approach is equally critical to CSR investments. But there can be challenges to integrating research into CSR decisions, chiefly that there are many areas in the social sector where little evidence exists. In situations like this, where there is uncertainty, companies design and test new products for their mainstream business operations. India‘s largest companies spend significantly on R&D because they understand the importance of dedicating resources towards generating innovative solutions. This philosophy should extend to the social sector. It is important for programmes to be piloted and evaluated. An evaluation can provide real-time feedback on implementation issues and, crucially, an assessment of programme impact. Beyond informing internal programme decisions, rigorous evaluations can also serve as a public good by answering critical policy questions.

85 As an example, Tata Trusts is partly funding arigorous randomised evaluation of a programme to reduce anaemia by introducing fortified rice in Tamil Nadu‘s public distribution system. After developing a successful product, companies know it cannot be taken to scale without ensuring what sells in market A can also sell in market B. Similarly, in the social sector, a health programme that works in Tamil Nadu may not necessarily work in Punjab. A programme should demonstrate results in multiple contexts before significant resources are spent scaling it up. For companies, identifying programmes that work across contexts may be beyond their ambit. But there are policy research organisations doing this. One set of interventions proven to have worked in multiple contexts is the ‗Targeting the Ultra Poor‘ programme. Developed in Bangladesh by the developmental organisation Brac, the programme seeks to lift ultra-poor women out of poverty by providing them with a productive asset, intensive coaching, access to savings and a short-term consumption stipend. Multiple rigorous evaluations have found that the programme leads to large and lasting improvements in consumption, food security, asset holdings and savings. Driven by these powerful results, many Indian companies such as ITC, IndiGo and Axis Bank have already invested in the scale-up of this programme in partnership with the NGO, Bandhan Konnagar. Since the introduction of the CSR rules, much of the debate has revolved around whether companies are meeting their minimum spending requirements. An equally important focus ought to be in whether these investments can be made more impactful. Doing this should come easily to companies: they should simply adopt the same approach they use to make important business decisions — understanding what works, what can be scaled and what still needs to be tested — to their CSR portfolio. With so many CSR programmes seeking to make a difference to the lives of the poor, the stakes cannot be higher. A double bottom-line will allow companies to reshape the trajectory of India‘s development: an evidenceinformed approach can bring them closer to achieving this. The writers are with J-PAL South Asia, Institute for Financial Management and Research, Chennai.

86 CSR, Business As Usual Source: The Economic Times Date: 5th September, 2016 Written By: Vishnu Padmanabhan & Jasveen Bindra The introduction of mandatory corporate social responsibility (CSR) spending under the Companies Act, 2013, has unleashed a wave of spending on social sector programmes: around Rs 6,300 crore in 2014-15. This has been a game-changer for Indian philanthropy. But while the quantity of largesse is impressive, can the same be said for its quality? It is less clear if CSR spending is creating the impact it seeks as many companies do not base their decisions on rigorous evidence. By definition, companies affected by the CSR rules are healthy and profitable. solutions. This philosophy should extend to the social sector. It is important for programmes to be piloted and evaluated. An evaluation can provide real-time feedback on implementation issues and, crucially, an assessment of programme impact. Beyond informing internal programme decisions, rigorous evaluations can also serve as a public good by answering critical policy questions. A programme should demonstrate results in multiple contexts before significant resources are spent scaling it up. For companies, identifying programmes that work across contexts may be beyond their ambit. CSR Spending Source: The Hindustan Times The Companies Act, 2013, says that larger companies must spend 2% of their three year average net profit on actions related to Corporate Social Responsibility. Rs 7979 Cr is the amount prescribed for CSR spending however only Rs 6753 Cr is being spent currently, i.e. the prescribed amount is falling short by Rs 1226 Cr.


33% Poverty alleviation, healthcare, sanitation and hygiene 31% Education and skills 12% Rural development projects 8% Environmental sustainability 3% Women empowerment 13% Others


Prescribed: 350 Cr Actual: 490 Cr


Prescribed: 558 Cr Actual: 652 Cr

 GAIL • •

Prescribed: 102 Cr Actual: 161 Cr

 TATA STEEL • •  • •

Prescribed: 150 Cr Actual: 204 Cr Larsen and Turbo Prescribed: 101 Cr Actual: 120 Cr


Prescribed: 594 Cr Actual: 421 Cr


Prescribed: 189 Cr Actual: 53 Cr


Prescribed: 122 Cr Actual: 11 Cr

 HDFC • •

Prescribed: 139 Cr Actual: 86 Cr

 HDFC BANK • • •

Prescribed: 248 Cr Actual: 195 Cr *The amount is in reference to the period 2015-16.


Conclusion WHAT HAS CHANGED AFTER THE COMPANIES ACT 2013? The innovation of CSR has the potential to bring a complete change in the development of the economy. CSR aims to address the problems of society in a cost operative manner. Because of the new Companies Act, 2013, according to which spending of 2% of their profits on CSR is mandatory, the last years have seen a significant increase in CSR expenditure by firms. This can be attributed to the yearning of companies to prove themselves as socially responsible. The CSR expenditure by firms is affected by the industry to which they belong. Like firms in polluting industries spend more on activities to improve the environment, while firms in the power sector spend more on local community development, as their projects cause massive displacement. So far, firms give donations according to their wish which was negligible sometimes. The CSR activities of the firms depended upon the nature of their industry and was restricted to the area where the firm was located. This was changed by the enactment of the new Companies act 2013.There is a tremendous increase in the spending for welfare and social aspects of the country.

Social Business Analysis


Social Enterprise Social enterprises are businesses that help solving social problems that are existing in the society in a sustainable manner. It is different from traditional charities as well as most for-profit businesses. Social enterprise create and sell products and services that improve the quality of life of less advantaged people, while also earning revenues for the enterprise to sustain. Most of the profits are reinvested in strengthening the enterprise. These enterprises take up various activities including community development, employment, education, environmental protection, financial services, health, sustainable income and universal rights. They usually aim to help marginalized low income communities, ethnic communities, people with disabilities, small producers and workers . To assess whether an entity is a social enterprise, its motivation and intent are the important determinants. A broad definition of social enterprise as mentioned above is used in countries where the sector is nascent or not developed much, because it provides the space for the sector to grow and evolve. Governmental, municipal or public sector organizations are not considered social enterprises, even if they have a social purpose. Often it is seen that ―social purpose‖ is regarded as a task that the public body is obliged to complete by law, therefore the enterprise is sometimes forced to take up the social activity just for the sake of the law. Social enterprises may hold stakes of ownership or receive financial support from such various public sector bodies, however it never represents a majority. Hence, Social enterprises are independent of public sector institutions and their decision making. The social enterprise economy in the last two decades has shown a great success in addressing social and economic problems prevailing in our society. New and innovative solutions are required to deal with the persistent problems of unemployment, poverty, social exclusion, poor social services and environmental degradation. Private sector and public sector approaches have confronted various problems. The former has tried to approach these problems just as part of their corporate social responsibility, whereas the latter has tried to start programs and initiatives giving emphasis on subsidizing services rather than improving the root causes of poverty and exclusion. Social enterprise offer unique and multiple solutions to complex social problems. They address the social and economic barriers faced by marginalized or disadvantaged communities, and attempt to tackle them using a market-based approach. They are often best positioned to respond to critical social problems existing in the society by frequently introducing new products and services.

90 Through these products and services, Social enterprises help in creating more stable economic opportunities for marginalized communities, by providing them training. They produce innovative, affordable and sustainable solutions to energy, health and water needs as well as to improve productive activities. They help countries reducing inequality and social and political dissention prevailing in the countries. Early stage support to social enterprises is very critical. This may be done through strengthening of support structures that offer capacity support. Equally important is working through intermediaries which generate economies of scale and efficiencies. It also leads to mitigation of risks and offers greater opportunity for systematization of lessons learnt. This early stage support can be provided by philanthropists. They can accelerate the social enterprise pipeline by supporting the startups and development of intermediaries. They can provide support for a longer term in order to help the entities become sustainable. There, the first stage scaling is crucial. It is a critical stage when social enterprises have consolidated, have proof of concept, and are ready to begin the first stage of scaling. However, to do this successfully, they need patient capital and heavy doses of capacity support to move from reaching hundreds to reaching thousands or tens of thousands of beneficiaries. Probably the most important driver of success is strengthening their middle management teams. Visionary leaders must invest the time and energy needed to create these teams, or bring someone else onboard to do it. Without them, it is unlikely that they will be able to position their social enterprises for real growth. Pioneer donors need to become the rule rather than the exception. If more philanthropists are willing to enter the earlier stages of social enterprise development to help with first stage scaling and field building, there will no doubt be a steady flow of high impact social enterprises. The world is too small, resources too scarce and the potential returns too great not to pursue a local – global strategy. For this, the transfer and adaptation of best practices, investment tools, and expertise will go very far. Working in the local language, within the local context and realities is fundamental. We should ensure that a wide range of local stories and local models are promoted, and that we don‘t get stuck on the handful of cases that are already proven and that everyone wants to support.

91 Elements of an enabling environment •

Regulation and policies

Another requirement is of policies and programs that provide incentives and financing, and could potentially be leveraged to develop social enterprises. Legislative bodies and government agencies have enormous power and resources to develop the sector. Supporting legislation that simplifies the establishment, implementation and reporting of social enterprise activity would go very far to foster their growth. Public sector agencies can use their project approval and procurement powers to support social enterprises, and also establish or subsidize financing mechanisms specifically for them. And finally, government agencies can play a leading role in nurturing networks and collaborative opportunities for all stakeholders to share experiences, learn, and advance the field.

Support Infrastructure There is a need to expand the universe of intermediaries which can provide direct technical, financial, and managerial assistance, as well as links to resources such as potential clients, business partners, donors and impact investors. Particular attention needs to be given to the development of early stage and first scaling social enterprises. First scaling of a social enterprise refers to the stage of development during which the enterprise has consolidated its operations and is capable of beginning more rapid growth or replication to achieve greater social impact. Capacity support should be tailored and respond to the specific development stage of each enterprise. This usually requires patient investment of time and money. Best practice tools need to be developed to ensure that leadership, management and governance issues are addressed and that appropriate scaling business models and strategies are identified. Incubators and other intermediaries must educate donors and investors on the early costs inherent in developing social enterprises, as well as the future financial and social benefits. •

Capital for Early Stage Social Enterprises

NESsT develops sustainable social enterprises that solve critical social problems in emerging market economies.( . Its research of the landscape in both Central Europe and Latin America in the past five years demonstrated very few financing instruments available for social enterprises to fund their startup, consolidation and growth. Support for early-stage enterprise development is generally scarce and shortterm. Local philanthropy is not well-developed, and most international donors have not yet been ready to provide the significant, multi-year investment required by early-stage enterprises. Financing is clearly critical for the development of the social enterprise economy in emerging markets. Lessons from NESsT‘s experience demonstrate that grants, loans, and equity have specific roles in the development of social enterprises, and when used wisely, can be the key driver to success. Customised financial packages that offer flexible grants alongside softer loans or equity with returns contingent on future performance are ways to adapt to the social costs and longer growth periods needed by social enterprises. Establishing alternative loan and loan guarantee funds and mechanisms is important. Intermediaries also require financing not only to provide capacity support, but also to demonstrate models and disseminate best practices

92 Emerging markets must also promote the opportunities for investors and support the development of early stage impact investment funds that can invest in earlier stages of social enterprise development, where financial returns don‘t always precede social ones. Providing tools that help investors navigate the complex policy and regulatory environments of emerging market countries is an important entry point to foster more investments. Policies creating a supportive environment, intermediaries enabling early stage enterprises via incubators and other programs, and a wide range of donors and private sector financial institutions creating and extending appropriate funding for social enterprises—these collective actions will create huge social and economic benefits in emerging market economies.

Social Enterprise Labels

Legislative bodies and government agencies have enormous power and resources to develop the sector. Supporting legislation that simplifies the establishment, implementation and reporting of social enterprise activity would go far to foster their growth. Some countries in Latin America are beginning to implement ―B-corporation‖ certification, a certification process which recognizes entities focused on social and environmental impact. Certifying social enterprises could potentially position them to leverage funding. In Central and Eastern Europe new labeling legislation can also be adopted by social enterprises in order to attract needed capital. While labels can be very useful in raising the visibility and promoting the concept and models of social enterprise, labels should be demanded and appreciated by customers. Such consciousness and demand from the market does not seem to exist in most of Europe yet (certainly not in CE) therefore, obtaining the label might not bring market advantage and differentiation to social enterprises currently. The public sector is one of the potential markets, of course, and as such could offer significant rewards to those social enterprises that obtain the label. Caution is required when linking the label to the definition, as it is not desirable early in the development of the sector, to reduce the social enterprise sector to only those organization that have obtained the label. Labeling brings up the issue of social impact, since it is expected that granting the label would depend very much on the candidate social enterprise‘s ability to demonstrate social impact. This is a topic of debate what is considered social impact, what indicators to use, and how to monitor that impact. If social impact can be achieved only in long run, it could be extremely difficult to determine compliance beforehand. Obtaining a label is connected to achievement of social impact, the field might have to contend with shorter-term outputs or outcomes. In some countries, where the 5 concept of law on public benefit exists, that law could be used and modified to facilitate capturing and monitoring social impact. It is a global trend that impact measurement and reporting are moving towards more standardized way.

93 Social enterprises as well as social investors are looking for common indicators and reporting formats to understand performance and react better and to be able to make comparisons. These standardization efforts could help raise awareness and understanding, but need to be treated with caution so as not to homogenize a diverse sector. Perhaps a quality assurance type label which SEs can apply for voluntarily, could be beneficial in further developing the field and providing credibility to funders as well as customers. ―NESsT Enterprise‖ could be an example of such a label and granting that label could depend on business performance, as well as meeting the NESsT standards.

Public Procurement

Government agencies can use their project approval and procurement powers to support social enterprises and also establish or subsidize financing mechanisms for them. At the moment there are few social enterprises that are able to participate in public procurement, as public authorities are unreliable clients and they often do not have the public procurement procedures that would open bidding processes to organizations including social enterprises. So in this sense the labeling effort could be strengthened by the reform of public procurement procedures , which could in the future give preference to labeled social enterprises in some industries. This could be attractive and useful even in Central Europe in the future. Many believe the European Commission will push for simplification, inclusion of social enterprise and universal use of new procedures across Europe, as they see public sector markets as an opportunity to boost social enterprises. Best practices in Sweden and Belgium give preference to social enterprises in certain public contracting cases. They reserve some contract and take social impact into account when selecting among bidders or encourage social enterprises to establish partnerships with other bidders thus allowing them easier access to public contracts. In Hungary, for example - regulations prescribe that social impact considerations should be taken into account when procuring services or products for the public sector but the attempt fails in the implementation phase, as these considerations do not actually appear in the tender announcements. Therefore public procurement reform (regulation as well as implementation) is the key measure. Existing possibilities offered by the current public procurement rules need to be better understood.

94 Examples of Social Businesses Operating outside India 1) LIVELYHOODS- providing livelihood to youth in Kenya Mission Their mission is to create livelihood opportunities for youth and women in urban slums so they can work the ir way out of poverty and actualize their potential. To achieve this, they train and hire unemployed youth and women to sell environmentally friendly and socially transformative products in their communities. Their vision is a world in which everyone is able to provide for themselves and their families through dignifi ed employment. By 2018, LivelyHoods will create thousands of jobs and reach every household in every slu m as Kenya‘s most reliable delivery channel of clean energy products. History LivelyHoods grew out of lessons learned from a 2010 microfinance project created to give youth entreprene urial training and loans to start their own businesses. Fearing failure and debt, the pilot group expressed disin terest in taking a loan to start their own business when they had no experience or confidence in their abilities to do so. Changing course, LivelyHoods engaged the pilot group to design a solution and survey their comm unity and find out what kind of products they needed. As a result of this cooperation, they launched the iSma rt brand, under which the sales agents distribute life-changing products, starting with solar lamps. The product line has expanded to include affordable, high quality and eco-friendly products including cleanburning cookstoves and other household goods not available in slums. Today they have grown from an initial group of two staff and seven trainees to a team of fourteen managing six branches operating in the Kawangw are, Kibera, Makadara, Githurai, and Mathare slums of Nairobi and the town of Limuru. What do they do? After interviewing 278 youths about how they survive, they learned that they all had sales experience with everything from mangoes to drugs. LivelyHoods employs youth at what they are good at – sales. Their sales network leverages young people‘s ambition and knowledge of their community, and requires minimal education. They prepare youth for a life of financial independence and personal success. Although LivelyHoods is a nonprofit company, they operate with the mindset of an entrepreneurial start-up and their business model is driven by market-based principles to ensure the sustainability of the program. LivelyHoods‘ business model is built on two key assumptions: 1) Slum communities have purchasing potential, but lack access to quality products that could improve their lives;

95 2) Many unemployed and disadvantaged youth and women have the self-motivation and ability to learn skills necessary for sales that can alter the course of their lives. LivelyHoods‘ network of door-to-door sales agents operates under the brand iSmart. The model has a strong retail brand emphasizing customer service and integrity, professionalizes the natural sales talent in slums, and will be sustainable with scale in the next five years.

Working Their curated product line, consisting of clean-burning stoves and other high impact products, provides the quality and affordability that the customers want. LivelyHoods‘ revenue model is simple: They make money every time they help a customer make a decision to improve their lives by purchasing their products. Detailed below are the main processes of model:

Training Leveraging their existing sales experience, LivelyHoods provides trainees with a week-long comprehensive classroom sales and marketing training that covers a range of employable skills. This is followed by a week of field training with instructors and experienced sales agents. Sales agents receive products on consignment and earn commission for each product sold. Microconsignment borrows heavily from traditional microfinance. Instead of borrowing money to buy product, however, youth choose which products they want to sell and only repay the cost of the product after successful sales – a low-risk alternative to micro-loans. The sales agents are also offered ongoing and refresher trainings to stimulate growth and learning. These trainings vary in topic ranging from ethical decision-making to closing deals.

96 Livelyhoods is a social enterprise The bold innovation is connecting the sales talent of an idle youth workforce with a sales net work that revolutionizes access to quality products in slums. Families lack access to products because ―the route to market is the greatest obstacle companies must overcome‖ in Africa. Th ey see an opportunity in ―direct personal selling‖. The sales network will reach every corner of every slum in Nairobi in 2016, creating thousands of jobs. Unlike other direct sales models in East Africa, they target densely populated slums, build local trust through fixed store locati ons, and create low-risk job opportunities for youth. With their daily consignment model, sale s agents can work without taking a loan or making a capital outlay. Application of this model in India India is struggling hard to combat with unemployment. In such a scenario, training and hiring unemployed y outh and women to sell environmentally friendly and socially transformative products in their communities c an bring about a drastic change in their lives. If this model is replicated in India, consumers in urban slums will be able to get life-changing products into t heir hands.

2) Bikeworks Bikeworks is a social enterprise with several branches in London, offering a range of services including cycle training, repairs, bike recycling, travel planning and sales of bikes. OBJECTIVES

to build a more diverse cycling community

improve mechanical skills

Support businesses to be greener through the promotion of cycling.

Functions SELLING BIKES: They sell new and reused bikes as well as bicycle clothing, parts and accessories REPAIRING BIKES: They repair bikes of any shape size or type. In their words, they provide impartial non-judgemental advice to their customers.

97 DELIVERING CLASSES IN BICYCLE REPAIR: They deliver bicycle repair classes ranging from one day to professional qualifications. PROVIDING CYCLE TRAINING: They provide cycle training for any level and inclusive cycling clubs where the whole community can start cycling together regardless of age, impairment or experience. Application of this model in India India is a growing economy. Over the years there has been a substantial rise in the income levels of the people. Consequently, the demand for cars is also on a rise. The demand has also risen because of the easy affordability of cars to a large section of the society. The rising demand is congesting the Indian roads day by day. Not only does more cars increase congestion but also, pollution. There is a dire need to move to such modes of transportation which require more manual energy and less mechanical energy. In such a scenario, businesses like Bikeworks have a good potential. Also, this business can do away with the problem of unemployment by employing people as they need limited skills to repair a bike.

3) ClearWater Initiative ClearWater Initiative is a non-governmental charitable organization that strives to provide clean, potable water solutions to populations in need. Within 5 years, ClearWater‘s vision is to provide access to potable water to 50,000 people. In nexr 10 years, ClearWater aims to provide clean water to 250,000 people in need. They plan to offer seed grants for simple, innovative projects in complex humanitarian emergencies. The purpose of these small grants will be to provide seed funding for relief professionals looking to develop projects that will advance technical aspects of international disaster response, with an emphasis on provision of essential services for refugees and internally displaced populations. Grant applications will come on-line as soon as we have sufficient funds to support the program.

THE DILEMMA In the African nation of Uganda, the leading cause of death for children under the age of 5 is Diarrhoea. Diarrhoea kills one child every 21 seconds, more than measles, malaria and AIDS combined. Poor sanitation and lack of access to clean water is to blame. The same clean water we take for granted every day. In order to survive, Ugandan mothers and children spend hours each day carrying 40lb containers of clean water home to their families. Often, children must miss school to help get water for their families to drink, cook and bathe.

98 THE MOTHERS' DAY MOVEMENT CAMPAIGN MDM chose ClearWater Initiative as its partner charity in 2014. ClearWater was founded in 2007 by American serviceman Captain Ben Sklaver after he served on active duty in Uganda. Ben believed in harnessing the reach of the American military to address humanitarian crises. Something so simple, clean water, means life to the people of Uganda and many parts of the world. The MDM campaign for ClearWater resulted in the construction of new wells in numerous communities, providing access to clean water to hundreds of people. IN THEIR OWN WORDS ―The funds that were raised by Mother‘s Day Movement meant that we were able to build new wells last summer and bring clean water to hundreds of families. The impact of those wells on women and children in rural communities in Uganda will be felt for many, many Mother‘s Days to come.‖ Application of this model in India After looking at the analysis and research of the social business- Clearwater Initiative, such kind of practice can be implemented in India as the citizens of India are facing a huge problem of water scarcity and the facilities of purified water are not available in our country. Even in many villages and small districts, majority of the people are not aware of the importance of water purification. If drinking water becomes available to everyone and that too in a pure form, then the problems of health can also be improved.

We can take the basic idea and objective of Clearwater Initiative and can help our government to implement this in various villages so that the poor people also can get access to pure and safe drinking water. Clearwater Initiative is running successfully in US and they even have started taking donations from the public to expand their reach and through this, the general public will be also able to participate to improve in this cause. Such a model has a great scope in India.

99 4) B corporation Better World Books B corporation Better World Books is an amazing example of a truly successful social entrepreneurship ventu re. Founded in 2002 by Notre Dame grads Xavier Helgesen, Chris "Kreece" Fuchs, and Jeff Kurtzman, Bette r World's mission is to maximize the value of every book out there and to help promote literacy around the w orld. The company works by reusing or recycling books through sales on their website and donations to scho ols, and so far has used 84 million volumes to raise $12.1 million for literacy funding. The company attribut es its success to using a "triple bottom line" model, caring not only about profits but also about the social and environmental impact of everything they do. Better World Books believes in the power of knowledge. So their goal is to help those who supply it and shar e it with those who crave it. The change they seek Better World Books is a global bookstore that harnesses the power of capitalism to bring literacy and opport unity to people around the world. They seek to unifying customers seeking to align their purchasing with the ir social and environmental values. Company Highlights: Environment: 79 million books reused or recycled, saving landfills. Employees: Added 91 Jobs during recession (33% growth); 64% of employees have ownership in the company; >50% of health insurance covered for employees and their families, >25% of new positions were filled in with internal candidates Community: Over $11MM raised for global literacy and local libraries; >10% suppliers are located in lowincome communities. BWB's business model reflected its commitment to the triple bottom line approach. The company made efforts to achieve social, environmental, and economic sustainability. It directly donated books and gave financial support to literacy initiatives worldwide. Moreover, a percentage of each sale was given separately to the individuals, libraries, or colleges as well as literacy partners chosen by them. By donating and selling used books, BWB helped to keep away millions of pounds of paper waste from landfills. The books that did not sell were recycled. BWB also had a Carbon Neutral Shopping Cart, through which, the company collected two to five cents on the cost of each book from every customer at the 'Checkout' link on its website. The collected money was used to buy carbon offset to compensate the environmental impact of shipping by the company and its literacy partners. In the financial year 2008, BWB earned revenues of US$ 21 million and had a revenue target of US$ 31 million in fiscal 2009.

100 Better World Books donates one book to Feed the Children, Books for Africa, or smaller donation recipients for each book sold on Better World Books provides additional s upport to literacy non-profits including:   

    

Books for Africa—which collects, ships and distributes books to African children The National Center for Family Literacy—which provides educational opportunities and literacy programs to at-risk children and families. Room to Read—which builds libraries and schools and provides scholarships in impoverished areas of the world, including Southeast Asia. Room to Read also publishes books for children in multiple languages. Worldfund—which provides resources to improve English-language skills in Latin America. Robinson Community Center—a University of Notre Dame-affiliated community center, which provides educational opportunities and tutoring services in South Bend, Indiana. National Literacy Trust - an independent charity based in London, England, that promotes literacy. READ International- a charity that aims to improve access to education in East Africa by relocating books which are no longer needed in UK secondary schools to Tanzania. The National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA) - an independent Irish charity which is committed to making sure people with literacy and numeracy difficulties can fully take part in society and have access to learning opportunities that meet their needs.



1. Area: Waste Management Most city dwellers think of waste management as a mundane administrative task that concerns only the cleaners and municipality. The current waste management mechanism relies upon collection of waste from households and dumping it in the landfills. Growing by heaps and mounds, Delhi‘s garbage crisis may soon reach its breaking point. Most of these stinking waste mountains (landfills) are long overdue for closure and there are no fresh landfills available to take in the current daily discard of waste. The second problem here is of non-segregation of waste into food, paper, plastic, horticulture etc. Civic bodies blame residents for not segregating waste but what‘s the point when everything eventually gets mixed-up in landfills.

INNOVATION SHOWN Design of self-sustainable units of waste segregation and disposal for waste management problem of the urban sector of Indian society. A residential society/colony is the most primary unit of dwelling, which offers space and environment to its residents to share their lives with each other and satisfy their social and emotional needs of togetherness, the man being a social animal. If these residential units can be created into ‗self-sustainable‘ units for waste segregation and management and disposal, this would prove to be an effective solution for growing waste problem of urban India and would be a big contribution to ‗Swachh Bharat Abhiyan‘. A ‗three-fold‘ approach would be required:  Installation of „food waste converter machines‟ at suitable premises (either inside the society/colony) or at some other place in close proximity to a few societies taken together.  Installation of different categories of dustbins for collection and suitable disposal of different types of wastes, like paper waste, plastic waste, electronic waste, ‗cloth‘ waste and miscellaneous.  Educating and facilitating the residents for proper segregation and disposal.

PROCEDURE INVOLVED (for recycling of food waste): The residents of the society/colony would be sensitized for waste segregation through awareness programs and workshops. They would be required to collect their daily food waste, cooked or uncooked (peels etc.) in a separate dustbin, to be handed over to the person who comes to collect the waste on a daily basis. This person would be carrying a cart with a big container in which all the food waste collected will be stored. This food waste so collected would be poured into ‗waste converter‘ machine installed at a premises inside/outside the colony. These new-age, fully automated food waste converter machines are highly compact and easy to operate by even any unskilled labor. These can convert the food waste into high quality compost perfect for landscaping and organic farming, within a span of just24 hours and in a hassle-free manner. These machines are available in various sizes and capacity and can be chosen according to the size of the society/colony and the quantity of food waste management. Besides the food waste, the horticulture waste like twigs and leaves of the plant, grass etc. of the garden waste can also be put into these machines for getting the rich quality manure.

102 The organic manure so generated can be used in society gardens and can also be sold out, thus generating revenue to cover the costs of electricity consumed in running of the machine and wages of the workers collecting waste and operating the machine.

FOR OTHER WASTES: Different categories of dustbins (suitably labelled) would be installed inside or nearby to the society for collection of paper waste, electronic waste. Plastic waste, clothe waste and other waste. Tie-ups with waste dealers can be made for the sale of waste so collected, at suitable price and thus building revenue to cover the system costs.

FUNDING: For the funding of the initial set up costs and running costs for at least one year, CSR contribution has to be used. After one year or so, sufficient revenue will start generating through the sale of ‗convinced output‘ (read manure) of the food waste or the waste itself.

BENEFITS TO THE CORPORATES: Effective and meaningful CSR contribution towards the betterment of the society. Publicity and advertisement through the display of their names on machines and dustbins and the conducting of sensitization and awareness programs. Boost to the company‘s image and increase in the market share thereby.


CONCLUSION: With the mechanism stated above, quite a significant portion of society waste can be recycled. This design can be replicated at schools, colleges, universities, hotels, airports, railway stations, hospitals etc. with appropriate variations. The horticulture waste converter machines can be installed at parks, the output of which will meet all the manure requirements of the park.

104 2. Area: Healthcare Primary Healthcare Services are adequately available in urban areas but in rural areas these services are still not adequately available due to the following reasons Lack of qualified doctors  Lack of enough funds with the rural people to commute to the nearest primary health centre. Long distances and underdeveloped infrastructure make transportation to the available centres even tougher.  Major diseases in these areas include dengue fever, hepatitis, tuberculosis, malaria, pneumonia and AIDS. Chronic disease and ignorance to the health concerns take most of the lives. Due to these reasons, accessibility of basic health facilities is an unfeasible affair for dwellers in remote villages and wilderness.

INNOVATION SHOWN Use of information technology to deliver medical consultations by doctors to patients in rural areas. The idea is to arrange for Skype appointments between the doctors (present anywhere in the nation) and the rural people in the areas where doctors are not adequately available (as shown in the image below) through the medical centers which will be run and operated with the support of ASHA workers. Targeted diseases will include diseases for which the doctors do not need to touch the patients/physically meet the patient like cough, red eye, diarrhea, sinus problems, urinary issues or back pain, migraine, tobacco/smoke problems, stomach ache, dizziness, malnutrition, minor skin problems and many more. Reappointment with the doctors for the follow-ups can be conveniently done through this arrangement.


Concessional treatment and cost efficiencies due to low cost of establishment and operation Remote Patient Monitoring Sensitization of rural people through education programmes initiated by the ASHA workers. Digitization of the backward village and employment generation in the form of staff needed at the health centres.


CONCLUSION With rising life expectancies and a still huge rural population, there is a need to have medical centres which can be sponsored by corporate houses and will be an extension of the large hospital. These centres can cater to the needs of the far flung areas. The corporate hospitals generally are found in urban areas and are expensive too. Though the health sector has a huge market but the services are beyond accessibility and affordability of a large chunk that are poor and live in the rural areas. Corporate can contribute to a bigger social cause – i.e. health - through the CSR contribution. Low fees depending upon the affordability factor would be charged from the patients. Gradually, the system will move away from the dependence on corporates for funds, towards the self-sustainability with the revenue in form of fees sufficient to cover the cost of operations and wages paid to the workers and the consultation fees of the doctors.

4 Conclusion and future direction .

India is facing some serious social problems—such as persistent poverty, poor health-care systems, unsafe drinking water, substandard quality of education, inefficient farming method, paucity of electric power and so on. We all agree that we need to take urgent action to solve these problems. Most of us will naturally assume that it is the job of our elected politicians and governments to solve such complex and global problems. Surely the task is too large and too difficult for anybody other than the government to undertake. Unfortunately, the track record of government-led initiatives does not fill us with confidence that the task can be accomplished through public policy alone. At present, the corporate are adopting easy way-out to meet their CSR obligations without realizing the actual needs of the people. During the course of our research, we realised various shortcomings in the effective implementation of CSR activities.

The present scenario is that India is making much progress economically but still needs to be improve much in the social sectors. Given the complex nature of social problems, it is unlikely that a single entity like the government will be able to change social systems singlehandedly. God-like creatures able to achieve such a feat are non-existent! Nor it is logical to expect that these systems can be changed in a centrally-planned, top-down process. The systems that give rise to big social problems require a different change process—not a top-down process driven by one heroic individual but a bottoms-up, decentralized process, driven by hundreds of individuals. Corporate can play a significant role in this area. There is a high rise in the quest for social responsibility from the corporate sector because of its importance to the economic development of any country. (Reference- The Ghoshal Blog).



The society‘s expectations regarding the social obligations of a company are continuously changing, mainly influenced by different approaches in economic theory, socio-economic, political and cultural events affecting the business environment and a corresponding transformation of the social mentality that puts a pressure on the national or multinational companies. In response to these factors, business organizations around the world adapt their social responsiveness and the way they relate to different social responsibilities In India, for e.g. Unilever created an entire ecosystem of diverse partners to address an urgent sanitation problem affecting more than 600 million poor Indians. It acted as a partner with NGOs, banks and schools to create a profitable market for cleaning products in rural India. At the same time, it was lifting women from poverty with microloans and jobs, improving sanitation and enhancing public health awareness through educational campaigns. ( Defined by the European Multi stakeholder Forum on CSR as ―a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis‖, corporate social responsibility has become nowadays one of the main challenges for companies around the world. The main idea behind the concept of CSR is ―The Triple Bottom Line‖ – ―Profit, People, Planet‖: companies harmonize their efforts in order to be economically viable, socially responsible and environmentally sound. There is an intensive agreement that companies need to develop linkages between their business strategies and societal stakeholders‘ impact strategies. Therefore, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) becomes one of the most influential topics both in academic world and in real life practices. In the present CSR Rules, the scope of activities include preventive healthcare, sanitation, providing safe drinking water, protection of national heritage, rural development projects, measures to benefit armed forces veterans, rural development projects, slum development and Clean India Mission Clean Ganga Plan. The statutory Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) norms introduced two years ago were expected to revolutionize funding of social causes, but some sections of India Inc. may now be abusing these for laundering of black money, according to sources privy to such transactions. Some companies are using on hire, the charitable trusts to fabricate CSR spending. India is the first and only country to have statutorily mandated corporate social responsibility for certain class of companies but the law allows a lot of leeway. CSR spends disclosed by companies need not be vetted by statutory auditors unlike other spending. Moreover, financials of charitable trusts, also come under little statutory scrutiny. This combination of factors has left the new CSR norms wide open for abuse.

108 •

The CSR provision may prove to be a game-changer for corporate and institutional philanthropy. Although, more clarity is required with respect to CSR Rules and other compliance requirements, corporate India has come a long way from being a corporate citizen to becoming a responsible corporate citizen. With the rise of globalization and de-regulated market, we may begin to see many Indian companies setting up non-profit entities in the US as well. Companies across jurisdictions are looking to enter into new forms of market, develop new models of social businesses and practice innovative models of corporate governance aimed at optimizing social returns on such investments. The statutory Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) norms introduced two years ago were expected to revolutionize funding of social causes, but some sections of India Inc. may now be abusing these for laundering of black money, according to sources privy to such transactions. Some companies are using on hire, the charitable trusts to fabricate CSR spending. India is the first and only country to have statutorily mandated corporate social responsibility for certain class of companies but the law allows a lot of leeway. CSR spends disclosed by companies need not be vetted by statutory auditors unlike other spending. Moreover, financials of charitable trusts, also come under little statutory scrutiny. This combination of factors has left the new CSR norms wide open for abuse. It is noticed that some companies spend their CSR amount by directly donating it to the poor people; like donating some amount in school, hospital, etc. Although this is helpful and many good initiatives are taken in relation to the same, but this is not sustainable. The companies do not take follow-ups of the utilization of funds or effectiveness of their efforts. It was learnt that somewhere the toilets so constructed were being used for storage purposes, instead of the intended use. The basic ideology for CSR of certain big companies enjoying the top share in the market is similar to the paradox of ‗opening a cancer hospital‘ by a ‗tobacco producing company‘. These companies believe that as long as they are earning huge profits, thereby contributing a big amount for CSR spending, is good enough a reason to cover their act of harming environment and people through by passing rules. This is reflected in the decision of Volkswagen to ignore and hide the fact its car were emitting 40 times the legal limit of nitrogen oxide, as long as it helped the company to become the world‘s leading car maker. The Volkswagen case represents an absolute failure in terms of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Relative to CSR, newer concept ―Social Business‖ also attracts the attention of many practitioners from different disciplines especially after Nobel Prize Laureate Muhammad Yunus promoted the concept in Nobel Prize Ceremony in the year 2006.


Social business Social business is a defined as a business that does not strive to maximize profits but rather to serve humanity‘s most pressing needs. Therefore, the first motive of a social business is not profit maximization, and second, it does not pay its investors dividends. Instead, it aims at solving social problems with products and services at affordable prices, or giving the poor and marginalized people ownership in a business and therefore allows them to share its profits. Social business is the social value maximizing enterprise with regular business functions such as marketing, production, human resources and finance. It is positioned in between of profit maximizing firms and not-for-profits, benefiting from their mechanisms in a new format. The organizational design, structure and functions work as profit-maximizing businesses (i.e. paying the employees as of market wage, buying from suppliers and selling to retailers/customers etc.) however the money earned remain in the business to allow the firm acting as a change agent for the world. Self-sustainable social purpose companies could solve human challenges ranging from income poverty and pollution to inadequate healthcare and lack of quality education. Given our limited resources, we cannot solve all of our social problems at one time. The social problem that endangers the lives of people and affects many people could be the one we address first instead of a social problem that does not endanger people‘s lives and affects relatively few people.

Difference between Profit Maximizing Business and Social Business Source-



1) ABOUT CSR On 25th September 2015, countries of the UNO General Assembly adopted the 2030 Development Agenda titled ‗Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. Following its adoption , the UN agencies under the umbrella of UN Development group, decided to support a campaign by several independent identities, which included corporate institutions and international organizations. According to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)-2016 adopted by the world leaders at the UN summit in September 2015, New York, if India is to achieve the SDGs, the next 15 years are going to be decisive. SDG replaced the MDG (Millennium Development Goals) from the beginning of 2016. While the SDG continue to focus on eradicating poverty, they also include universal goals of addressing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production and protecting environmental resources. The SDGs goals : i) promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development ii) provide access to justice for all and build effective ,accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels. There arises a great need for strengthening both development and democracy, engaging citizen bodies, Research Institutes and varying levels of governance and allowing development to work its way from ‘bottoms up‘. The CSR initiatives if properly implemented can help a great deal in achieving the SDG Goals as shown ahead1) LACK OF PROPER IDENTIFICATION OF LOCAL AREA PROBLEMS The first step in this direction is the proper identification of the local area problems. The proper identification is an essential requirement as different areas can provide different solution depending upon the intensity and the location of the area. Problems in Areas closer to towns and cities have an easier solution than those of remote areas .The corporate need to localize and provide a time bound solution befitting to the areas. 2) INADEQUATE LOCAL INVOLVEMENT IN CARRYING OUT OF THE CSR INITIATIVES One of the greatest reasons for the Chinese growth story is the involvement of local population in carrying out of the developmental programmes in rural areas. The process of decentralization makes the achievement of growth targets easy. There is a common approach for all areas for the similar problem. The involvement of locals in implementation tasks could make it easier to identify the missing links and fill the gaps. 3) CSR INITIATIVES GENERALLY ARE NOT NEED BASED BUT COMPANY DRIVEN The CSR initiatives need to be more problem centric and not company centric. There is a huge gap between the requirements of the areas and the corporate initiative. The corporate should make a proper identification of the problems and then allocate funds. The objectives of CSR should not be just spending the sanctioned amount but also on the mitigation of more serious problems of the area.

111 4) CSR ACTIVITIES NEED TO BE ASSESSED BY AN INDEPENDENT BODY ON THE LINES OF SEBI,TRAI etc. Though the Government has made CSR activities for the very large turnover companies, there is no instrument to judge the extent and accomplishment of the corporate. There is a need for an independent body to gauge the way the funds are spent and also whether the objectives are fulfilled. The government should form a CSR Committee at the national level with sub-divisions at lower levels, say at state, cities, districts level. This committee should play the role of advisory in indicating the most urgent areas requiring CSR spending. They should be supporting the corporate actions with the requisite training and education. It may be provided that the corporates should prepare a budget of proposal of CSR activities and get it sanctioned from the committee, so as to check the suitability of planned initiatives. The corporate houses need to be more seriously following the goals and reporting to the body/ government. The focus should be on improving the quality of life of people as a whole. 5) LACK OF PROPER DIRECTIONS IN SPENDING OF CSR FUNDS There are many NGO‘s who have innovative ideas that can solve many problems of our country. But the problem with these NGO‘s is that they don‘t have enough funds with them to start a new venture. This problem can be solved if the companies start spending their csr amount by funding the ngo‘s. Also companies can offer technical advice for the contracts. Our project organised a visit to Bawana , where we met one person who had many good ideas for starting an Ngo and he was interested to favour his nation. But he was facing the problem of funding because he was dependent on his parents‘ income. The challenge is how to create a channel for the funds to be transferred between the company and the Ngo. There is a need for the government interference and laying down a policy for implementation of the same. 6) CSR AS A COMPULSORY PART OF DEVELOPMENT AGENDA The filthy conditions prevailing in India is a big hindrance in the development of Tourism in India. Given the rich Indian spiritual and cultural heritage, tourism has a huge scope in India. CSR initiatives can boost our tourism and can bring rapid growth in the economy. Our Prime minister, Narendra Modi has launched start up India, which focuses on helping entrepreneurs. Many big startups like flipkart, paytm, zomato, etc. are one of the well-funded startups of our country. There is no policy in respect to csr for the startups, but we can expect these startups to make an innovative social business or they can do something through their own business. For example - flipkart can donate some books to government school; paytm can give free recharge to auto drivers, etc. 7) INVOLVEMENT OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION Many social businesses are emerging in our country and some from students level too. KPMG has opened a sort of their CSR branch at college level, our college society- enactus gets a grant from KPMG annually. In this way social business can be guided as well as funded by a company. The way ‗Swachh Bharat Abhiyan‘ is mobilising the support of people for cleaner by channelizing the energy and efforts of school children, for the use of toilets; in a similar manner, children can play an active role in bringing about the change in mindset required for segregation of waste and recycling it. Many schools include the community work as the part of curriculum taught. The concerns of health, sanitation, waste management etc, can be taken care of through working on this ground level of child education.


8) NEED FOR MORE TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY The social problems are widespread in our country. The problems are so deep and frustrating that a great deal of focus and commitment is needed from the spenders. Since there are so many corporate houses in India and it is mandatory for them to spend on CSR, transparency and accountability measures are required. 9) CSR SHOULD MOVE FROM CHARITABLE TO SUSTAINABLE GOAL In the modern times, the concept of human rights is very significantly observed worldwide. The CSR Act of 2013 requires corporate houses to shoulder responsibilities towards the compelling needs of society. However, the corporate should take it as an opportunity to serve the needs of the societies not from ‗charity‘ point of view but from ‗human rights‘ point of view. The corporate can contribute to the real progress of the society when they fully adopt such a mindset. Presently, there is a great deal of ‗charitable‘ rather than ‗responsibility ‗feel in the activities undertaken. 10) DUPLICATION OF ACTIVITIES There is a need for preventing duplication of activities among the corporate houses. If a particular corporate is allotted to take up one activity instead of many, then there will be efficient outcome because of specialisation. In the present scenario, there are many corporate taking up the same task and consequently other problems are neglected. There should be proper coordination to get effective results and optimise resources too. 11) REQUIREMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH Acording to the estimates of town and country planning organization, about 21.2% of urban population lives in slums. This population is even higher in metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai, etc. Slum sprout and continue for a combination of demographic, social, economic, political reasons, like rural-urban migration, lack of affordable low cost housing, slow development of villages and vote politics. Due to rapid urbanization, these slums are wide-spread and the hub of host of problems ranging from poverty, poor health, sanitation, lack of cleanliness and hygiene and growing waste. In order to make Indian citieAccording s truly metropolitan, it is high time that the government with the support of corporate funding and CSR efforts play an active role in upliftment of slums. A comprehensive approach is required to be adopted by corporates in this direction. The public-sector units as part of their CSR initiatives are required to adopt a village and work for its development. Similarly, the corporates should be asked to adopt ‗slums‘ and take initiatives for their development. .


2) ABOUT SOCIAL BUSINESS Social problems are global in nature. This implies that local solutions are not enough to achieve a significant improvement in a social problem. Power of human creativity and entrepreneurship (including social entrepreneurship) in the business sector is creating enormous value and improving our world. The same can be applied to social problems and entrepreneurship can be channeled to solving of social problems. Social innovators today are bringing similarly fresh perspectives to a breathtaking array of problems. The developing countries need to replicate the models followed by the developed nations to solve their social problems. Some of the models employed in different parts of the world that be replicated in India include: 1.Recyclebank turned recycling into a game by uniting cities, citizens and companies around a system of exchange and rewards. Citizens are encouraged to recycle more by earning points that can be redeemed for discounts and deals on products and services from Recyclebank's network of more than 100 corporate sponsors. Recyclebank employs a diverse toolset – state of the art technologies, reward points and game principles, partnerships with government-run waste programmes, private waste haulers and dozens of companies who provide the goods and services to be redeemed. With these, it creates a viable and actionoriented ecosystem to promote and expand recycling. ( 2.Based in San Francisco, CareMessage utilizes mobile technologies in an effort to improve healthcare in underprivileged areas. The nonprofit focuses on enhancing patients‘ ability to self-manage their health (taking medications properly and attending appointments), expanding health literacy, and improving care in general in underserved populations primarily through text messaging. (Source- 3.Worldreader works to increase access to books and the experience of reading. Realizing that the primary way of achieving this is through technology—specifically, e-readers—they launched Worldreader Mobile, enabling anyone with a cell phone or tablet to utilize the organization‘s digital library. (Source

4.Matt Damon and Gary White of borrowed from the microfinance movement to help individuals solve problems of water access with novel, customized approaches. The results of replicating such models to tackle social problems are better, the innovations are smarter and the costs are lower than traditional models. From mobile health and telemedicine to educational apps and microfinance, these models can bring about positive impact in India.


3) ABOUT WASTE MANAGEMENT Solid waste management problems and response strategies are distinct for developing and developed countries. While developing countries aim primarily to improve the systemic efficiency of waste management services, as well as community participation in waste disposal, developed countries aim to control waste generation and find means to achieve maximum rates of recycling. To achieve their distinct objectives, developing countries attempt measures such as awareness raising campaigns, improvements of infrastructure and systemic efficiency, and funding augmentation. In contrast, developed countries invest in technology for better waste recycling and disposal, while applying economic instruments such as material levies, product charges and waste collection charges to achieve waste reduction and recycling. As developing Asian countries like India and China are confronted simultaneously with issues of service quality and waste quantity, an integrated approach to waste management is essential. Indian cities should address pertinent issues like systemic inefficiency, community participation in waste segregation, waste reduction and recycling. India should also work towards addressing the role of the informal sector in solid waste management, and introducing economic instruments in waste management. Waste management is not only essential from a public welfare perspective but can also contribute to developing countries‘ economic growth if the recycling industry is promoted alongside eco-industrial production. • Segregation and recycling of waste The dhaloas in the metropolitan cities are always overflowing due to lack of segregation. Instead of constructing new landfill sites, the government should be looking into innovative methods to recycle waste. Recyclable waste like construction and demolition waste, organic waste like household garbage, toxic waste like medical waste, are all mixed together. India needs to device a mechanism for segregating biodegradable waste from non-biodegradable waste before dumping it into landfills, if at all, it needs to be dumped and also increase the landfill area. Awareness programmes should be carried out to sensitize people about the need to segregate waste. Segregation of waste should occur at the colony or neighbourhood level, when and where the waste is collected. Waste is something cast off with little to no value - but many items individuals throw away have value to other people, businesses, and communities. • Moving towards Zero Waste Zero Waste is a goal, a process, and a vision that shifts how we think about and use resources: it is a wholesystem approach that targets a major change in the way materials flow through our economy. Zero Waste centers around reducing needless consumption, minimizing waste, maximizing recycling, and incentivizing the manufacturing of products that can be intentionally reused, repaired, or recycled back into the marketplace.

115 • Measuring and Improving Landfill Greenhouse Gas Performance The Government should measure methane emissions from the landfills. The purpose of this is to gather data on the amount of methane emitted from landfills with different operational and climatic features. The data that is gathered is being used to predict methane emissions at landfills, which can help to design and carry out operational practices to minimize methane emissions. • Carbon Sequestration in Landfills (Understanding the Carbon Balance of Landfilling) Landfills are a known source of methane and other greenhouse gas emissions, but they also store significant amounts of carbon. This storage, or ―sequestration,‖ is important because it removes carbon from the natural carbon cycle indefinitely, reducing net emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon is naturally removed from the atmosphere and stored in forests (and then in harvested wood products, e.g., paper, lumber, furniture), yard trimmings, and food scraps via photosynthesis. Once these materials are disposed of in a landfill, only a portion of them decomposes, while a portion remains stored in the landfill indefinitely. Decomposition of the waste creates landfill gas, which is primarily composed of methane and carbon dioxide, as well as small amounts of volatile organic compounds. The proportion of the solid waste in landfills that decomposes depends on the type of waste, the amount of moisture, and other factors that affect the growth of microbes that break down the waste, and whether the landfill is operated to retard or enhance waste decomposition. The landfilling of harvested wood products, yard trimmings, and food scraps stores a significant amount of carbon that would otherwise decompose and release carbon to the atmosphere. Thus, landfill carbon storage should be accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories. • Installation of Waste Convertor Machines Waste converter machines that have been referred to in the earlier part of the report should be installed in the residential societies and proper management of the same should be ensured by these societies. These machines are considered to be “green” because they produce manure from the waste and/or allow energy to be produced from waste. These are safer energy alternatives that produce energy at lower prices.


CSR funding of Social Business 1) We have plethora of laws for waste management in India but the implementation of these laws is not satisfactory. This combined with corruption and political bureaucracy further leads to sordid affairs of complete lack cleanliness and hygiene and various other problems. Somewhere the basic mindset of Indians is responsible, where the people belonging to the lowest caste ( shudras) were expected to provide all the services of waste disposal, cleaning, sanitation, etc to the upper castes. Although with reservations for lower castes in education and government jobs and other initiatives been taken for the upliftment of lower castes, the plight of lower castes is not that grave as it used to be earlier, but still a stigma is attached to this kind of work. The working conditions of the sanitation workers are pathetic and the quality of their lives is very poor. 2) The case of 'SOL Cleaning Services' operating in Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, Russia and Sweden are good examples of the business models that can be replicated with appropriate variations for the Indian conditions. This business provides customised cleaning solution to its customers and provides excellent service through its highly satisfied workforce. It provides the workers with 'high-end' technology and tools required for effective cleaning. It works constantly on the workers' morale in a way which increases their sense of pride in being associated with the business. 3) If CSR funds could be channelised to set up such kind of business in India and initial support could be granted for the gestation period , it can prove to be an effective sustainable solution for the problem of cleanliness in India.



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Business Plan presented at CIC-CSEC, University of Delhi shortlisted among the top 5 business plans.

The innovation project team prepared and presented a Business idea called E-Doc- Taking primary healthcare services to rural areas in India by using information technology. The idea behind this business is to provide seamless primary healthcare services to people in the rural parts of the nation where such services are not accessible due to poor infrastructure, lack of qualified doctors etc. The same has been covered by Dainik Jagran.

Link to the Presentation-

121 2. Seminar on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and Innovations in Waste Management To create awareness about waste management, a survey was conducted by the team in college. Different students actively participated in the seminar and it was an enlightening session which

presented what little we can to by ourselves to encourage the proper and better use of waste.

Link to the video:-




Following are the particulars of the people interviewed in Bawana 1. Rohit Works in a shop Salary 10000/month Mobile number- 982622291 Problem- No waste management and proper connectivity. 2. Sunil Sharma Tempo driver Mobile number- 7290986987 Problems- Waste management and clean water is not proper.

3. Shatbir Singh Mobile number- 8512049147 Problems- Sanitation, pollution and no support from government. 4. Brij Kishore Mehra Owner of a small shop Mobile number- 8586058407 Problems- No complaints.

5.Renu Profession: Guest Teacher at MCD School Phone Number: 9211663592 Problems- Absence of students from school. 6. Seema Profession: Unoccupied Phone Number: 9911170391 Problems- Need to travel long distances for loo and no job opportunity. . 7. Tamanna Educational Qualifications: 12th, BA, B.Ed, MBA(HR), MA(Economics) Profession: Unoccupied Phone Number: 9996665322 Problems- No Job Opportunity.






Detailed report on various social problem like sanitation problem, lack of drinking water, health problems, housing problem, unemployment also include various initiatives of NGO’S and government. Collected various information regarding social business around the world. Went to attend CSR show by ADITYA BIRLA GROUP, GURGOAN, in which WE got the opportunity to listen to the CEO’s of different companies like Reliance, etc. and also went to different stalls to gather information regarding waste management and other social problems of the country.


29-30 SEPTEMBER 2015

9 OCTOBER 2015

Attended Entrepreneurship Conclave at SGGSCC

12 OCTOBER 2015

Detailed research on social activities of school. Research work done by the companies in social sector. Most companies spend their csr funds in urban area but fail to think about rural sector. Discussion on different start-ups or b-plans relating to waste management practised in India.

15 OCTOBER 2015

25 OCTOBER 2015

Report on Waste Converter Machi



2 JANUARY 2016

Attended seminar at SRCC related to social business. EXAM BREAK Team meeting in which we all were assigned with the work of doing research of different social business practised in India catering to the social problems suffered by the local people of our country. We had to create a detailed report and a power point presentation of this and had to present our work in front of our teachers in 1st week of January, 2016. 

Meeting with Mr Surya ( S MS Hydrotech) at Mam's col ony along with the managem ent of the colony.

Introduction with Mr Surya Vikram, owner of SMS hydrtech. He explained about different kinds of waste machine available. Also we conducted a meeting with the manager of the society, so as to convince them to install a machine in the society. Preparation of report which explained everything about the machine. Suggesting ideas related to the places where machines can be implemented.


4 JANUARY 2016

5 JANUARY 2016 13 JANUARY 2016

15 JANUARY 2016

29 JANUARY 2016

10 FEBURARY 2016

 A power point presentation on Social Business Related to Waste Management was presented in front of the teachers and a discussion took place regarding this topic.  Teachers saw all the presentations and then it was decided that the team would be mainly working on the topic WASTE MANAGEMENT Prepared questionnaire for survey. Meeting with Mr. Madhukar( Ecoman Enviro Solutions Ltd.) in college  Introductory letter for team innovation.  Attended the conference' on Waste Management Innovati ons ' at TERI University, Vasant kunj. Seminar on swachch bharat abhiyan held in college organised by our team . Meeting with a Supplier Mr. Aditya(Vendor of ECOMAN) at Library, to discuss their waste management machine features and the price of it. From that meeting, we got to know that Deshbandhu college has also installed the waste management machine.


11 FEBURARY 2016

 Meeting with the sales perso n of URBAN SOLUTIONS in the college library.  Visiting dealers so as to understand the functioning of machine, to see how actually these machines work. Questioning the actual users of these machines.

13 FEBURARY 2016

Faridabad Visit- meeting with Mr Surya and Mr. Arora to study the w orking of their already installed ma chines at Government Sites and Ho tels.

19 FEBURARY 2016

Went to see the features and working to Ecoman’s waste management machine in Deshbandhu college, University of Delhi in Kalkaji. Had a word with the concerned person of the management and they told us the advantage of the machine and its usage.

24 FEBURARY 2016

Meeting with vendor of waste management machine at maam’s house.


27 FEBURARY 2016

Visit to Rajendra Palace with Mr. Arora to study the working of Machine installed at a Hotel.

29 FEBURARY 2016

Meeting with our mentor in order to discuss the next step of our team for the project.

12 MARCH 2016

Prepared half yearly Power point presentation.

14 MARCH 2016

Submission of half yearly report of our project.

129 16 MARCH 2016

18 march 2016

 Beginning the research for finding out the problems faced by the people in the backward area. Collected information and snaps of the areas near Bawana.  From the research, we got to know that the industrial area is developed and the people living there are satisfied and happy. But in the village area, the residents suffered from the problem of unemployment and sanitation. They even told us the problem of the safety of women during evening time.  Prepared report on Bawana, suggested measures related to solutions for the problems.  Searched social business which can help to solve the problems in Bawana. Meeting with Mr Arora in Bcom L ab. Showed him the college garden and the waste generated in the coll ege.


18 march 2016

3 APRIL 2016

Meeting with Mr Arora in Bcom L ab. Showed him the college garden and the waste generated in the coll ege.

 discussion regarding the meetings of the vendors of the waste management machines and also had a discussion regarding the bplans of waste management practised in India.  Discussion on CSR Initiative s of various companies acros s various areas like educatio n, healthcare, etc.

4 APRIL 2016

22 APRIL 2016

Prepared presentation to be shown to the Principal Sir on Waste Conveter Machines.

Discussion on initiatives of GAU GRASS SEWA.


1 MAY 2016

JUNE 2016

Seminar in AHIMSA VIHAR Apartment, ROHINI; regarding the awareness of waste management and the installation of waste management machine in the society for creating a better and sustainable environment. Questionnaire was filled by the residents of the society. Compiled and analyse various articles from newspapers and magazine Read various book and detailed analysis was made Conducted research on various start-ups working on waste management.

5 JULY 2016

Second visit to Bawana village

13 JULY 2016

Research on villages which lack healthcare facilities.


20 JULY 2016

Visit to pitampura village and shakurpur village, to study various social problems.

24 JULY 2016

Research on A2z companiesworking towards waste management



SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: WHAT EVERYONE NEEDS TO KNOW - BY DAVID BORNSTEIN AND SUSAN DAVIS Social entrepreneurship has grown into a global movement that is producing solutions to many of the world‘s toughest problems and transforming the way we think about social change. In this book, the authors explain as to what social entrepreneurs do, how their organisations work, how their approach is different from traditional ones and most importantly they show readers how to think like social innovators and how to get involved in this growing movement. The book begins with a basic understanding about social entrepreneurship and traces its development over different years and spheres. Then it goes on to tell the readers the problems faced and solutions for the same. This book gave us an insight about the problems of a social entrepreneur and helped us understand how to overcome the same.

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137 • -


"The Solution Revolution" brings hope--revealing just such a new economy where players from across the spectrum of business, government, philanthropy, and social enterprise converge to solve big problems and create public value. The book explores how the intersection of various sectors can unlock the potential we will need to face the realities of the 21st century.

138 • -


 SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THEORY AND PRACTICE By Ryszard Praszkeir It gave us an insight about the problems of a social entrepreneur and helped us understand how to overcome Andrzej the same. The definition of Nowak social entrepreneurship implies that its practitioners come up with new ideas for Social entrepreneurship has grown into a global movement that is producing solutions to many of the world‘s toughest problems and transforming the way we think about social change.

solving pressing social problems and replacing old, ineffectual ones. We learnt how Social entrepreneurs pursue their mission by building social capital, which helps to build sustainability of their projects and also becomes a societal asset far beyond their stated goal.

7 Picture Gallery 1. FIELD VISITS