Proceeding of Thermofluid III, 4 October 2011, ISBN : 978-979-97986-6-4 Gadjah Mada University

Characterization of Cooling Load Toward Manufacturing Cost in Designing Cold Storage Using Solar Panel Boni Sena1), Fauzun2), Indarto3) 1) Postgraduate Student of Mechanical and Industrial, Gadjah Mada University 2) Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Gadjah Mada University Grafika No.2, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Telp dan Fax : (+62)274 521 673 Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Abstract : Problem in designing cold storage is how much manufacturing cost for cooling load with specified product capacity. Based on the problem, research has been done to know about correlation between cooling load toward manufacturing cost. The result of the research show linear correlation between cooling load toward manufacturing cost. Deviation standard for average of cooling load from mass product is 56,34 %. Average of cooling load from mass product is 71,9 % toward total cooling load. Deviation standard for average of latent cooling load is 56,34 %. Average of latent cooling load is 86,82 % toward cooling load from total mass product. Deviation standard for average of evaporator cost is 7,93 %. Average of cost from evaporator is 39,98 % toward total manufacturing cost. Deviation standard for average of condenser cost is 22,59 %. Average of cost from condenser is 25,44 % toward total manufacturing cost for cold storage system. Deviation standard for average of cost for cold storage system is 15,83 % and for photovoltaic system is 37,89 %. Average of cost for cold storage system is 1,88 % and photovoltaic system is 98,11 % toward total manufacturing cost. Deviation standard for average of cost for photovoltaic panel is 38,31 %. Average of cost for photovoltaic panel is 93,78 % toward total manufacturing cost for photovoltaic system. Keywords : cold storage, cooling load, manufacturing cost, photovoltaic system

I. Introduction I.1. Background Most area in Indonesia consist of sea. The potency of fishery in Indonesia consists of territorial sea, archipelago sea,and Exclusive Economic Zone. The sea area in Indoesia is 5,8 millon km2. The coastline in Indonesia is 81.000 km. The potency of fishery in Indonesia is 6,26 million/year. The potency from Indonesia marine is 4,4 million/year and Exclusive Economic Zone is 1,86 million/year (Novrizal, 2008). The fact in Muara Angke, Jakarta Bay, claimed that the application of cooling system in traditional fishermen was still inadequate. The fishermen only use ice cube as the preservation of their haul (Dzuhri, 2007). Furthermore, not all area in Indonesia got electrical distribution. For fisherman in remote island, it would be a big problem. Based on the problem, this research has purpose to solve problem for fisherman in remote island by applying cooling system and optimizing the application of photovoltaic energy in Indonesia.

The main problem in designing cold storage is how much the manufacturing cost for cooling load with specified product. Cooling load is fundamental variable in designing cooling system (ASHRAE, 2005). Cooling load will determine the amount of heat needed to make system in the desired temperature (Dossat, 1981 ; Khurmi, 2003 ; ASHRAE, 2005). Cooling load consists of some variables such as transmission, infiltration, equipment, product, and human (Dossat, 1981). Manufacturing cost is cost involving all components used to make a product. Manufacturing cost consists of fixed cost and variable cost (Pujawan, 2009). Manufacturing cost is very important in designing cold storage using solar panel because this cost will determine how much cost must be invested to make a system with specified capacity. I.2. Study literature Research about cold storage using solar panel has been done by Eltawil and Samuel in 2007. The location of research in IARI, New Delhi lies on 28,630N and 77,20E. Fourteen modules of photovoltaic panel were used in this research.

1

Proceeding of Thermofluid III, 4 October 2011, ISBN : 978-979-97986-6-4 Gadjah Mada University

Research about solar cold storage by using two variables for boat of fishermen had been done by M. Dzuhri in 2007. The research methodology was survey with fishermen in Muara Angke, literature study, and interview with the owner of cold storage manufactory.

Mathematical model can be made graphic by using scatter plot of linear model as shown in the figure 2.

II. Research methodology Research is started by designing system. The process of designing system was done based on the literature study and field survey. Characterization of cooling load toward manufacturing cost was done by varying the fish mass product with range from 100 kg to 2000 kg. The final result from characterization is mathematical model between cooling load to manufacturing cost. Validation process of mathematical model was done by linear regression model. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistic method generating deviation standard and average for each analyzed variable. Research methodology is explained in figure 1. Start Designing system Characterization of cooling load to manufacturing cost Analyzing data Results & Discussion Figure 1. Research Methodology 3. Results and discussion

Figure 2. Graphic of mathematical model 3.1. Data interpretation for cooling load to total cooling load Total of cooling load varied from 1,54 kW to 10,47 kW. The variation of cooling load is caused by the variation of product mass, room volume, fish container, fan motor of evaporator. Fixed cooling loads are load of lamp and human load. Most of cooling loads are given by load of fish product. Deviation standard for each cooling load on the average of standard deviation has different variation. Infiltration load has average deviation standard 18,1 %, fish mass load 56,34 %, transmission load 21,94 %, fish basket load 56,34 % and fan load 23,93 %. The average of each cooling load to total cooling load is given by mass fish load 71,9 %, evaporator fan load 15,33 %, infiltration load 4,84 %, transmission load 4,33 %, lamp load 0,08 %, human load 1,39 %, fish basket load 2,11 %. Fish mass load has given the biggest effect on total cooling load. Percentage of each component to total cooling load is shown in figure 3.

Based on the calculation process by using regression analysis obtained mathematical model as shown below : = 0,878 + 1,465

1,54 ≤ x≤ 10,47 (1)

where : y = Manufacturing cost (billion rupiah) x = Cooling load (kilowatt) Based on the mathematical model above can be discovered that coefficient x has positive value. It indicates that cooling load has tendency to be proportional with manufacturing cost.

Figure 3. Percentage of each cooling load to total cooling load

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Proceeding of Thermofluid III, 4 October 2011, ISBN : 978-979-97986-6-4 Gadjah Mada University

Standard deviation for each cooling load to the average of cooling load has same variation. Fish mass load before freezing has standard deviation to the average of cooling load is 56,34 %, fish mass load after freezing is 56,34 %, and latent load is 56,34 %. The average of cooling load for fish mass product after freezing to total cooling load of fish mass product is 11,75 %, the average of cooling load for fish mass product after freezing to total cooling load of fish mass product is 1,43 %, and the average of latent load to total cooling load of fish mass product is 86,82 %. Figure 4 shows each percentage of fish cooling load in pie diagram.

Figure 5. Cost percentage of each cold storage component to total manufacturing cost of cold storage V.5. Data Interpretation for cost average of cold storage system and photovoltaic system to the average of total manufacturing cost

Figure 4. Percentage of each cooling load of fish product to total cooling load of fish product 3.2. Data interpretation of the cost average for each component of cold storage to the cost average of total manufacturing cost Manufacturing cost for cold storage component consists of many components such as evaporator, condenser, compressor, cold storage building, liquid solenoid valve, vapor solenoid valve, filter dryer, expansion valve, sight glass, accumulator, liquid receiver, and cable. Deviation standard for each component of cold storage to the average value has different variation. Evaporator has deviation standard 7,93 %, condenser 22,59 %, compressor 29,86 %, liquid solenoid valve 20,02 %, vapor solenoid valve 15,61 %, filter dryer 1,3 %, expansion valve 2,15 %, cold storage building 21,95 %, pipe system 26,57 % and electrical system 0,71 %. The average percentage of evaporator component to the total average of total manufacturing cost is 39,98 %, for condenser is 25,44 %, for compressor is 13,46 % and for cold storage building is 11,97 %. Electrical system is 4,13 % and pipe system is 3,46 %. Other components only have the average percentage to the average of total manufacturing cost is 0,91 %. The average percentages of each cold storage component are shown in figure 5.

Total manufacturing cost for cold storage system using solar panel is affected mostly by cost of photovoltaic system. The average of manufacturing cost for cold storage system is Rp113,071,836.76 while the average of manufacturing cost for photovoltaic system is Rp 5,886,269,557.43. The average percentage of manufacturing cost for cold storage system is 1,88 % while the average percentage of photovoltaic system is 98,11 %. Figure 6 shows the percentage of each system in cold storage using solar panel system.

Figure 6. Percentage of manufacturing cost for cold storage system and photovoltaic system to the total manufacturing cost V.6. Data Interpretation of Each Component on Photovoltaic system to the total manufacturing cost of photovoltaic system Manufacturing cost for photovoltaic system is affected mostly by the cost of photovoltaic panel and voltage regulator. The prices of battery, photovoltaic building,

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Proceeding of Thermofluid III, 4 October 2011, ISBN : 978-979-97986-6-4 Gadjah Mada University

cable and inverter are not significant in affecting the total cost of photovoltaic system The average percentage of photovoltaic panel components to the total manufacturing cost of photovoltaic system is 93,78 % , the percentage of inverter is 0,4 %, the percentage of battery is 0,98 %,the percentage of voltage regulator is 4,55 %, the percentage of cold storage building is 0,28 %. Figure 7 shows the percentage of each price for photovoltaic system.

The correlation between them is proportional but there are some points in the power of compressor which has constant value. It is caused by the power of compressor is high enough to supply the system which has different capacity.

Figure 9. Graphic between fish mass to power of compressor 4. Conclusion Figure 7. The price percentage of each component of photovoltaic system to the total manufacturing cost of photovoltaic system 3.2. Data interpretation of photovoltaic system Figure 8 shows the graph between fish mass and power in cold storage system. The correlation of fish mass and power in cold storage system is varied. There are some power in compressor which has high power therefore there are some points in the graph which has same value.

The research with title characterization of cooling load to manufacturing cost can be made some conclusions as stated in the below : 1. Regression model of characterization of cooling load to manufacturing cost has linear correlation 2. Latent heat to fish mass has significant contribution to cooling load qualitatively 3. Evaporator and condenser cost has effect to the total manufacturing cost for cold storage system qualitatively 4. The cost of photovoltaic panel is the most significant component to the total manufacturing cost for cold storage system qualitatively References

Figure 8. Graphic between fish mash to the total power for cold storage system W. Hubungan antara massa ikan terhadap daya kompresor ditampilkan pada gambar 9. Figure 9 shows the graphic between fish mass and power of compressor.

ASHRAE, Handbook of Refrigeration And Air Conditioning , 2005 Dossat, 1981, Principles of Refrigeration, John Willey and Sons Dzuhri M, Perancangan Material dan Biaya Estimasi Solar Cold Storage untuk Perahu Nelayan Tradisional, Skripsi, 2007 Eltawil Mohamed A., Samuel D.V.K., Vapour Compression Cooling System Powered By Solar PV Array for Potato Storage, Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal, 2007 Eltawil Mohamed A., Samuel D.V.K., 2007, Performance and Economic of Solar Photovoltaic Powered Cooling System for Potato Storage, Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal, 2007

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Proceeding of Thermofluid III, 4 October 2011, ISBN : 978-979-97986-6-4 Gadjah Mada University

Eltawil M.A., Samuel D.V.K., Singhal O. P., Potato Storage Technology and Store Design Aspects, The CIGR Ejournal, 2006 Khurmi R.S., Gupta J.K., A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Eurasia Publishing House, 2003 Nawari, Analisis Regresi dengan MS Excel 2010 dan SPSS 17, Gramedia, 2010 Nofrizal, Perancangan thermal dan elektrik Solar Cold Storage untuk Perahu Nelayan Tradisional, Skripsi, 2008 Pujawan I N., 2009, Ekonomi Teknik, Guna Widya

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Characterization of Cooling Load Toward Manufacturing Cost in Designing Cold Storage Using Solar Panel Boni Sena1), Fauzun2), Indarto3) 1) Postgraduate Student of Mechanical and Industrial, Gadjah Mada University 2) Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Gadjah Mada University Grafika No.2, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Telp dan Fax : (+62)274 521 673 Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Abstract : Problem in designing cold storage is how much manufacturing cost for cooling load with specified product capacity. Based on the problem, research has been done to know about correlation between cooling load toward manufacturing cost. The result of the research show linear correlation between cooling load toward manufacturing cost. Deviation standard for average of cooling load from mass product is 56,34 %. Average of cooling load from mass product is 71,9 % toward total cooling load. Deviation standard for average of latent cooling load is 56,34 %. Average of latent cooling load is 86,82 % toward cooling load from total mass product. Deviation standard for average of evaporator cost is 7,93 %. Average of cost from evaporator is 39,98 % toward total manufacturing cost. Deviation standard for average of condenser cost is 22,59 %. Average of cost from condenser is 25,44 % toward total manufacturing cost for cold storage system. Deviation standard for average of cost for cold storage system is 15,83 % and for photovoltaic system is 37,89 %. Average of cost for cold storage system is 1,88 % and photovoltaic system is 98,11 % toward total manufacturing cost. Deviation standard for average of cost for photovoltaic panel is 38,31 %. Average of cost for photovoltaic panel is 93,78 % toward total manufacturing cost for photovoltaic system. Keywords : cold storage, cooling load, manufacturing cost, photovoltaic system

I. Introduction I.1. Background Most area in Indonesia consist of sea. The potency of fishery in Indonesia consists of territorial sea, archipelago sea,and Exclusive Economic Zone. The sea area in Indoesia is 5,8 millon km2. The coastline in Indonesia is 81.000 km. The potency of fishery in Indonesia is 6,26 million/year. The potency from Indonesia marine is 4,4 million/year and Exclusive Economic Zone is 1,86 million/year (Novrizal, 2008). The fact in Muara Angke, Jakarta Bay, claimed that the application of cooling system in traditional fishermen was still inadequate. The fishermen only use ice cube as the preservation of their haul (Dzuhri, 2007). Furthermore, not all area in Indonesia got electrical distribution. For fisherman in remote island, it would be a big problem. Based on the problem, this research has purpose to solve problem for fisherman in remote island by applying cooling system and optimizing the application of photovoltaic energy in Indonesia.

The main problem in designing cold storage is how much the manufacturing cost for cooling load with specified product. Cooling load is fundamental variable in designing cooling system (ASHRAE, 2005). Cooling load will determine the amount of heat needed to make system in the desired temperature (Dossat, 1981 ; Khurmi, 2003 ; ASHRAE, 2005). Cooling load consists of some variables such as transmission, infiltration, equipment, product, and human (Dossat, 1981). Manufacturing cost is cost involving all components used to make a product. Manufacturing cost consists of fixed cost and variable cost (Pujawan, 2009). Manufacturing cost is very important in designing cold storage using solar panel because this cost will determine how much cost must be invested to make a system with specified capacity. I.2. Study literature Research about cold storage using solar panel has been done by Eltawil and Samuel in 2007. The location of research in IARI, New Delhi lies on 28,630N and 77,20E. Fourteen modules of photovoltaic panel were used in this research.

1

Proceeding of Thermofluid III, 4 October 2011, ISBN : 978-979-97986-6-4 Gadjah Mada University

Research about solar cold storage by using two variables for boat of fishermen had been done by M. Dzuhri in 2007. The research methodology was survey with fishermen in Muara Angke, literature study, and interview with the owner of cold storage manufactory.

Mathematical model can be made graphic by using scatter plot of linear model as shown in the figure 2.

II. Research methodology Research is started by designing system. The process of designing system was done based on the literature study and field survey. Characterization of cooling load toward manufacturing cost was done by varying the fish mass product with range from 100 kg to 2000 kg. The final result from characterization is mathematical model between cooling load to manufacturing cost. Validation process of mathematical model was done by linear regression model. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistic method generating deviation standard and average for each analyzed variable. Research methodology is explained in figure 1. Start Designing system Characterization of cooling load to manufacturing cost Analyzing data Results & Discussion Figure 1. Research Methodology 3. Results and discussion

Figure 2. Graphic of mathematical model 3.1. Data interpretation for cooling load to total cooling load Total of cooling load varied from 1,54 kW to 10,47 kW. The variation of cooling load is caused by the variation of product mass, room volume, fish container, fan motor of evaporator. Fixed cooling loads are load of lamp and human load. Most of cooling loads are given by load of fish product. Deviation standard for each cooling load on the average of standard deviation has different variation. Infiltration load has average deviation standard 18,1 %, fish mass load 56,34 %, transmission load 21,94 %, fish basket load 56,34 % and fan load 23,93 %. The average of each cooling load to total cooling load is given by mass fish load 71,9 %, evaporator fan load 15,33 %, infiltration load 4,84 %, transmission load 4,33 %, lamp load 0,08 %, human load 1,39 %, fish basket load 2,11 %. Fish mass load has given the biggest effect on total cooling load. Percentage of each component to total cooling load is shown in figure 3.

Based on the calculation process by using regression analysis obtained mathematical model as shown below : = 0,878 + 1,465

1,54 ≤ x≤ 10,47 (1)

where : y = Manufacturing cost (billion rupiah) x = Cooling load (kilowatt) Based on the mathematical model above can be discovered that coefficient x has positive value. It indicates that cooling load has tendency to be proportional with manufacturing cost.

Figure 3. Percentage of each cooling load to total cooling load

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Proceeding of Thermofluid III, 4 October 2011, ISBN : 978-979-97986-6-4 Gadjah Mada University

Standard deviation for each cooling load to the average of cooling load has same variation. Fish mass load before freezing has standard deviation to the average of cooling load is 56,34 %, fish mass load after freezing is 56,34 %, and latent load is 56,34 %. The average of cooling load for fish mass product after freezing to total cooling load of fish mass product is 11,75 %, the average of cooling load for fish mass product after freezing to total cooling load of fish mass product is 1,43 %, and the average of latent load to total cooling load of fish mass product is 86,82 %. Figure 4 shows each percentage of fish cooling load in pie diagram.

Figure 5. Cost percentage of each cold storage component to total manufacturing cost of cold storage V.5. Data Interpretation for cost average of cold storage system and photovoltaic system to the average of total manufacturing cost

Figure 4. Percentage of each cooling load of fish product to total cooling load of fish product 3.2. Data interpretation of the cost average for each component of cold storage to the cost average of total manufacturing cost Manufacturing cost for cold storage component consists of many components such as evaporator, condenser, compressor, cold storage building, liquid solenoid valve, vapor solenoid valve, filter dryer, expansion valve, sight glass, accumulator, liquid receiver, and cable. Deviation standard for each component of cold storage to the average value has different variation. Evaporator has deviation standard 7,93 %, condenser 22,59 %, compressor 29,86 %, liquid solenoid valve 20,02 %, vapor solenoid valve 15,61 %, filter dryer 1,3 %, expansion valve 2,15 %, cold storage building 21,95 %, pipe system 26,57 % and electrical system 0,71 %. The average percentage of evaporator component to the total average of total manufacturing cost is 39,98 %, for condenser is 25,44 %, for compressor is 13,46 % and for cold storage building is 11,97 %. Electrical system is 4,13 % and pipe system is 3,46 %. Other components only have the average percentage to the average of total manufacturing cost is 0,91 %. The average percentages of each cold storage component are shown in figure 5.

Total manufacturing cost for cold storage system using solar panel is affected mostly by cost of photovoltaic system. The average of manufacturing cost for cold storage system is Rp113,071,836.76 while the average of manufacturing cost for photovoltaic system is Rp 5,886,269,557.43. The average percentage of manufacturing cost for cold storage system is 1,88 % while the average percentage of photovoltaic system is 98,11 %. Figure 6 shows the percentage of each system in cold storage using solar panel system.

Figure 6. Percentage of manufacturing cost for cold storage system and photovoltaic system to the total manufacturing cost V.6. Data Interpretation of Each Component on Photovoltaic system to the total manufacturing cost of photovoltaic system Manufacturing cost for photovoltaic system is affected mostly by the cost of photovoltaic panel and voltage regulator. The prices of battery, photovoltaic building,

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Proceeding of Thermofluid III, 4 October 2011, ISBN : 978-979-97986-6-4 Gadjah Mada University

cable and inverter are not significant in affecting the total cost of photovoltaic system The average percentage of photovoltaic panel components to the total manufacturing cost of photovoltaic system is 93,78 % , the percentage of inverter is 0,4 %, the percentage of battery is 0,98 %,the percentage of voltage regulator is 4,55 %, the percentage of cold storage building is 0,28 %. Figure 7 shows the percentage of each price for photovoltaic system.

The correlation between them is proportional but there are some points in the power of compressor which has constant value. It is caused by the power of compressor is high enough to supply the system which has different capacity.

Figure 9. Graphic between fish mass to power of compressor 4. Conclusion Figure 7. The price percentage of each component of photovoltaic system to the total manufacturing cost of photovoltaic system 3.2. Data interpretation of photovoltaic system Figure 8 shows the graph between fish mass and power in cold storage system. The correlation of fish mass and power in cold storage system is varied. There are some power in compressor which has high power therefore there are some points in the graph which has same value.

The research with title characterization of cooling load to manufacturing cost can be made some conclusions as stated in the below : 1. Regression model of characterization of cooling load to manufacturing cost has linear correlation 2. Latent heat to fish mass has significant contribution to cooling load qualitatively 3. Evaporator and condenser cost has effect to the total manufacturing cost for cold storage system qualitatively 4. The cost of photovoltaic panel is the most significant component to the total manufacturing cost for cold storage system qualitatively References

Figure 8. Graphic between fish mash to the total power for cold storage system W. Hubungan antara massa ikan terhadap daya kompresor ditampilkan pada gambar 9. Figure 9 shows the graphic between fish mass and power of compressor.

ASHRAE, Handbook of Refrigeration And Air Conditioning , 2005 Dossat, 1981, Principles of Refrigeration, John Willey and Sons Dzuhri M, Perancangan Material dan Biaya Estimasi Solar Cold Storage untuk Perahu Nelayan Tradisional, Skripsi, 2007 Eltawil Mohamed A., Samuel D.V.K., Vapour Compression Cooling System Powered By Solar PV Array for Potato Storage, Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal, 2007 Eltawil Mohamed A., Samuel D.V.K., 2007, Performance and Economic of Solar Photovoltaic Powered Cooling System for Potato Storage, Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal, 2007

4

Proceeding of Thermofluid III, 4 October 2011, ISBN : 978-979-97986-6-4 Gadjah Mada University

Eltawil M.A., Samuel D.V.K., Singhal O. P., Potato Storage Technology and Store Design Aspects, The CIGR Ejournal, 2006 Khurmi R.S., Gupta J.K., A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Eurasia Publishing House, 2003 Nawari, Analisis Regresi dengan MS Excel 2010 dan SPSS 17, Gramedia, 2010 Nofrizal, Perancangan thermal dan elektrik Solar Cold Storage untuk Perahu Nelayan Tradisional, Skripsi, 2008 Pujawan I N., 2009, Ekonomi Teknik, Guna Widya

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