impact of secondary school outdoor science education on students ...

2 downloads 0 Views 27MB Size Report
Jun 5, 2014 - Outdoor science education favors interest. (Glowinski & Bayrhuber, 2011; Fägerstam & Blom, 2013; Zoldosova & Prokop, 2006). RESEARCH ...

Helsinki, Finland, 5th June 2014


Research problem


Literature review


Research objectives





Research problem

RESEARCH PROBLEM Social issues § 

Declining interest in science in basic education (Awan et al., 2011; Barmby, Kind & Jones, 2008; Christidou, 2011; OCDE, 2007; Osborne, Simon & Collins, 2003; Potvin & Hasni, 2014)


Declining interest for scientific professions (Hasni & Potvin, in press; OCDE, 2006; 2008)


Science education, pillar of a democratic society (European Commission, 2002; 2007; Schreiner & Sjøberg, 2004)

RESEARCH PROBLEM Interest in science § 

Interest favors learning (Ainley, Hidi & Berndorff, 2002; Bergin, 1999; Denissen, Zarrett & Eccles, 2007; Krapp, 2007; Renninger, Ewen & Lasher, 2002; Renninger & Hidi, 2011)


Practical activities generate students’ interest (Bergin, 1999; Christidou, 2011; Häussler & Hoffmann, 2000; Nadelson et Jordan, 2012; Upadhyay & DeFranco, 2008)


Authentic learning environments: greater potential (Glowinski & Bayrhuber, 2011; Renninger & Hidi, 2011; Swarat, Ortony & Revelle, 2012)


Outdoor science education favors interest (Glowinski & Bayrhuber, 2011; Fägerstam & Blom, 2013; Zoldosova & Prokop, 2006)

RESEARCH PROBLEM Outdoor science education at school § 

Science education generally takes place indoors (Zoldosova & Prokop, 2006)


Science education rarely takes place near the school (Fensham & May, 1979; Uitto, Juuti, Lavonen & Meisalo, 2006)


More activities should occur in the immediate environment (Braund & Reiss, 2006; Fägerstam & Blom, 2013; Gruenewald, 2003a, 2003b; Lugg, 2007; Nicol, 2003; Smith, 2002; Woodhouse & Knapp, 2000)

RESEARCH PROBLEM Outdoor science education at school § 

Many obstacles: §  §  §  § 

lack of self-confidence lack of time insufficient resources no pre-service training

(Nundy, Dillon & Dowd, 2009; Rickinson et al., 2004)

RESEARCH PROBLEM Outdoor science education researches § 

Non formal education > Formal education


Field trips > Normal teaching activities

ü  Researchers

call for studies on outdoor science education near the school (Christidou, 2011; Fägerstam & Blom, 2013; Glowinski & Bayrhuber, 2011; Rickinson et al., 2004; Smith, 2013)

RESEARCH PROBLEM Outdoor science education researches § 

Teacher practices influence interest in science (Logan & Skamp, 2013)


Researches should focus on best practices (Fägerstam, 2012)


Researches should understand why some practices work or don’t (Bentson & Jensen, 2012; Rickinson, 2001; Rickinson et al., 2004)

RESEARCH PROBLEM Research question

Which teaching practices could best arouse students’ interest in science outdoor education that takes place in an authentic immediate environment of a secondary school?

Literature review

LITERATURE REVIEW Outdoor education § 

“Outdoor terminological jungle” (Turcová, Martin & Neuman, 2005)


Four strands: ①  ②  ③  ④ 

Recreation Leisure education Personal and social development An understanding of the environment

(Nicol, 2002: 40)

LITERATURE REVIEW Outdoor education (Priest, 1986: 13) 1. 

Method for learning






Use of all senses and domains


Based on interdisciplinary curriculum


Relationship to natural resources

LITERATURE REVIEW Outdoor education (Rickinson et al., 2004: 15) Learning Nature, society, nature-society interactions, oneself, others, new skills Outcomes Knowledge, attitudes towards, values and feelings about, skills, behaviors, personal development Locations School ground, garden, wilderness area, urban spaces, rural or city farms, parks, nature center

LITERATURE REVIEW Interest Five characteristics of interest (Renninger & Hidi, 2011: 169)

1.  2.  3.  4.  5. 

Object specific Interaction between a person and the environment Cognitive and affective components The learner may not be aware of his interest Physiological/neurological basis

LITERATURE REVIEW Interest Four-phases model (Hidi & Renninger, 2006)

1.  Triggered situational interest 2.  Maintained situational interest 3.  Emerging individual interest 4.  Well-developed individual interest

LITERATURE REVIEW Teaching practice Teaching practice focuses on teachers’ action that define how teaching activities are performed. (Altet, 2002; 2003)

Characteristics: §  §  §  §  § 

Interaction between teacher and learning Teacher actions imply rationality and improvisation Multidimensional (psycho, socio, pedagogical, didactics) Variability Imply more than methods

(Tupin, 2003)

LITERATURE REVIEW Uitto et al. (2006) Uitto, A., Juuti, K., Lavonen, J. et Meisalo, V. (2006). Students' interest in biology and their out-of-school experiences. Journal of Biological Education, 40(3), 124-129.

Results Outdoor activities promote interest in biology.

Limitations of the study Outdoor activities in the questionnaire didn’t refer to school context.

Future research More research is needed about interest in outdoor biology education.

LITERATURE REVIEW Fägerstam & Blom (2013) Fägerstam, E. et Blom, J. (2013). Learning biology and mathematics outdoors: effects and attitudes in a Swedish high school context. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 13(1), 56-75.

Results Students had a positive attitude toward outdoor biology education; outdoor education increases knowledge retention.

Limitations of the study Restricted research population.

Future research Researches with larger research population.

LITERATURE REVIEW Fägerstam (2014) Fägerstam, E. (2014). High school teachers’ experience of the educational potential of outdoor teaching and learning. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 14(1), 56-81.

Results Increased motivation, communication and participation among students; outdoor teaching could expand upon and strengthen indoor teaching; challenges with outdoor education were also perceived.

Limitations of the study Practical challenges not addressed.

Future research Attitudes towards regular school-based outdoor learning.

Research objectives


Identify the most appropriate teaching practices to arouse students’ situational interest in science outdoor education that takes place in an authentic immediate environment of a secondary school.


Characterize the most appropriate teaching practices that arouse students’ interest in science outdoor education that takes place in an authentic immediate environment of a secondary school.



Action research


Mixed methods


n = 7 teachers


n ≈ 14 groups ≈ 420 students (lower secondary)


Duration : a year

METHODS Students §  Pre/post questionnaire §  Short questionnaires (mixed data) §  Group interviews Teachers §  Individual interviews §  Observation §  Group interview



CONCLUSION Implications for research § 

Progress of research about outdoor science education in secondary education near the school


Study of interest in science outdoor education in terms of best teaching practices


Teachers’ interventions based on barriers in literature

CONCLUSION Implications for practice § 

Improvement of participants’ outdoor teaching practices


Diversification of teaching environments at school


Information about best practices in outdoor science education near the school for stakeholders


Development of training on outdoor science education

The floor is now yours!