Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago. Explanatory Note.The Constitution, Article 2,. Section 9, Fifteenth Congress of the Re
IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF THE TARGETING PERFORMANCE OF THE 4Ps PROGRAM IN NORTHWESTERN PHILIPPINES PROF. MILAGROS R. BALDEMOR, PhD [email protected]
Professor, Mathematics and Allied Disciplines Department and College of Graduate Studies Campus Head of International Affairs Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University Philippines Introduction Investment in human development especially in education and health significantly improves a country’s chance of achieving progress. However, the government’s limited financial resources on social services render insufficient opportunities on human capital investment to achieve development. Although a wide range of social protection is in place, inadequate human capabilities, limited access to social services and inequality persist as key factors underlying intergenerational cycle of poverty. Statistics show also that the incidence of poverty is highest among families whose household head had no education at all (Monsod, 2008), with incidence falling as more years are completed. Tackling the worsening poverty situation in the country is one of the current government’s anchor along good governance since it is an important instrument in fighting poverty. The Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program of the Pantawid Pamilya Pilipino Program (4Ps) of the Department of Social Work and Welfare aims to reduce poverty by making welfare programs conditional upon the receivers' actions. It provides cash transfers to poor households, conditional upon investments in child’s education and health as well as maternal health services. It aims to promote investment in education and health of children to help break the intergenerational transmission of poverty while providing immediate financial support to the household. The government only transfers the money to persons who meet certain criteria. These criteria may include enrolling children into public schools, getting regular check-ups at the doctor's office, receiving vaccinations, or the like. Because the focus of CCT is on the poorest groups, its impact is visible mostly on poverty gap. Countries experiencing cash transfers experience positive effects on poverty alleviation at the national level while countries with lower transfer amounts no substantial impact is seen. Adopting the CCT Program of other countries, the Philippine version dubbed as Pantawid Pamilya Pilipino Program (Pantawid Pamilya or 4Ps), serves as a vehicle in combating the cycles of poverty in Filipino households. Through provision of conditional income support to extremely poor households, increase in investments in human capital 1
(particularly to their children) shall be achieved. Furthermore, 4Ps is also implemented through an interagency cooperation between DSWD in partnership with the Department of Health (DOH), Department of Education (DepEd), Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), National Anti-Poverty Commission (NAPC), National Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP), Population Commission (PopCom), National Nutrition Council (NNC) and Local Government Units (LGU). This project supports the realization of the DSWD’s vision, mission, and mandate as the leader and champion on social welfare and development. It addresses two of the three main objectives of the National Social Sector-Social Welfare and Development Reform Program (NSS-SWDRP) of DSWD’s goals of poverty reduction and empowering the poor. . According to the World Bank, "Conditional cash transfers provide money directly to poor families via a “social contract” with the beneficiaries – for example, sending children to school regularly or bringing them to health centers. For extremely poor families, cash provides emergency assistance, while the conditionalities promote longer-term investments in human capital." At a February 2009 panel convened by the World Bank, economists noted mixed results. While CCT programs did correlate with a reduction in extreme poverty rates, they did not appear to demonstrate higher academic achievement and improved health among children whose families were receiving CCT grants. Pantawid Pamilya has dual objectives: (a) social assistance – to provide cash assistance to the poor to alleviate their immediate need and (b) social development – to break the intergenerational poverty cycle through investments in human capital. Furthermore, it helps fulfill the country’s commitment to meet the Millennium Development Goals, namely: (a) Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger, (b) Achieve Universal Primary Education, (c) Reduce Child Mortality, (d) Improve Maternal Health, and (e) Promote Gender Equality by localizing poverty reduction. Definition of Terms Coverage – proportion of the total population who are beneficiaries of 4Ps Undercoverage – percentage of poor households who do not receive cash transfer Leakage – percent of households that receive transfer but are not poor Targeting differential – difference between coverage and leakage. If it is close to 100, the program is effective, if it is close to -100, the program is ineffective Coady-Grosh-Hoddinott Index – compare the portion of the transfer budget received by a population quantile divided by the portion of the population in that quantile. A value greater than 1 means the program in progressive. Concentration index – tells how unequally the transfers are distributed. A positive value means the program is progressive
Objectives of the Study This study aimed to determine the level of implementation and evaluation of the 2
targeting performance of the 4Ps program in Northwestern Philippines. . Specifically, it aims to:: 1. Determine the level of implementation of the 4Ps program as to: a. Policies b. Persons involved c. monitoring and evaluation; d. systems of operations as to: 1. beneficiary update system (BUS); 2. compliance system (CVS); 3. grievance and redress system(GRS); and 4. supply side assessment (SSA)? e. service providers; and f. stakeholders? 2. Find out the level of attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in terms of: a. well -being; b. poverty index; c. education; and d. gender equality 3. Determine the targeting differential received by the beneficiaries using indicators as targeting differential and cost benefit ratio and identify the targeting errors in the selection of beneficiaries
Methodology This study utilized the descriptive method of research and made use of the latest annual poverty indicator survey, a nationwide survey that provides non-income indicators for poverty and also the latest master sample based on the census of population and housing from the Philippine Statistics Authority provincial office. Data on demographic characteristics like health status, schooling status, highest grade completed, and economic characteristics like housing, water and sanitation, social protection if any, family sustenance and other sources of income were utilized. Targeting measures like coverage, undercoverage and leakage in the selection of beneficiaries were also determined. Aside from documentary analysis, other sources of data were the beneficiaries, program implementers and the 4Ps workers particularly 350 respondents broken down as follows: 200 member beneficiaries who were the earliest chosen at the start of the program in 2008, and 40 service providers – and Pantawid Pamilya workers (municipal links and social welfare assistants), 30 stakeholders (provincial/municipal) and 80 service providers (class advisers, principals, midwives, municipal health officers, etc). The sample respondentbeneficiaries are those who live in the remote areas. The beneficiaries, stakeholders and 3
other service providers were chosen through purposive and stratified random sampling while the municipal links and social welfare assistants were done by total enumeration It made use of the Adept software, an open source software developed by the World bank in determining the targeting measures, average transfer value, cost-benefit ratio, and sensitivity and specificity analysis. It was also analyzed using the targeting differential and the Coady-Grosh-Hoddinott Index.
Summary of Findings Findings showed that: a. The program was highly implemented as to: policies, persons involved, monitoring and evaluation, and systems of operations in terms of: beneficiary update system (BUS); compliance verification system (CVS); grievance and redress system (GRS); and supply side assessment (SSA), service providers; and stakeholders. b. The MDGs in terms of well-being; poverty index; education; and gender equality, the goals were highly attained. c. Out of 198,260 respondents, 78,789 are 4Ps beneficiaries among which 52,654 of them are poor and 81.5% reside in rural areas. The program covered only a small portion of the poor (22.2%) and the leakage (31.45%) is greater than the coverage of the poor. It resulted to a negative targeting differential but still progressive compared to other social assistance programs based on the CGH indicator. Poverty gap is reduced by 0.83 for every unit spent on 4Ps.
Conclusions Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were deduced: 1. The Pantawid Pamilya program is generally “highly implemented”. 2. The Millennium Development Goals were “highly attained” by the 4Ps program. .
3. It resulted to a negative targeting differential but still progressive.
Recommendations 1. The program has to be sustained in terms of its implementation.
2. It has to continue its high level of attaining the MDGs 3.The use of per capita consumption is recommended since it covers the non-income factors in identifying the poor compared to other social programs based on the CGH indicator. References Conchada, Mitzie Irene P. and Tiongco, Mariter (2014) Optimal Allocation of School and Health Resources for Effective Delivery of the Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Bagac, Bataan, DLSU Research Congress 2014. De La Salle, University, Manila, Philippines DSWD Survey: Beneficiaries Spend P200 in food daily, 2014Retrieved February 6, 2015 from http://www.rappler.com./move-ph/41793- pantawid-program-workingwell Manasan, Rosario G., (2011)Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program and School Attendance: Early Indications of Success. Philippine Institute for Development Studies Retrieved February 9, 2015 from http://serpp.pids.gov.ph/download.php?=5023 8s=1 National Nutrition Survey Retrieved February 6, 2015 from http://www.rappler.com/moveph/issues/hunger/618 27-2013-national-nutritionsurvey Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) Retrieved February 6, 2015 from http://www.f04b.dswd.gov.ph/index.php/programand-services/foreignassiste projects/4Ps Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines Retrieved February 7, 2015 from http://www.gov.ph/programs/conditionalcashtransfer/ Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) DSWD, (2006) National Sector Support for Social Welfare and Development Reform Project (NSSSWDRP) Retrieved November 28, 2014 from Site resources.worldbank.org/ INTPHILIPPINES/Resources/ 4PsDSWD Randomnized Trial in Kenya, (2000) Retrieved January 23, 2015 from http://www.povertyaction.org/project/0067 Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago. Explanatory Note.The Constitution, Article 2, Section 9, Fifteenth Congress of the Republic of the Philippines. First Regular Session, Senate S. No. 92 20TH Century Hookworm Eradication in the Southern United States, (2007)Retrieved January 23, 2015 from h 5