irene georgakoudi - Tufts Engineering - Tufts University

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Apr 21, 2010 - École Polytechnique, Laboratoire d'Optique et Palaiseau, France. Biosciences. OTHER WORK EXPERIENCE ...
Irene Georgakoudi, PhD

IRENE GEORGAKOUDI Tufts University Biomedical Engineering Dept. 4 Colby Street Medford, MA 02155 P: +1-617-627-4353 F: +1-617-627-3231 Emai;: [email protected]

36 Mayflower Road Winchester, MA 01890 +1-617-716-9001

EDUCATION 1989-1993 Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH B.A. in Physics with high honors; Magna cum Laude; Presidential Scholar 1993-1998 University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY Ph.D. in Biophysics, 1998; Area of Specialization: Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer Research advisor: Dr. Thomas H. Foster M.Sc. in Biophysics, 1996 1999-2002 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laser Biomedical Research Center, Cambridge, MA NIH Training Fellowship; Area of Specialization: Biomedical Spectroscopy/Cancer diagnostics Research advisor: Dr. Michael S. Feld ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS 02/2002-08/2002 Research Scientitst 01/2003-08/2004 Assistant in Physics 01/2003-08/ 2004 Instructor 09/2004-08/2008 Assistant Professor 09/2008-Present Associate Professor 09/2010-06/2011 Visiting Scientist

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School Tufts University, Biomedical Engineering Dept Tufts University, Biomedical Engineering Dept École Polytechnique, Laboratoire d’Optique et Biosciences

OTHER WORK EXPERIENCE 09/2002-12/2002 Manager, Optical Modeling

Argose, Inc

Cambridge, MA Boston, MA Boston, MA Medford, MA Medford, MA Palaiseau, France Waltham MA

AWARDS AND HONORS 1991 C.V. Starr Foundation Scholarship, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 1993 Francis W. Sears Prize, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 1994 Leonidas Lantzounis Research Grant, Hellenic Medical Society of New York 1996 Graduate Alumni Fellowship, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 1997 Graduate Student Society Leadership Award, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 1997 Agnes M. and George Messersmith Fellowship, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 1998 William F. Neuman Award, Biophysics Department, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 1999-2002 National Research Service Award, U.S. National Institutes of Health 2004 Claflin Distinguished Scholar Award, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School. 2005 Inaugural Sturge Price awarded for “pioneering contributions to spectral diagnosis of biological materials using optical spectroscopic methodology.” 2006-2011 NSF Career Award: Non-invasive modalities for optical imaging of cell-matrix interactions in engineered tissues 2006 Attendee of the US Frontiers in Engineering Symposium organized by the National Academy of Engineering 2007 External PhD thesis examiner, Lund University, Lund Sweeden 2007 Vice-Chair, Member and Education Services Council, Optical Society of America 2008-2009 Chair, Member and Education Services Council, Optical Society of America 2008-2009 Board of Directors, Optical Society of America


Irene Georgakoudi, PhD

COMMITTEE AND PROFESSIONAL SERVICE ASSIGNMENTS Conferences April 2010 Program co-chair (Advanced Microscopy Techniques) session chair; OSA Biomedical meeting, Miami, FL June 2011 Program co-chair, European Conference on Biomedical Optics, Munich, Germany June 2011 Program Committee and Session chair, Engineering Foundation conference on Advances In Optics For Biotechnology, Medicine And Surgery, Naples, FL May 2012 Session chair, OSA Biomedical meeting, Miami, FL Oct 2012 Session chair, BMES Annual meeting, Atlanta, GA April 2012 Program committee, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging and Drug Delivery, Optical Society of America Photonics Congress, Hawaii, April 2013 June 2013 General co-chair, European Conference on Biomedical Optics, Munich, Germany June 2013 Program committee, Novel Microscopy Techniques, European Conference on Biomedical Optics, Munich Germany Scientific journal review and editor responsibilities 2009/2011 Guest editor, Applied Optics special issues 2011-Present Associate editor, PLoS ONE 2004-Present Reviewer for Nature Medicine, Nature Protocols, Cancer Research, PLoS ONE, Journal of Biomedical Optics, Applied Optics, Optics Letters, Optics Express, Photochemistry and Photobiology, Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, Journal of Microscopy, Biomedical Optics Express


Endogenous optical biomarkers associated with stem cell differentiation. Invited presentation at the Northeast Bioengineering Conference, New York City, NY

Sept 2010 Optical Diagnostics for Diseased and Engineered Tissues. Invited Seminar, École Polytechnique, Laboratory for Optics and Biosciences, Palaiseau, France. Mar 2011

Optical Diagnostics for Diseased and Engineered Tissues. Invited Seminar, ICFO-The Institute of Photonic Sciences, Barcelona, Spain


Non-invasive, optical monitoring and characterization of biochemical changes during stem cell differentiation. Information Photonics, Ottawa, Canada

Jun 2011

Quantitative tissue diagnostics based on non-linear optical imaging of endogenous contrast. Invited presentation, Physics and Biological Systems conference, Orsay, France

Jul 2011

Dynamic monitoring of biochemical changes in 3D engineered tissues using non-linear microscopy, BioMethods conference, Boston, MA

Oct 2011

Non-linear imaging for tissue engineering and disease diagnostic applications. Invited presentation, Symposium on New Imaging Technologies in Health and Disease, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece

Dec 2011

Dynamic monitoring of engineered tissue development using non-linear spectroscopic imaging. Invited seminar, Modern Optics and Spectroscopy Seminar series, MIT, Cambridge, MA

Jan 2012

Optical diagnostics for diseased and engineered tissues. Invited Seminar, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA

Jan 2012

Light scattering based monitoring of leukemic cells in flowing in vitro blood samples. Invited presentation, SPIE Photonics West, San Fransisco, CA

Mar 2012

Optical diagnostics for diseased and engineered tissues. Invited Seminar, Biomedical Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

April 2012 Optical diagnostics for diseased and engineered tissues. Invited Seminar, Biomedical Engineering Department, Purdue University, Lafayette, IN.


Irene Georgakoudi, PhD

May 2012

Optical diagnostics for diseased and engineered tissues. Invited seminar. Boston chapter of the IEEE Society.

July 2012

Non-linear endogenous optical biomarkers for tissue engineering applications. Invited Presentation, Gordon Conference on Lasers in Medicine and Biology, Plymouth, NH

Sept 2012 Development of a minimally invasive biomarker for breast cancer development and metastasis. CTSI Pilot Studies symposium. Boston MA. April 2013 Down to a Science, Greenways weekend, Dartmouth College, Hanover NH May 2013

Potential impact of optical imaging in the development of in vitro tissue models of infectious diseases. NIH workshop: In vitro tissue models for infectious diseases, Bethesda, MD

Aug 2013

Assessing mictochondrial organization and function in 3D tissues using endogenous 2PEF. Frontiers and Challenges in Laser-Based Microscopy, Telluride CO

Oct 2013

Quantitative, functional biomarkers of stem cell differentiation in 3D using multi-modal non-linear imaging with endogenous contrast. Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science, Orlando, FL

PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS AND BOOK CHAPTERS 1. Georgakoudi I, Nichols MG and Foster TH. The mechanism of Photofrin photobleaching and its consequences for photodynamic dosimetry. Photochem. Photobiol. 1997; 65: 135-144. 2. Georgakoudi I and Foster TH. Singlet oxygen- versus nonsinglet oxygen-mediated mechanisms of sensitizer photobleaching and their effects on photodynamic dosimetry. Photochem. Photobiol.1998; 67: 612-62. 3. Georgakoudi I and Foster TH. Effects of the subcellular redistribution of two nile blue derivatives on photodynamic oxygen consumption. Photochem. Photobiol. 1998; 68: 115-122. 4. Georgakoudi I, Keng PC and Foster TH. Hypoxia significantly reduces aminolaevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX synthesis in EMT6 cells. Br. J. Cancer 1999; 79: 1372-1377. 5. Yang C, Wax A, Georgakoudi I, et al. Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy. Opt Letters 2000; 25: 1526-1528. 6. Coutier S, Mitra S, Bezdetnaya LN, Parache RM, Georgakoudi I, Foster TH and Guillemin F. Effects of fluence rate on cell survival and photobleaching in meta-tetra (hydroxyphenyl) chlorin (mTHPC) photosensitized colo 26 multicell tumor spheroids. Photochem. Photobiol. 2001; 73: 297-301. 7. Georgakoudi I, Jacobson BC, Van Dam J et al. Fluorescence, reflectance and light scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 1620-1629. 8. Bigelow CE, Harkrider CJ, Conover DL, Foster TH, Georgakoudi I, Mitra S, Nichols MG and Rajadhyaksha M. Retrofit design and implementation of confocal scanning using a commercial inverted fluorescence microscope platform. Review of Scientific Instruments 2001; 72: 3407-3410. 9. Müller MG, Georgakoudi I, Zhang Q, Wu J and Feld MS. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: Disentangling effects of scattering and absorption. Applied Optics 2001; 40: 4633-4646. 10. Gurjar R, Backman V, Perelman LT, Georgakoudi I, et al. Functional imaging of human epithelia with polarized light scattering spectroscopy. Nature Medicine 2001; 7: 1245-1248. 11. Backman V, Gopal V, Kalashnikov M, Badizadegan K, Gurjar R, Wax A, Georgakoudi I, Mueller M, Boone CW, Dasari RD and Feld MS. Measuring cellular structure at submicron scale with light scattering spectroscopy. IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron 2001; 7: 887-893. 12. Georgakoudi I, Jacobson BC, Mueller MG, Sheets EE, Badizadegan K, Carr-Locke D, Crum CP, Boone CW, Dasari RR, Van Dam J and Feld MS. NAD(P)H and collagen as quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes. Cancer Research 2002; 62: 682-687. 13. Georgakoudi I, Sheets EE, Mueller M, Backman V, Crum CP, Badizadegan K and Feld MS. Tri-modal spectroscopy as a tool for the detection and biochemical/morphological characterization of cervical pre-cancers in vivo. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002; 186: 374-382. 14. Mueller M, Wax A, Georgakoudi I, Galindo L, Dasari R, Feld M. Multiexcitation fluorescence and reflectance portable spectrofluorimeter to assist real time guidance to biopsy in precancer screening. Review of Scientific Instruments 2002; 73: 3933-393. 15. Mueller M, Valdez T, Georgakoudi I, Backman V, Fuentes C, Kabani S, Laver N, Wang Z, Boone C, Dasari R, Shapsay S and Feld MS. Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma. Cancer 2003; 97:1681-1692. 16. Tunnell JW, Desjardins AE, Galindo L, Georgakoudi I, McGee SA, Mirkovic J, Mueller MG, Nazemi J, Nguyen FT, Wax A, Zhang Q, Dasari RR, Feld MS. Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2003; 2: 505-14. 3

Irene Georgakoudi, PhD

17. Badizadegan K, Backman V, Boone CW, Crum CP, Dasari RR, Georgakoudi I, Keefe K, Munger K, Shapshay S, Sheets EE, Feld MS. Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer. Faraday Discuss 2004; 126: 265279. 18. Novak J, Georgakoudi I, Wei X, Prossin A, Lin C. An in vivo flow cytometer for real-time detection and quantification of circulating cells. Opt Lett 2004; 29: 77-79. 19. Georgakoudi I, Solban N, Novak J, Rice W, Hasan T, Lin C. In vivo flow cytometry: A new method for enumerating circulating tumor cells. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 5044-5047. 20. Wei X, Sipkins D, Pitsillides C, Novak J, Georgakoudi I, Lin C. Real-time detection of circulating apoptotic cells by in vivo flow cytometry. Mol Imaging 2005; 4: 415-416. 21. Georgakoudi I, Van Dam J Characterization of Dysplastic Tissue Morphology and Biochemistry in Barrett’s Esophagus using Diffuse Reflectance and Light Scattering Spectroscopy. Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2005;7:100-105. 22. Georgakoudi I. The Color of Cancer. J. Luminescence 2006;119-120: 75-83. 23. Angheloiu G, Arendt, J, Müller, M, Haka, A, Georgakoudi I, Motz J, Scepanovic O, Kuban B, Myles J, Miller F, Podrez E, Fitzmaurice M, Kramer J, Feld M. Intrinsic fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy identify superficial foam cells in coronary plaques prone to erosion. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2006; 26:1594-600. g u u 24. Levitt J , Baldwin A, Papadakis A, Puri S , Xylas J , Munger K, Georgakoudi I. Intrinsic fluorescence and redox changes associated with apoptosis of primary epithelial cells. Journal of Biomedical Optics 2006;11:064012 (Cover feature). g g g 25. Georgakoudi I, Tsai I, Greiner C , Wong C , DeFelice J , Kaplan D. Intrinsic fluorescence changes associated with the structural conformation of silk fibroin in biomaterial matrices. Optics Express 2007;15: 1043-1053. 26. Boutrus S, Greiner C, Hwu D, Chan M, Kuperwasser C, Lin C, Georgakoudi I. A Portable Two-Color In Vivo Flow Cytometer for Real-Time Detection of Fluorescently-Labeled Circulating Cells. JBO Letters 2007; 12:020507. 27. Mujat C, Greiner C, Baldwin A, Levitt J, Tian F, Stucenski L, Hunter M, Kim YL, Backman V, Feld M, Munger K, Georgakoudi I. Endogenous optical biomarkers of normal and human papillomavirus immortalized epithelial cells. International Journal of Cancer 2008; 122:363-371. 28. Levitt J, Hunter M, Mujat C, McLaughlin-Durbin M, Munger K, Georgakoudi I. Diagnostic cellular organization features extracted from autofluorescence images. Optics Letters 2007, 32:3305-3307. 29. Rice W, Kaplan D, Georgakoudi I. Quantitative biomarkers of stem cell differentiation based on intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence. Journal of Biomedical Optics (Letter) 2007, 12:060504. 30. Rice WL, Firdous S, Gupta S, Hunter M, Wong Po Foo C, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I. Non-invasive characterization of structure and morphology of silk fibroin biomaterials using non-linear spectral imaging. Biomaterials 2008, 29:2015-2024.. 31. Gupta S, Hunter M, Cebe P, Levitt J, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I. Non-invasive optical characterization of biomaterial mineralization. Biomaterials 2008, 29:2359-2369. 32. Bayan C, Levitt J, Miller E, Kaplan D, Georgakoudi I. Fully-automated, quantitative, non-invasive assessment of collagen fiber content and organization in thick collagen gels. Journal of Applied Physics 2009, 105:102042. 33. Gupta S, Hunter M, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I. Optical characterization of the nanoscale organization of mineral deposits on silk films. Applied Optics 2009, 48: D45-51. 34. Huang P, Hunter M, Georgakoudi I. Confocal light scattering spectroscopic imaging system for in situ tissue characterization. Applied Optics 2009, 48:2595-2599. 35. Rice WL, Kaplan D, Georgakoudi I. Quantitative optical Biomarkers of Stem Cell Differentiation. PLoSONE2010, 5:e10075. 36. Kwon H, Kim HJ, Rice WL, Subramanian B, Park SH, Georgakoudi I, Kaplan DL. Development of an in vitro model to study the impact of BMP-2 on metastasis to bone. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2010 Sep 23. 37. Mieszawska AJ, Fourligas N, Georgakoudi I, Ouhib NM, Belton DJ, Perry CC, Kaplan DL. Osteoinductive silk-silica composite biomaterials for bone regeneration. Biomaterials. 2010 Dec;31(34):8902-10. 38. Xylas J, Alt-Holland A, Garlick J, Hunter M, Georgakoudi I.Intrinsic optical biomarkers associated with the invasive potential of tumor cells in engineered tissue models. Biomed Opt Express. 2010 Nov 10;1(5):1387-1400. 39. Hronik-Tupaj M, Rice WL, Cronin-Golomb M, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I. Osteoblastic differentiation and stress response of human mesenchymal stem cells exposed to alternating current electric fields. Biomed Eng Online. 2011 Jan 26;10(1):9. 40. Angheloiu GO, Haka AS, Georgakoudi I, Arendt J, Müller MG, Scepanovic OR, Evanko SP, Wight TN, Mukherjee P, Waldeck DH, Dasari RR, Fitzmaurice M, Kramer JR, Feld MS. Detection of coronary atherosclerotic plaques with superficial proteoglycans and foam cells using real-time intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. Atherosclerosis. 2011 Mar;215(1):96-102. Epub 2010 Nov 27. 4

Irene Georgakoudi, PhD

41. Hwu D, Boutrus S, Greiner C, DiMeo T, Kuperwasser C, Georgakoudi I. Assessment of the role of circulating breast cancer cells in tumor formation and metastatic potential using in vivo flow cytometry. Journal of Biomedical Optics (Letter), 2011 1 April 16(04): 040501. 42. Hsiao A, Hunter M, Greiner C, Gupta S, Georgakoudi I. Non-invasive identification of subcellular organization and nuclear morphology features associated with leukemic cells using light scattering spectroscopy. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2011 1 Mar 16 (03): 037007 43. Greiner C, Hunter M, Huang P, Fransisca R, Georgakoudi I. Confocal backscattering spectroscopy for leukemic and normal blood cell discrimination. Cytometry Part A, 2011 79A:866-873. 44. Greiner C, Hunter M, Huang P, Fransisca R, Georgakoudi I. Confocal backscattering-based detection of leukemic cells in flowing blood samples. Cytometry Part A, 2011 79A:874-883. 45. Levitt J, McLaughlin-Drubin ME, Munger K, Georgakoudi I. Automated biochemical, morphological, and organizational of pre-cancerous changes from endogenous two-photon fluorescence images. PLoS One 2011; 6(9): e24765 46. Wray L, Hu X, Gallego J, Georgakoudi I, Omenetto F, Schmidt D, Kaplan D. Effect of processing on silk-based biomaterials:Reproducibility and biocompatibility. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part B - Applied Biomaterials, 2011 99B:89-101. 47. Georgakoudi I, Quinn KP. Optical imaging using endogenous contrast to assess metabolic state. Annual

Review of Biomedical Engineering 2012; 14: 351–67. 48. Quinn KP, Bellas E, Fourligas N, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I. Characterization of metabolic changes associated with the functional development of 3D engineered tissues by non-invasive, dynamic measurement of individual cell redox ratios. Biomaterials 2012; 33(21): 5341-8. 49. Xylas J, Quinn KP, Hunter MA, Georgakoudi I. Improved Fourier-based characterization of intracellular fractal features. Optics Express 2012; 20:23442-55. 50. Ward A, Quinn KP, Bellas E, Georgakoudi I, Kaplan DL. Noninvasive metabolic imaging of engineered 3D human adipose tissue in a perfusion bioreactor. PLoS One 2013; 8(2): e55696. 51. Traphagen SB, Fourligas N, Xylas JF, Sengupta S, Kaplan DL, Georgakoudi I, Yelick PC. Characterization of natural, decellularized and reseeded porcine tooth bud matrices. Biomaterials 2012 Jul;33(21):5287-96 52. Angheloiu GO, van de Poll SW, Georgakoudi I, Motz JT, Haka AS, Podrez E, Fitzmaurice M, Dasari RR, Feld MS, Kramer JR. Intrinsic versus laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for coronary atherosclerosis: a generational comparison model for testing diagnostic accuracy. Appl Spectrosc. 2012 Dec;66(12):1403-10. 53. Quinn KP, Georgakoudi I. Rapid quantification of pixel-wise fiberorientation data in micrographs. Journal of Biomedical Optics 2013; 18 (4): 046003. 54. Marturano J, Arena J, Schiller Z, Georgakoudi I, Kuo C. Characterization of mechanical and biochemical properties of developing embryonic tendon. PNAS 2013; 110 (6): 6370-6375. 55. Speroni L, Whitt GS, Xylas J, Quinn KP, Jondeau-Cabaton A, Barnes C, Georgakoudi I, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. Hormonal regulation of epithelial organization in a three-dimensional breast tissue culture model. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2013 May 16. PMID: 23675751. 56. Chang T, Zimmerley MS, Quinn KP, Lamarre-Jouenne I, Kaplan DL, Beaurepaire E, Georgakoudi I. Noninvasive monitoring of cell metabolism and lipid production in 3D engineered human adipose tissues using label-free multiphoton microscopy. Biomaterials. 2013 Nov;34(34):8607-16. 57. Corin Williams, Kyle P. Quinn, Irene Georgakoudi, and Lauren D. Black III. Young developmental age cardiac extracellular matrix promotes the expansion of neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro. Acta Biomaterialia, In Press. BOOK CHAPTERS/REVIEWS 1. Georgakoudi I, Müller M and Feld MS. Intrinsic Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Biological Tissue. In Fluorescence in Biomedicine, ed. Mary-Ann Mycek and Brian Pogue, Marcel Dekker, Inc: New York, NY. 2003; chapter 4, pp. 109-142.


Irene Georgakoudi, PhD

2. Georgakoudi I, Motz J,, Backman V, Angheloiu G, Haka A, Müller M, Dasari R and Feld MS. Quantitative characterization of biological tissue using optical spectroscopy. In the Biomedical Photonics Handbook, ed. Tuan Vo-Dinh, CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. 2003; chapter 31, pp.1-33. 3. Georgakoudi I and Van Dam J. Characterization of Dysplastic Tissue Morphology and Biochemistry in Barrett’s Esophagus Using Diffuse Reflectance and Light Scattering Spectroscopy. Gastrointest Endosc Clin North Am 2003; 13:297-308. 4. Georgakoudi I. Intrinsic Fluorescence, Diffuse Reflectance and Light Scattering for Detecting Dysplasia in Barrett’s Esophagus. Gastrointest Endosc Clin North Am 2004, 14: 519-5. 5. Georgakoudi I, Rice W, Hronik-Tupaj M, Kaplan D. Optical spectroscopy and imaging for the noninvasive evaluation of engineered tissues. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2008,14(4):321-40. (Cover feature). 6. Greiner C, Georgakoudi I. Advances in fluorescence-based in vivo flow cytometry for cancer applications. In Advanced Optical Flow Cytometry, ed. Valery Tuchin, Wiley-VCH: Berlin, Germany. 2011, chapter 16, pp. 463500. 7. Quinn KP, Georgakoudi I, Winkelstein BA (2012). Imaging approaches to quantify tissue structure and function from the micro- to macro-scales. Orthopaedic Biomechanics. Winkelstein BA, Ed., CRC Press, In Press. 8. Georgakoudi I, Hunter M. Light Scattering and Polarization Spectroscopy in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. In. Optical Techniques in Regenerative Medicine, ed. Stephen Morgan, Felicity Rose, and Steve Matcher. Taylor and Francis Group. In Press. 9. Quinn KP, Georgakoudi I. Monitoring Stem Cell Differentiation in Engineered Tissues. Natural Biomarkers for Cell Metabolism. Gukassyan VV, Heikal AA, Eds., CRC Press, Submitted. ISSUED PATENTS 1. Georgakoudi I, Backman V Feld MS, inventors; Massachusetts Institue of Technology, Cambridge MA, assignee. Fluorescence, reflectance and light scattering spectroscopy for measuring tissue. U.S. Patent No: 6,697,652. Issue date: Feb 24, 2004. 2. Foster T, Conover D, Bigelow C, Georgakoudi I, Mezhiba A, Mitra S, inventors; University of Rochester, Rochester NY, assignee. Method for operating a laser scanning confocal microscope system and a system thereof. U.S. Patent No: 6,859,273. Issue date: Feb 22, 2005. 3. Georgakoudi I, Feld MS, Zhang Q, Mueller M, inventors; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA, assignee, System and Methods of Fluorescence, Reflectance and Light Scattering Spectroscopy for Measuring Tissue Characteristics. U.S. Patent No: 6,912,412. Issue date: June 28, 2005. 4. Foster T, Conover D, Bigelow C, Georgakoudi I, Mezhiba A, Mitra S, inventors; University of Rochester, Rochester NY, assignee. Method for operating a laser scanning confocal microscope system and a system thereof. U.S. Patent No. 6,956,647. Issue date: October 18, 2005. 5. Georgakoudi I, Lin CP, inventors; The General Hospital, Boston, MA, assignee. Methods FOR in vivo cytometry. U.S. Patent No: 7,264,794. Issue date: September 4, 2007. 6. Georgakoudi I, Lin CP, inventors; The General Hospital Corporation, Boston, MA, assignee. Methods for in–vivo flow cytometry. U.S. Patent No: 8.108.031. Issue date: January 12, 2012. PENDING PATENTS 1. Georgakoudi I. Gupta S, Hunter M, Kaplan D, inventors. Trustees of Tufts College, assignee. Non-invasive optical characterization of biomaterial mineralization. Application number: 12/867,383. Publication number: US 2011/0109910 A1. Filing date: Feb 19, 2009. 2. Georgakoudi I, Hwu D, Boutrus S, Kuperwasser C, inventors. Tufts University, assignee. Method for assessing potential for tumor development and metastasis. Application number: 12/764,566. Publication number: US 2010/0272651 A!. Filing date: Apr 21, 2010. 3. Georgakoudi I, Huang P-Y, Hunter M, inventors. Tufts University, assignee. Methods and system for confocal light scattering spectroscopic imaging. Application number: 13/139,953, Publication number: US2011/0310384 A1. Filing date: Dec 22, 2009. 4. Kaplan D, Omenetto F, Lawrence B, Cronin-Golomb, Georgakoudi I, inventors. Trustees of Tufts College, assignee. Biopolymer sensor and method of manufacturing the same. Application number 12/513,441. Publication number: US 2010/0070068. Filing date: Nov 5, 2007. 5. Levitt J, Mujat C, Hunter M, Georgakoudi I, inventors. Tufts University, assignee. Analysis of endogenous fluorescence images to extract morphological tissue characteristics. Application number: 12/739,271. Publication number: US 2010/0292543 A1. Filing date: Oct 30, 2008.