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IBS: A Critical Success Factor of the CITP 2016-2020 Timber IBS at Expo Milano 2015 IBS Roadmap for Timber 2013-2023 Gaming Timber Technology Transfer Case Study: Green Formwork Utilising Bamboo Plywood Boards for The Meridin@Medini Living on Timber Water Structures IBS Catalogue for Precast Building System

Jom IBS is created with the aim to promote and disseminate all information about IBS programs in Malaysia.

Contents 5


IBS: A Critical Success Factor of the CITP 2016-2020



User Guide: IBS Catalogue for Precast Building System Volume 1

12 "To enhance the use of technology in the construction sector, the Government will promote the use of Industrialised Building Systems (IBS). In this respect, the Government will encourage more companies to adopt the IBS technology. For this, an IBS Promotion Fund of RM500 million will be established through the SME Bank to provide soft loans to developers and contractors in category G5 and below" 2016 Budget Speech by the Prime Minister in the Dewan Rakyat, 23 October 2015

Timber IBS at Expo Milano 2015


IBS Roadmap for Timber 2013-2023


Gaming Timber Technology Transfer


Case Study: Green Formwork Utilising Bamboo Plywood Boards for The Meridin@Medini


Living on Timber Water Structures: Introducing Industrialised Construction

30 News



20 27



Like us at FACEBOOK: Jom IBS Issue 2 2015 Malaysia Pavilion Expo Milano 2015 Designed & Printed by Innovacia Sdn Bhd


Welcome Note The recently tabled Budget 2016 has provided a very promising boost to the IBS industry. An IBS Promotion Fund of RM500 million which would be provided by the SME Bank has been offered to the construction industry. SME Bank has been assigned to provide soft loans to the developers and contractors in the category of G5 and below. This would benefit the developers as well as the SME contractors to venture into IBS method of construction. More IBS manufacturers and providers of support services could enter the market; hence providing positive effects to the industry. A developer, as an example, could use the provided financial facilities to support the setting-up of its own precast concrete manufacturing plant; and follow the strategy of a few successful developers that already reaping the benefits of having their own production facilities. A contractor could also use the opportunity to venture into on-site casting for its projects; or starting related IBS services. Reference could be made to User Guide: IBS Catalogue for Precast Building System Volume 1; featured in this issue. All of these are going to support the various housing targets set under Budget 2016 and the Eleventh Malaysia Plan 2016-2010; especially for the B40 group. The proposed IBS Promotion Fund is also supporting the aims set by the Construction Industry Transformation Programme (CITP) 2016-2010; presented as the first Cover Story of this issue. Featured on the IBS Digest Cover and as the second Cover Story is the Malaysia Pavilion at Expo Milano; constructed using the innovative glulam structures. Based on the Timber IBS theme, this issue also features a write-up on IBS Roadmap for Timber 2013-2023 that was formulated to complement the IBS Roadmap 2011-2015 and CIMP 2016-2010. Next is an interesting article on the design and integration of gamification principles into a Timber IBS training curriculum that could also be expanded into other types of IBS. Also featured is a case study on the usage of a green formwork system that is based on bamboo plywood boards. This issue also presented an NGO's view on the introduction of industrialised construction to improve the timber water structures of the coastal settlements in Sabah.

Enjoy reading & Jom IBS! The Editorial Committee

IBS: A Critical Success Factor for CITP 2016-2020 The official launch of the Construction Industry Transformation Programme (CITP) 2016-2020 by the Hon. Prime Minister of Malaysia was undoubtedly the most awaited highlight of the recently concluded International Construction Week 2015. CITP sets important strategic goals and milestones to bring the construction industry to a greater level. It envisions an advanced and highly productive construction sector that will continue to be a major contributor to the economy; towards achieving Malaysia's target to be a high-income nation by 2020. It aims to create construction industry players that are sustainable at home and are also able to succeed in the global arena.

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE Advisor Dato’ Sri Ir. Dr. Judin Abdul Karim Chief Executive, CIDB Malaysia Chief Editor Datuk Ir. Elias Ismail Editorial Committee Ir. Noraini Bahri Rofizlan Ahmad Mohd Idrus Din Mohd Rizal Norman Mohamad Razi Ahmad Suhaimi

Publisher Pusat IBS, Galeri Komponen IBS, Lot 8, Jalan Chan Sow Lin, 55200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel : +603 9281 6909 Fax : +603 9281 5870 Email : [email protected] Website:

About IBS Digest IBS Digest is a newsletter published by Pusat IBS (IBS Centre) since 2005; as a platform to share information, news, best practices and also to promote the use of Industrialised Building System (IBS) in the Malaysian construction industry. Disclaimer No part of this newsletter may be reproduced without written permission from the IBS Centre, CIDB Malaysia. Opinions expressed in IBS Digest are the writers' and may not necessarily reflect the opinion of CIDB Malaysia. CIDB Malaysia is neither responsible nor liable in any way for the content of the articles, photographs or illustrations contained in this publication. The Editorial Committee reserves the rights to edit and rewrite all materials according to the needs of the publication.

In fact, the construction industry is crucial to Malaysia's economy; and more than 120 industries rely on it. The construction sector contributes to about 4% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It also employs 9.5% of the total workforce with 1.2 million registered workers. Tens of thousands more are currently pursuing Technical, Educational and Vocational Training (TEVT) and university courses related to construction.

CITP is developed in supporting the Eleventh Malaysia Plan 2016-2020 and contains four Strategic Thrusts, with a total of 18 Initiatives, that have been identified to guide the transformation: QUALITY, SAFETY & PROFESSIONALISM Q1



Increase emphasis on quality and implement quality assessments Improve workplace safety and workers’ amenities Improve ease of doing business by addressing regulatory constraints





Drive innovation in sustainable construction Drive compliance to environmental sustainability ratings and requirements Focus on public projects to lead the charge on sustainable practices Facilitate industry adoption of sustainable practices Reduce irresponsible waste during construction








Continue investment in human capital development in construction Enhance control and balance of workforce supply Accelerate adoption of IBS, mechanisation and modern practices





Internationalise construction practices and standards Strengthen access to financing for Malaysian champions going abroad Support consortia formation and strengthen overseas market intelligence

Roll out technology advantage across project life-cycle Enhance availability of strategic information via National Construction Industry Information Centre (NCIIC) Advance SME/ Bumiputera capacity and capability-building

These are the key issues that are currently limiting higher adoption of IBS in Malaysia:

Limited regulatory impetus


Promote and raise awareness of CITP initiatives



The main aim under the Productivity Strategic Thrust is to increase the construction productivity by two-and-ahalf times; to a target value of USD16,500 per worker by 2020. Under the Productivity Strategic Thrust, IBS is being focused through Initiative P3 (Accelerate adoption of IBS, mechanisation and modern practices). The two targeted outcomes under the IBS initiative are for all of public projects RM10 million and above to achieve 70 IBS Score; and also for all of private projects RM10 million and above to achieve 50 IBS Score. Nonetheless, the current IBS adoption is still very low and the target set by IBS Roadmap 2011-2015; which was an overall adoption rate of 100 per cent of public projects with 70 IBS Score and 50 IBS Score for private projects, has not been achieved. Only 24 per cent of public projects worth RM 10 Million and above have achieved IBS Score of 70.

Issue 2 2015

Lack of strong market supply and demand forces


Design consultants not fully equipped to incorporate IBS in their designs: Contractors forced to redesign with manufacturers thus leading to delays Design consultants not adequately trained to incorporate IBS specifically, in the design for manufacturing and assembly or DFMA


Limited enforcement of IBS requirement


Design Consultants

Note: Several initiatives may belong to more than one strategic thrust. In such instances, these initiatives have been placed under the strategic thrust where it is expected to have the highest impact


Broad definition of IBS and lack of standards



Contractors need to improve effectiveness of project management to adopt just-intime practices and avoid delays Deposit paid to manufacturers can result in cash flow issues for contractors


Limited number of IBS-ready contractors and workforce


Preference to use cast-in-situ method


Availability of low-cost foreign labour






Low demand means limited economies of scale : and few IBS manufacturers High import duty for IBS equipment and machinery, with limited IBS manufacturing incentives Sparsely located IBS manufacturers, especially in Sabah and Sarawak Relatively high cost of transportation for components and machinery

IBS has been proven to offer great benefits to the construction industry and is the choice of many successful economies. Hence, the current IBS issues affecting Malaysia must be attended to and the IBS agenda is to be sustained. In addressing the current IBS issues and achieving the two targeted outcomes of CITP; these are the four highlighted recommendations: • Drive scale via regulations • Raise enablers for IBS adoption • Improve economies of IBS adoption • Change public procurement approach

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Case for Change


Key outcomes by 2020

Limited adoption of modern practices, mechanisation and IBS

Accelerate adoption of IBS, mechanisation, and modern practices

• The current definition of components qualifying as IBS is vague issues • Contractors risk cash during procurement of IBS components • Relatively high import duty for IBS manufacturing equipment and installation machinery • Insufficient number of design consultants for IBS

• HarmoniseIBS catalogue analysis for IBS • Conduct adoption to increase buy-in from key stakeholders • Separate procurement of IBS components from main contract • Incorporate IBS into PAPs • Introduce economic mechanisms to drive scale • Heighten monitoring of compliance with MOF Circular 1PPL 1/2013

• A minimum number of economic mechanisms introduced • IBS components for public projects to be procured separately from main contract • Number of IBS plants increased • New Development Order issued in Klang Value that incorporate requirement for 50 IBS score for large projects increased • Number of large projects in three states that achieve minimum 50 IBS score increased • 100% compliance to amended MOF Circular 1PPL 1/2013 • Quarterly Report on adoption of IBS submitted for Action taken on noncompliance to IBS adoption based on Quarterly Report as submitted to MOF and AG • IBS and Modular Coordination incorporated into PAPs • Number of personnel competent in IBS design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) increased

The proposed separation of IBS procurement from the main public contract is one of most interesting proposals in the CITP. This is because the burden of financial liquidity will be greatly reduced from the contractors. The payments will be managed by clients as procurement will be direct to the IBS suppliers. This approach will reduce the cost to contractors and generate competitiveness among the players. It will then contribute to higher demand of prefabricated solutions in the sector.

Existing procurement structure

• Project brief


IBS components separated from main contract


• Design conventional



• Contractor to source IBS alternative


Tender for IBS supply







On site

• Subcontract – Earthworks – Piling – Superstructures – Finishes – IBS

On site

• Design IBS

• Subcontract – Earthworks – Piling – Superstructures – Finishes

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A contractor that utilises IBS in its project executions will definitely gain through cleaner sites, faster completion, better safety and higher quality; which contributes to lesser total construction cost. The contractor will also be competitive not only in Malaysia but most importantly in the global arena. As such, is also important to highlight that while IBS is a main element in the success of the Productivity Strategic Thrust; it is also a crucial item in the other three Strategic Thrusts: Quality, Safety & Professionalism; Environmental Sustainability and Internationalism. Indeed, IBS is a Critical Success Factor of CITP 2016-2020.


Existing Proposed

supply of IBS components directly paid by client


• Key stakeholders: MOF, PR1MA, MITI, ICU, JKR, KPKT, and the likes • Scope of support: - Review and consider the amendment of procurement practices for public projects to separate IBS procurement from main contract - Increase targeted training sessions for design consultants - Heighten enforcement of IBS adoption and compliance with MOF Circular SPP Bil. 7 2008 - Amend PAPs to incorporate IBS and modular coordination and with KPKT and state governments to ensure enhancement on UBBL to facilitate adoption of IBS • CIDB role: - Undertake a cost-benefit analysis for adoption of IBS and finalise tax incentive proposals - Contribute by engaging stakeholders to facilitate changes in practices and regulations and provide input into the design of economic mechanisms to reduce price of IBS machinery and equipment - Provide input into design of economic mechanisms to encourage growth in IBS manufacturers and suppliers

Proposed procurement structure separation of IBS component procurement


Highlighted roles of key stakeholders

Ref: CIDB Malaysia (2015), Construction Industry Transformation Programme (CITP) 2016-2020: Driving Construction Excellence Together, CIDB Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur

Issue 2 2015


User Guide: IBS Catalogue for Precast Building System Volume 1

About the Catalogue The IBS Catalogue is compiled based on the products from 25 precast concrete manufacturers; and vetted by a committee comprising JKR, CIDB, ACEM, PAM, RISM, REHDA and many other stakeholders of the industry. Sizes of components are based on the preferred sizes listed in Guide to Modular Coordination in Buildings: MS 1064: 2001. It contains basic information of precast concrete components such as section properties, capacities and detailing. The IBS Catalogue assists users in choosing the appropriate sizes of precast concrete components at various span length and given moment, shear and/or axial loads. Each component is identified with a code; and the coding system has units and abbreviations specifying respective product for users to browse the names of respective precast component. It covers half slabs, beams, columns, non-load bearing walls and typical connections.

The benefits of using the Catalogue: • Simplifies cost estimation by clients • Supports consultants in design stage • Helps contractors to easily procure components • Facilitates manufacturers to produce ready stock items • Lowering cost of moulds • Reduces errors and increasing productivity at all levels • Promotes Open Building Concept • Complements BIM initiative • Reduces total construction cost • Supports growth of Vendor Development Programmes / New SME players

Contact IBS Centre to get your complimentary copy or to request for training +603-92816909 / [email protected] Jom IBS! 10

Issue 2 2015

Issue 2 2015


The IBS “Rainforest Seeds” With the theme “Towards a Sustainable Food Ecosystem”, the pavilion highlighted Malaysia's transformation agenda of sustainability and inclusiveness by focusing on various efforts undertaken under the National Key Economic Areas (NKEA) of the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP); especially tourism and business services. The total area of the pavilion covered about 2,000m2. The design was based on four seeds; the symbol or growth potential and beginning of a journey to mature into a nation that balances development and sustainability:

Timber IBS at Expo Milano 2015

Seed 1: Our Home – For Now and the Future (Diversity of Malaysia) Seed 2: Haven of Biodiversity (Protect and Preserve) Seed 3: Seeds of Change (Present and Future) Seed 4: Colours of Malaysia (Music, Arts & Culture)

The pavilion was designed by the multiple-award winning architectural firm, Hijjas Kasturi Associates, and in line with the sustainability theme of the expo, it features green and sustainable components. The external structures of the four “rainforest seeds” were constructed glued laminated timber (glulam), an innovative and sustainable Timber IBS system. Using glulam, being able to bear large spans, the exhibition rooms of the four enormous capsules were freed from any intermediate structural supports.

The city of Milan, Italy, successfully hosted the Universal Exhibition from 1st May to 31st October 2015. 140 countries participated in Expo Milano 2015; offering 1.1 million square metres of expo area. It hosted a total of 21.5 million visitors throughout the six months of festival. Started with the first expo in London back in 1851, and besides highlighting the best of food, culture and industrial technology, the Universal Exhibition has always been the global showcase of unique pavilions offered by the participating countries. Crystal Palace, the demountable pavilion made with modular-sized cast iron frames and glass panels, was the main attraction in 1851.


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And this year, during Expo Milano, another prefabricated pavilion had managed to attract global attention – the Timber IBS structures of the Malaysian Pavilion. As announced by the Hon. Prime Minister of Malaysia during the launch of 'Malaysia Day' celebration at the Expo Milano on 3rd October 2015, a total of 2.4 million people had visited the Malaysian Pavilion; 50% higher that earlier projected figures of 1.6 million visitors. The figures proudly represented 15% of the total visitors of Expo Milano.

Issue 2 2015



A total weight of

Manufactured in Malaysia and shipped to the Port of Genoa, Italy


200 metric


tonnes of glulam components

of concrete plates as the base structure

Fun Facts

IBS Roadmap for Timber


Maximum thickness of glulam member:

120mm x 650mm



pieces of steel joints connected the glulam components

pieces of bolts, nuts and screws secured the steel joints

About Glulam

About Woodsfield

Glulam is a structural timber product manufactured by gluing together individual pieces of dimension lumber under controlled conditions. Laminating is an effective way of using high strength lumber of limited dimensions; converting into large structural members in many shapes and sizes. The glulam products are mainly used as load-bearing structural members such as beams, columns and arches. The eco-friendly material possesses high performances in strength, fire resistance, and durability. As such, glulam beams and arches are able to span large distances without intermediate columns and this allows more freedom in architectural design. The design properties, including for bending strength, modulus of elasticity, compression strength, shear strength and tension strength, are referred to MS 758: 2001: Glue Laminated Timber – Performance Requirements and Minimum Production Requirements.

Woodsfield Glulam Manufacturing Sdn. Bhd. is the first local company to introduce glulam technology in Malaysia. It ventured into the glulam IBS solutions in 2009; supported by its parent company, Woodsfield Timber Industries Sdn. Bhd., that has been supplying timber materials for the ship building, oil and gas; and construction industry for more than a decade. The company receives supports and encouragement from various government agencies including MTIB (Malaysia Timber Industry Board), MIDA (Malaysian Industrial Development Authority), MTC (Malaysian Timber Council), Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) and Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB) in promoting glulam solutions.

Ref: Malaysia Pavilion 2015 Official Website and Facebook Page Woodsfield Group of Companies Official Website and Corporate Profile: Sustainability Through Innovation


Issue 2 2015

Background The IBS Roadmap for Timber was formulated to complement the National-level initiatives in promoting IBS through the IBS Roadmap 2011-2015, the Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP) 2006-2015 and the recently launched Construction Industry Transformation Programme (CITP) 2016-2020 (formerly known as CIMP2). It was based on a consultation series with the stakeholders from both the government and private sectors. The IBS Roadmap for Timber will lead towards a competitive Timber IBS sector. It supports the National Timber Industry Policy (NATIP) that targets to achieve an export value of RM53 billion of wood-based products in 2020; supported by Timber IBS, including Glued Laminated Timber (Glulam) and Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL).

Objectives  To promote and encourage production of the Timber IBS products;  To promote Timber IBS-compliant products to developers, contractors, architects and engineers; and  To foster Vendor Development Programme for Timber IBS.

Case for Change  Relatively low readiness of industry players to move up the value chain  Needing more strategic alliances with stakeholders  Low receptiveness of construction industry players towards Timber IBS  Lack of innovative design and materials; including engineered timber products  Low technology support and R&D in Timber IBS

 Low numbers of skilled manpower for design, production and installation  Favourable government procurement policy towards IBS.

Strategic Planning Three key areas have been identified in the Roadmap to strengthen the development of a highly competitive Timber IBS sector. The three main pillars are: IBS Promotional and Marketing IBS Technology and R&D IBS Training and Technical Support

Issue 2 2015


MTIB UPM UiTM CIDB PEKA and two industry representatives



Issue 2 2015

Ref: Malaysian Timber Industry Board (MTIB), 2013, IBS Roadmap for Timber, 2013-2023, MTIB, Kuala Lumpur



IMMEDIATE 2014 The Roadmap has formulated a detailed programme for Immediate, Medium Term and Long Term. Sub-committees will propose the activities; to be endorsed by NATIC before implementations. NATIC coordinates and monitors the Roadmap implementation and reports to the Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities (MPIC) in line with the requirements pertaining to the Entry Point Project EPP4: Promotion of IBS Compliant Timber Products by NATIP.


Implementation Strategy

Conduct Road shows, Seminars, Workshops, Exhibition Produce Guidebooks Conduct design competitions for the Architects, Public and Students Build a show house Produce Show house Documentation

MTIB UiTM UPM FRIM CREAM JKR CIDB IEM Sime Darby Property and two industry representatives



MTIB JKR CIDB PAM MTC and two industry representatives




Carry out upgrading training programme for IBS manufacturers

Establish chair in Timber Engineering Programme at IPTs Carry out “twinning programmes” with international timber IBS centres/Universities Develop training modules on timber engineering and design in IPT (IPTA, IPTS, Community Colleges )

Chairman: Director, Trade Development Division, MTIB

Provide training on timber IBS Carry out training for auditors and IBS manufacturers

Chairman: Director, Institute for Infratructure Engineering and Sustainable Management (IIESM), UiTM

Develop Quality Assurance Systems Develop programmes for Timber Engineering and Design (IPTA/IPTS-Degree Program)

Chairman: Director, Industry Development Division, MTIB


IBS Training and Technical Support Promote the use of standards and guidelines Promote vendors to developers/end users Public Relation Group

IBS Technology and R&D


IBS Promotional and Marketing




Malaysian Wood Moulding and Joinery Council (MWMJC) Sabah Timber Industry Association (STIA) Sarawak Timber Association (STA) Persatuan Pengusaha Kayu-Kayan dan Perabot Bumiputera Malaysia (PEKA) Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM)

GAP Analysis & Report Establishment of Testing Facility for Timber Infra Structure Establish Stress Grading Database Develop Modular for Non Structure Timber Component R&D&C in Timber IBS Systems (Roof/Wall/Floor) Develop products from indigenous resources (Rotan/Bamboo/Forest Plantation Timber) Develop Integrated Architectural/ Timber Engineering Design Database System Technology Transfer Develop competitiveness index for IBS manufacturers Establish standards related to structural and non-structural timber design (e.g., timber framing, fire performance) Establish Timber Design Guidelines Establish Timber Design Manuals Training Module & NOSS Develop IBS Training Modules for manufacturers/professionals and builders/installers Carry out training for suppliers on responsibilities and accountabilities Carry out training for professional, manufacturers, installers Carry out training on Business Management

Members: Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities (MPIC) Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB) Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) The Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM) Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia (PAM) Malaysian Wood Industries Association (MWIA) Malaysian Panel-Products Manufacturers' Association (MPMA)

Establish Timber IBS Village (Business Centre, Training Centre Testing, Lab, Build Show units)

Chairman: Director General, MTIB


National Timber IBS Advisory Committee (NATIC)

LONG TERM 2020 2021


In coordinating the implementation, a National Timber IBS Advisory Committee (NATIC) has been established under MTIB. NATIC is supported by three sub-committees representing the three key areas.

"Space and light and order. Those are the things that men need just as much as they need bread or a place to sleep" Le Corbusier (1887-1965) Swiss-French architect, one of the pioneers of modern architecture, inventor of the Modulor / Modular Coordination (MC)


Issue 1 2015

Issue 1 2015



Article by : Prof. Dr. Rahinah Ibrahim & Ali Rashidi


A study by Sha & Jiang (2003) on rural labourers’ status in China’s construction industry highlighted the need for intervention policies fending restructuring of labour market, calculation and award of labour costs, provision of vocational training and creation of organized labour and negotiation. Having intervention policies in support of the local low-skilled workforce would help in dire situations. Where vocational training must now involve advanced manufacturing techniques and mechanical installation practices, the research group has found an approach that could fit in with the practical implication for enhancing the labour productivity in industrialised construction industry. Here, it found interactive virtual learning environment as a possible alternative solution for apprenticeship training for the workforce who are supporting industrialised construction projects. Correspondingly, the approach would require integration of education, technical knowledge and learning throughout the various design, production and assembly process in a building project.

Abstract The Sustainable Design Informatics Research Group at Universiti Putra Malaysia has embarked on developing deeper understanding on how it can design and integrate gamification principles into a training curriculum. In lieu of introducing and innovating advanced industrialised building systems to the country, the next challenge to the technology developer is, how one transfers such technology in the simplest form to the workforce involved. The research group utilised a manual training programme of a selected timber framing system and translated it into a serious games approach for technology transfer purpose. It tested the feasibility of the serious games training module and found positive benefits to the trainees and industrialised technology owner. We believe the new technology transfer approach could benefit industrialised technology transfer and support productivity improvement among the construction workforce. This emerging training approach supports the recently launched Construction Industry Transformation Programme (CITP) 2016-2025. Productivity Training Challenges With more industrialised approaches dominating the future of labour landscape in the construction industry among the developing countries, the situation has raised concern where local manpower is increasingly lagging behind in areas where advanced construction technologies are being introduced. Concerns have been raised in the developing countries for the need to expedite the learning and experience of skilled workers. The skilled workers’ shortages and limited low-skilled capability among the present workforce could and are affecting productivity and quality performances when firms start partnering with multinational contractors. The first Strategic Thrust of the Construction Industry Transformation Programme


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(CITP) 2016-2025 (CIDB, 2015) is “Quality, Safety & Professionalism” while the third is “Productivity”. Both these Thrusts are integral for the construction industry to proceed successfully in “Internationalisation” of the industry. Hence, expediting skill development among low-skilled workforce is on top of the list if a country plans to embark on implementing industrialised building techniques for its prosperity. Our earlier article (Ibrahim & Rashidi, 2014) already discusses where the existence of huge human capability gaps occur in the construction industry. Where the gaps are, there are opportunities in engaging the serious games approach where the research group believes IT/ICT can transform the method in transferring technical knowledge to low-skilled workforce.

Figure 1. Extension of BIM model for timber serious games application (Source: Golden Precision Technologies (M) Sdn. Bhd.) Translating Timber Framing Technology The research group defines serious game development as a technology-based application designed for educational training purpose. It employs gaming characteristics to create an engaging and immersive learning environment through replication of real-world challenges that would deliver the design of specified learning outcomes. The translation methodology involves the incorporation of a combination of minimum 14 design principles during the translation process. They include goal, tutorial, personalization, rules, interactive, construct, feedback, reflection, immersion, guided activity, manipulation, increasing complexity, assessment of user’s performance, and enjoyment.

The translation process incorporates these 14 design principles into a serious game design and development workflow process. The workflow activities are grouped into 3 sequential phases: 1) instructional design, 2) prototype development, and 3) assessment reporting. The instructional design in Phase 1 can be divided into two stages: scenario development and linking scenario to game-play process. This instructional design phase involves the establishment of learning outcomes for the curriculum that would guide the development of necessary game scenarios. For the selected timber framing technology, the selected knowledge are skill knowledge and safety knowledge for handling the various steps towards safe assembly. The aim is reducing reworks of prefabricated timber framing components when assembling them into a building.

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Phase 2 is the prototype development phase. Phase 2 is divided into three stages which are Developing SG Evaluation System, 2) Developing Graphical User Interface Design, and 3) Programming the SG system. The content is based on the designed thematic scenario from Phase 1. For the selected timber framing technology, the research group worked with the technology provider in determining the selected curriculum learning outcomes into a virtual construction training environment. The UnityTM engine, a cross-platform game engine, was selected for its flexibility for operating on multi desktop platforms such as Windows and OS X systems. For the game mechanics, virtual environment components and graphical user interfacing are designed according to the predefined scenarios in the training curriculum. The score system applies game elements (such as virtual customized badges, bonus vouchers, and trophy as well as other features including instant feedback and overall feedbacks). The trainee will receive extra-formulated points, which is called bonus point alongside the skill and safety points if trainee accomplished

certain tasks at each stage without any mistakes. The participants receive results as a type of on-screen scores with achieved virtual badges. A questionnaire is also embedded to gather and measure a trainee’s interest and engagement when using this method and training tool. Such evaluation provides the overall insights about the game performance and will help the developers to improve the game design in its next version. The Graphical User Interface covers the overall game mechanics design and development that are selected to be incorporated in the SG environment. For the selected timber framing system, the 3D objects include construction site, building components, labourers’ avatars, site supervisor’s avatar and surrounding environment are major elements in the virtual environment. The scenario and all user interactions are designed for simplifying the game development process. Once the thematic and GUI have been determined, the next step is developing a computer programme for importing the graphical elements into the selected SG engine. Unity script—a custom language based Java Script and

C# programming languages—was written in C#, JavaScript, and supporting C++ with tools. Phase 3 provides the SG Assessment Report. The same cross-platform operating system will be used for reporting the results of the trainees’ assessment in the selected timber framing serious game training. Here, the game’s logic shall guide the assessment on the trainee as well as the serious game instrument used in the training. For the selected timber framing serious game, it contains two major assessments throughout the serious game-playing process. They are reporting the trainees’ assessment where it provides the results of the capability assessment based on his or her achievements when “playing” the timber framing game. The results of the trainee’s capability assessment and the effectiveness of the serious game training instrument will be exported as a document file in CSV format from the administration panel in the serious game application. The CSV format is currently compatible with typical spreadsheet applications such as Microsoft Excel software.

Virtual World Training Environment for the Future The research group tested the timber framing serious game among novice timber practitioners. The results added to previous studies by other international scholars such as Bowman & Wingrave (2001), and Lipman, & Reed (2000) where they reported affirmative improvements. In lieu of these positive results, Dawood incorporated the promotion and consideration for serious games approach in many aspects of construction training. All the studies found the Virtual Reality (VR) environments and advanced visualisation could assist and enhance users’ learning experience. In the selected timber framing, the results are quite impressive where the research group documented an improvement to reduce assembly errors by 92% compared to manual training process. Most importantly, there is an equally impressive 95% preference in using the virtual world environment and its corresponding serious games training mode. Hence, the Sustainable Design Informatics Research Group would like to promote the development of more serious games content for industrialised technology transfer mode besides making serious games as a change catalyst for conducting future safety and technology training for the construction industry.

Figure. 3. The virtual world training environment for the timber framing assembly (Source: The IBS Foreman©)

Acknowledgement This paper acknowledges the contributions of Golden Precision Technologies (M) Sdn. Bhd.,Assoc. Prof. Dr. Normahdiah Sheik Said and Prof. Dr. Mohd Shahwahid Othman. The study is part of the second author’s doctoral study at Universiti Putra Malaysia partly sponsored by KPT/PRGS/5528300 and UPM/RUGS/ 05-02-12-2140RU. Reference Bowman & Wingrave, 2001. Design and Evaluation of Menu Systems for Immersive Virtual Environments. In Proceedings of the Virtual Reality Conference (VR.01). Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB), 2015. Construction Industry Transformation Programme 2016 – 2025 (CITP 2016 – 2025), Kuala Lumpur. Dawood, N., 2009. VR - Roadmap : A Vision for 2030 in the uilt Environment. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 14(August), pp.489–506.

Figure. 2. Scaled model of the first floor timber framing assembly (Source: Golden Precision Technologies (M) Sdn. Bhd.)

Ibrahim, R. and Ali Rashidi, 2014. “Gaming up in human resource capability training”, binaTECH Issue 1: pp. 15-19 (KDN: PP18488/05/2014(033904). Lipman, R. & Reed, K., 2000. Using VRML in construction industry applications. In Web3D - VRML 2000 Symposium. Sha, K. & Jiang, Z., 2003. Improving rural labourers’ status in China’s construction industry. Building Research & Information, 31(6), pp.464–473. Available at:


Issue 2 2015

Issue 2 2015



Case Study: Green Formwork Utilising Bamboo Plywood Boards for The Meridin@Medini

The Meridin@Medini Phase 1 Project consists of 756 units of residential high-rise suites and 30 units of retail shops. Owned by the Mah Sing Group, it has three blocks; Block A: 35-storey, Block B: 32-storey and Block C: 36-storey. China State Construction Engineering (M) Sdn Bhd (CSCEC) is the Structural Main Contractor for this project. This project is strategically located in the heart of Nusajaya, Johor State’s new administrative centre. Standing tall on 8.19 acres of prime land, the architectural design principle was derived from the character of human aspiration to reach higher; and nowhere is this more evident than in the design language and architecture, where the curvilinear towers soar to the sky. The ground floors to basement sub-structural works entail nine floors where the structural design calls for flat slab system. With a total floor area of 81,000m2, the Main Contractor is required to cast 3,000m2 per cycle. PLY TEC Green Formwork sets in timely as their proven track record of formwork erection efficiency of achieving 75m2 per worker per man-day comes into play. In fact, Green Formwork system compliments well with project that commands such sizeable wet floor quantity. Besides its efficiency, the other 2 major factors that lead to the system being adopted by the Main Contractor are: less workers required and 80% reduction in construction waste. Using the latest drop head technology which allows the shores to stay in place during the stripping procedure, PLY TEC Green Formwork proves that early stripping, 3 days after concreting, is viable. The major advantage of using the system is that the contractor does not require to use skilled workers during the erection and dismantle stages, thus saves a lot on labour charges. Moreover the concept of 1 set of formwork with 2 sets of props reduces requirements as only the equipments for the level that is being formed are required.


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As it is designed using modular system, end pieces can be easily finished off by using plywood; thus reduces over dependency on skilled carpenters. In fact, too many end pieces of accessories could sometimes hamper site progress as the approach requires tailor-made sizes and is also costly.

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feature About PLY TEC Green Formwork System Based on the concept of IBS Construction, a panelprop concrete formwork system with early stripping mechanism has been developed. It is a formwork system comprising both vertical forms for reinforced concrete elements such as columns and walls; and horizontal forms for slabs and beams. It is a puzzle-style system which can be erected and stripped off with high efficiency and solid safety. Thanks to the early stripping feature, the Green Formwork system actually performs and requires a much shorter construction cycle of between 5 to 7 days. Hence, the system can produce a concrete work area of 4 to 6 times of its own surface area each month; this is more than two times the productivity of conventional timber method. The system uses the Earth’s natural resources efficiently and in an environmental friendly and responsible manner. The only consumable components of Green Formwork, the bamboo plywood boards, are made from renewable resources. Bamboo is considered as a green construction material; being harvested through massive agro-replanting.

Figure 1: A water village in Sabah (Source: © CEphoto, Uwe Aranas)

In essence, the PLY TEC Green Formwork system is flexible and very adjustable according to site needs. It has great advantages such as better safety, high efficiency; and reduced construction cost and labor.

“It is GREEN in the way Green Formwork are reused, recycle and renewable” Erection Instruction : 1


Adjust the steel props to the required length



Swing the lower end of the Panel to position using ADT


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Living on Timber Water Structures: Introducing Industrialised Construction


Erect the steel props using gate brace

Hang the Panel to the Prop Head


Insert, push, straighten and lock in the fourth Props

Figure 2: Early development of a water village after mangrove clearance (Source: Salleh, et al., 2011)

Repeat steps 3,4 & 5

The author had the privileged to attend two weddings within a year in Sabah. One near Tawau facing the Celebes Sea and another near Kota Kinabalu facing the South China Sea. A friend drove our entourage around to view the best of the natural landscape where the sunrise and sunset happened. I saw water villages spreading over the marine coastlines of Sabah. To someone who saw a real water village for the first time, it was an awesome experience. To be able to walk on the timber planks of one water village and a concrete platform, it was a story by itself. Like the labyrinthine road systems arranging the low-rise buildings in a residential area in the middleast, the author found there seem to be a systematic urban pattern to how the houses were arranged along the ever

growing connecting walkways. There is at least one major walkway which would branch out at right angles placing each housing unit several feet apart from one another. The traditional walkways are made of timber planks built on either ironwood (belian or Eusideroxylon zwageri) or mangrove (Rhizophora) columns pounded into the mud of mangrove swamps. The walkway had become the key spine linking all the housing units as they spread out farther away from the coastal shores. The newer resettlement projects would allow visitors walk over concrete walkways instead of timber ones. Many settlements started by becoming landed settlements after the clearance of mangrove areas for agriculture, settlement and economy activities. There is an estimated more than 25 kilometre square

(Evers, 2015) across Borneo with 41,000 households. A study by Salleh, et al. (2011) in a western region in Sabah found the pressure of increasing population, the resulting expansion of agricultural land and industrial area as well as urban development have caused a significant decrease of the Sabah’s mangrove resources. Their study explained, since the entire mangrove is located on the state land, the local community is free to develop and later, they would be allowed to apply for land title through the Land and Survey Department, Sabah. Interestingly, the same study indicated that a mangrove area that is 60 m from a shoreline is considered under the jurisdiction of Department of Drainage and Irrigation and is reserved as a buffer zone.

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Article by Rahinah Ibrahim Action Caring Team Foundation Email: [email protected]

Figure 3: View of a water village in eastern Sabah.

Figure 4: Interactive micro-architecture elements along the main connector walkway.

Figure 5: A communal gathering with loud music celebrating an important event during the visit.

From a far, these water settlements represent the communities living in them. The water settlements may become the transitional living conditions from sea to land to some of the indigenous marine communities such as the Bajau Laut. At one water village, visitors could easily noticed a common area where a group of womenfolk would gather together. Fishing-related activities dominated at the water settlements. The walkway had its own micro-architecture. There are communal workspace, food stalls, mini grocery store, etc. One must be familiar to the walking path as there would not be many safety railings to hold on to. For first time visitors, they could either watch in fear or admire in awe how children could run across a 60 cm wide pathway bridge to go to a different section of the water village.

Figure 6: A 60cm wide walkway separates a smaller sub-village from the main village.


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Figure 7: Replacement homes for low-income people amidst new tourism facility at a water village.

Although the visit was short to a couple of water villages, one could see many opportunities for introducing modern industrialised construction using timber for the coastal settlements. A few recommendations for improving these traditional settlement would include: 1. Developing permanent modular walkway platform as the key connection spine. 2. Developing modular micro-elements for public and private

usages such as walkway junctions, solid waste collection systems, etc. 3. Developing performance-based modular independent sewerage treatment and related maintenance system. 4. Developing marine settlement development regulations to standardise building quality and improve the quality of life. 5. Understanding the indigenous socio-cultural and local resources for construction.



In conclusion, there are opportunities to improve the quality of life through well-planned marine development involving indigenous water villages at remote locations. Additionally, modern method of construction through industrialised approach with local timber material would help promote the local industry while providing economic

Abd. Shukor, A.H. (2004). The use of mangroves in Malaysia. In: Promotion of mangrove-friendly shrimp aquaculture in Southeast Asia (pp. 136-144). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.


Evers, Hans-Dieter. 2015. Kampung Air: Water Settlements on the Island of Borneo, Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 88 (1), No. 308) June: 79-85 (10.1353/ras.2015.0004).

The author acknowledges the contributions of Encik Laju Lliadi bin Lajahidi and Puan Radziah Md Isa. All images are provided by the author unless where indicated.

Saleh, E., A.R. Mojiol & N.W. Abd Halim. 2011. Human Intervention on Mangrove Area in Ambong Bay, Kota Belud, Sabah. Borneo Science 28: 29-36.

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NEWS New Straits Times Transforming the construction sector Zarina Zakariah and Nuradzimmah Daim Friday, 11 September 2015

New Straits Times IBS gets a boost in 2016 Budget Zarina Zakariah Friday, 23 October 2015

KUALA LUMPUR: Malaysia's construction sector will be transformed into a modern, highly productive and sustainable industry under the Construction Industry Transformation Programme (CITP) blueprint launched by Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak, here, yesterday.

KUALA LUMPUR: The 2016 Budget will include an allocation to promote Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) for the construction of homes.

The CITP, spearheaded by the Works Ministry and Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), also aims to strengthen Malaysian companies to compete with international players. “The construction industry has proven its mettle in terms of physical and economic achievements. But in order for the industry to sustain the virtuous circle, it must take a leap and transform,” said Najib when launching the CITP at the 14th International Construction Week. The blueprint, which forms part of the 11th Malaysia Plan, encompasses 18 initiatives under four strategic thrusts. The four thrusts focus on ingraining quality, safety and professionalism into the industry; ensuring environmental sustainability measures are in place at the design, construction and subsequent maintenance of buildings, cities and infrastructure; raising overall productivity level of the industry; and, focusing on improving the competitiveness and subsequent ability of construction players to internationalise. To ensure quality, for example, the CITP will push for adoption of the Quality Assessment System in Construction (QLASSIC), which measures the quality of workmanship in building construction. “The CITP targets to make QLASSIC mandatory in all government projects by 2018. But I urge that all government projects start now and take the lead in implementing a high level of quality,” said Najib. More stringent requirements would also be introduced to ensure accidents and fatalities were significantly reduced, he said, adding that many clients and contractors had in the past overlooked the expenses needed to ensure adequate safety in the name of cost savings. The CITP envisions the Malaysian construction industry as a low carbon, sustainable building and infrastructure model, especially to Asean member countries. A Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Construction will be established to develop, promote and implement sustainable construction systems and practices. Irresponsible waste generation is another challenge that the blueprint will address. “By January 2018, it will be mandated for contractors to comply with waste management programmes, as part of the requirement in Environmental Management Systems certification ISO 14001. This will be implemented in stages, starting with G7 category contractors,” said Najib. Productivity improvement, meanwhile, will focus on three key drivers — workforce, technology and process. “To do away with dependency on foreign labour, the government has proposed to enhance human capital development.” One of the CITP initiatives aims to induce faster adoption of Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) by establishing economic mechanisms and modern practices. CIDB chief executive officer Dato' Sri Ir Dr Judin Abdul Karim said it was time the nation moved away from a labour-based construction sector towards a mechanised, automated and advanced one. “A large proportion of the construction workforce consists of low-skilled foreign labour and solutions must come now to have a more healthy and productive industry. One of them is to invest in machines (IBS) which will reduce dependency on foreign workers.”


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In the 2016 Budget today, it was revealed that there would be an IBS Promotion Fund of RM500 million which would be provided by the SME Bank. The bank has been tasked to provide soft loans to developers and contractors in the category of G5 and below. 1Malaysia People’s Housing Programme (PR1MA) chief financial officer Datuk Hasleen Isnin said the government’s initiatives would benefit developers greatly in producing quality homes at a faster rate. “Although PR1MA is not eligible for it, contractors working with PR1MA to produce affordable homes are. And they are definitely encouraged to apply for it. “This will tremendously help developers build better quality homes at a faster rate resulting in higher volume of units to cater to the increasing demand for affordable homes,” he told Business Times today when contacted. In the 2016 Budget announcement, PR1MA’s target for 2016 is to build 175,000 units of homes. “The allocation of RM1.6 billion would help to partly finance the development works of PR1MA housing projects. Prior to the 2016 budget announcement, PR1MA had, in August 2015, signed a RM3 billion bridging loan facility with Maybank Islamic Bhd, which would be used to also partly finance the construction of our homes nationwide. “With continued support from the Government, as well as support from our partners, we are optimistic of delivering these homes,” PR1MA said in an emailed statement. SME Bank’s Media Statement On National Budget 2016 Wednesday, 28 October 2015 SME Bank welcomes the 2016 National Budget tabled by YAB Prime Minister, particularly in the development agenda of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). There is only five more years for the country to reach its target of achieving 41% SMEs’ contributions towards the GDP. To achieve this target, we need to ensure that the annual growth of SMEs is more than 10% and this figure is higher than the annual growth forecast of between 4% and 5% per year. SME entrepreneurs and related agencies should place greater emphasis in supporting the SME growth through enhancement in innovation, increased in productivity and global market penetration. In supporting the SMEs growth, SME Bank will be allocating RM200 million for the implementation of the “SME Technology Transformation Fund (STTF)” and RM500 million for the “Industralised Building System (IBS) Promotion Fund” programmes as announced by YAB Prime Minister in the 2016 Budget, to the eligible entrepreneurs. Under STTF, SME Bank will provide financing on technology development towards achieving higher productivity, improving the process efficiency, efficient cost management and penetrating the export market. SME Bank will be collaborating with SIRIM and SME Corp. in the implementation of STTF. Meanwhile for IBS, the focus is on financing eligible manufacturers and contractors that possess CIDB certification in the construction of housing projects and other Government projects. The implementation of IBS is through the cooperation between SME Bank and CIDB. SME Bank will strongly uphold the mandate and trust given by the Government to implement the two programmes in order to support the Government’s aspiration in achieving the 41% target of SMEs’ contributions to the GDP by 2020.

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The IBS Industry Statistics (as at 16th October 2015) IBS Product Manufacturers and Distributors (Based on Type)




Johor Kuala Lumpur Kedah Kelantan Melaka N. Sembilan P. Pinang Pahang Perak Perlis Sabah Sarawak Selangor Terengganu Issue 2 2015

Other Innovative Systems


4 Formwork Systems



Blockwork Systems


Timber Frame Systems

Metal Frame - Roof Trusses


Metal Frame Systems





Kelantan 577

Kedah 527

Distributors (Nos.), Total : 15 8

Terengganu 622

P. Pinang 711 Perak 442

Pahang 677

Selangor 1,874


Sabah 385

Sarawak 531

Johor 896

Kuala Lumpur 1,286 N. Sembilan 452

IBS Product Manufacturers and Distributors (Based on State) Total : 201


Perlis 195

Manufacturers (Nos.), Total : 186 Precast Concrete – On-site Casting

Precast Concrete Systems


IBS Contractors (Based on State) Total : 9,423

Melaka 248


7 6 5 6 14 6 6 14 1 13 11 7

IBS Consultants (Based on Category) Total : 35

Engineers 23


Quantity Surveyors 5

Architects 7

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we welcome contribution of project case studies, technical write-ups of products, research papers and photos for IBS Digest send it to [email protected] CIDB HEADQUARTERS




Lembaga Pembangunan Industri Pembinaan Malaysia Tingkat 10, Menara Dato' Onn, Pusat Dagangan Dunia Putra, No 45, Jalan Tun Ismail 50480 Kuala Lumpur Tel: 03-4047 7000 Talian CIDB Careline : 1300 88 2432 Fax : 03-4047 7070 CIDB STATE OFFICES CIDB WILAYAH PERSEKUTUAN KUALA LUMPUR Tingkat Bawah Blok E, Lot 8, Jalan Chan Sow Lin, 55200 Kuala Lumpur. Tel: 03-9281 6070 Fax: 03-9281 6077

CIDB NEGERI PERAK Lot 5.02, Tingkat 5, Bangunan KWSP, Jalan Greentown, 30450 Ipoh, Perak. Tel: 05- 242 3488 Fax: 05-255 5488

CIDB NEGERI PAHANG A1, Tingkat Bawah, Jalan Seri Kuantan 2, Seri Kuantan Square, 25050 Kuantan, Pahang. Tel: 09-517 8734 Fax: 09-517 8751

CIDB NEGERI JOHOR Lot 2067, Batu 3, Jalan Tampoi, 81200 Johor Bahru, Johor. Tel: 07-234 4808 Fax: 07-234 4807

CIDB NEGERI KELANTAN No. U7.2, Tingkat 7, Menara Perbadanan, Jalan Tengku Petra Semerak, 15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Tel: 09-744 4311 Fax: 09-743 4311

CIDB NEGERI KEDAH Lot 7&8, Kompleks Perniagaan Asas Jaya, Jalan Stadium, 05100 Alor Setar, Kedah. Tel: 04-733 1243 Fax: 04-733 1175

CIDB NEGERI MELAKA No. 31-1, Jalan TU 49A, Kompleks Komersial Boulevard, Taman Tasik Utama, 75450 Ayer Keroh, Melaka Tel: 06-232 8895 Fax: 06-232 8950

CIDB NEGERI PERLIS No. 10, Jalan Tuanku Syed Putra (Jalan Kangar-Alor Setar), Seriab, 01000 Perlis Indera Kayangan. Tel: 04-9781 243 Fax: 04-9781 244

CIDB PULAU PINANG Lot 9.01, Tingkat 9, Bangunan KWSP, No. 3009 Off Lebuh Tenggiri 2, Bandar Seberang Jaya, 13700 Seberang Jaya, Pulau Pinang. Tel: 04-390 2448 Fax: 04-390 7448

CIDB NEGERI SELANGOR Tingkat 5, Wisma PKPS, Persiaran Perbandaran, Seksyen 14, 40675 Shah Alam, Selangor. Tel: 03 - 5512 8600 Fax: 03 - 5512 8620

CIDB NEGERI NEGERI SEMBILAN Wisma KoCIDB, Lot D30, Persiaran Utama S2/B2, Seremban 2, 70300 Seremban, Negeri Sembilan. Tel: 06-601 6311 Fax: 06-601 7311

CIDB NEGERI SARAWAK Tingkat 1, Blok A, Kompleks CIDB, Jalan Sultan Tengah, 93050 Kuching, Sarawak. Tel: 082-445 833 Fax: 082-447 833

CIDB NEGERI SABAH Blok A, Tingkat 4, Bangunan KWSP, 88100 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Tel: 088-244 423/658/506 Fax: 088-242 481

CIDB NEGERI TERENGGANU Tingkat 7, Menara Yayasan Islam Terengganu Jalan Sultan Omar, 20300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu. Tel: 09-624 5311 Fax: 09-623 8973

CIDB NEGERI SARAWAK (CAWANGAN MIRI) Lot 1140, Block 9, Miri Concession Land District, Miri Waterfront, 98000 Miri, Sarawak. Tel: 085-417 431 Fax: 085-417 432

CIDB NEGERI SABAH (CAWANGAN TAWAU) Tingkat 1 Wisma Gek Poh, Batu 1, Jalan Dunlop / Kuhara Beg Berkunci No. 7, 91009 Tawau, Sabah. Tel: 089-777 841/842 Fax: 089-777 840