P1 Training Manual - Temple Pilots

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Paragliding is a form of aviation, with all of the inherent and potential dangers that ... do occur in paragliding, even to trained pilots using proper equipment.

Beginner (P1) Pilot Training Manual

Picture courtesy: Darren Waring (Club Pilot)

Temple Pilots P1 Notes

Flying Site: Candidasa, Bali, Indonesia

Revised and Updated

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READ THIS FIRST Paragliding is a form of aviation, with all of the inherent and potential dangers that are involved in aviation. No form of aviation is without risk. Injuries and death can and do occur in paragliding, even to trained pilots using proper equipment. No claim is made or implied that all sources of potential danger to the pilot have or can be identified. No one should participate in paragliding who does not recognize and wish to personally assume the associated risks. The training manual is intended to be used as one part of a professional and instructional course. It is intended to be used in combination with personal flight instructions by a qualified paragliding instructor. No one should attempt to teach himself/herself to fly.

SYLLABUS FOR P1 LEVEL 1: Site & wind assessment, equipment know-how, canopy layout, pre – flight checks, inflation, deflation and ground handling. LEVEL 2: Take off and landing techniques, direction control (Hops), Solo clearance. LEVEL 3: Solo flights under supervision

Note: You will graduate to the next level only after you have acquired the necessary skill and knowledge to the satisfaction of your Instructor.

Beginner Pilot Training Manual

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Welcome to the Skies

The world of free flight

Visualization Technique

This journey is fun, fascinating and rewarding. Let's lay the groundwork so your skyward quest is made easier through understanding. The useful attributes are good judgment, a concern for personal safety, the ability to make reasonable decisions, a positive attitude and the will or desire to fly.

Pro Tip: Use visualization.

Skill development: We will always emphasize the gradual approach and we strive to ensure safety through good judgment.

VMR (Visual Motor

Imagine what you want to do, and then imagine your success. This will train your body's responses more readily. Rehearsal)When you visualize, then you materialize. Here’s an


Site and wind assessment: You will begin your introductory lesson on flat ground and gradually work your way higher as you progress. Your instructor will guide you in assessing wind conditions that are appropriate for your level and in understanding your limitations.

interesting thing about the mind: Some Olympic athletes were made to run their event only in their mind, and were then hooked up to sophisticated bio-feedback equipment. Incredibly, the same


Equipment introduction: Knowing the paragliding lingo let's you understand and communicate the technique.

muscles fired in the same sequence when they were running the race in their mind, as when

In the beginning many of your decisions will be made for you by your instructor, but gradually you will begin to take charge. If you already have goods decision making skills, fine. If not, they will be developed in the training program along with your judgment of flying skills.

they were running it on the track. How could this be ? Because the mind can’t distinguish whether you are really doing it or its just a practice. If you’ve been there in

Over confidence is a deficit in aviation.

the mind, you’ll go there in the body. Whatever the mind can

Fear is natural. If you have no fear whatsoever, it may create fear in

conceive, it can achieve.

your Instructor. How we deal with fear is the important thing. Fear is manageable. Discuss your fears with your instructor.

Use the imaging technique throughout all your flying and it will make you a better pilot.

Remember: Knowledge dispels fear Beginner Pilot Training Manual

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Getting Started Leading Edge

Trailing Edge

Learn the basics well and be thorough in everything you do; this is laying a solid foundation for becoming a safe & competent pilot. Unpacking, laying out and packing the canopy Putting on the harness and helmet Assessing the wind direction and clearing the area for spreading your canopy Canopy layout – perpendicular to the wind, horse shoe shape, clearing the lines and connecting the risers to your harness

Suspension Lines

Your Objective

Right steering of control line

To learn how to prepare your glider and your position for forward inflation (alpine launch). Left steering of control line

Pre-Flight Checks

Pilot Harness

After equipment inspection and having connected yourself to the glider, just prior to launch:

The Checklist Make sure you learn them by heart, from Day 1. Start from below (leg straps) making your way up:

Safety Tip Finding and connecting an

Leg straps – locked & secure Safety belt – locked & secure Carabiners – locked & secure Risers – not twisted

equipment problem

Control (brake) lines – clear, untangled, free

on the ground is

Shoulder straps – locked & secure

infinitely better

Helmet strap – locked & secure

than doing so in the air.

Checks before launch: Canopy layout – last look over the shoulder for alpine launch Area in front & above clear for take off Check wind-strength and direction Launch

Beginner Pilot Training Manual

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Preflight Requirements Thoroughness (in detail), organized (systematic manner), uninterrupted process and correcting the deficiencies. Take your time and make sure you miss out nothing. Develop habits for Safety from NOW. Nothing is worth compromising safety!

Inflation (Alpine) Make sure that canopy is laid out exactly perpendicular to the wind direction and then pulled up from the center to give it a horseshoe shape to ease inflation. That you are standing in the center and square to the canopy That you are not stepping on any lines That you are holding the risers properly, correctly

Good arm position so that you apply equal & even pressure on both the risers A smooth and continuous run Release the risers in timely fashion – your instructor will demonstrate the

Caution: Never unfasten your leg

technique to you and you learn a lot by observing other students.

straps once you

Look up to check the canopy

are in your

Note: For an even inflation you need an even wind and an even pull on both sides.

harness until you are ready to take off the harness.

Your Objective To learn how to inflate consistently in various conditions while facing forward. In very light winds, take one step back to slacken the lines, this helps you gain momentum for a forward launch. In calm or light winds your run supplies the canopy airspeed. Don't slow down or stop during inflation or launch

Common Mistakes Non centered start Uneven jerks or improper hand position Early or late released risers or pulling down of risers Stopping the run when checking the canopy.

Skill Check To see how well you can inflate the canopy. Keep a tally of how many attempts are successes. When you are scoring 9 out of 10 you are quite adept. Now work on the tenth one.

Beginner Pilot Training Manual

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Ground handling “Ground handing skill is the key to expert piloting skill” Ground handling indeed prepares you for your entire flying career. The more adept you are at controlling your canopy on the ground, the better you will be able to launch and the more sensitive you will be to the feel of the glider in the air.

Your Objective To learn how to control the glider on the ground in relation to the wind. Note: Practice in both smooth and varying conditions. Practice turning forward and backwards while maintaining the canopy stable.

Kiting Skills (Side-to-Side controls)

Pro Tip : To feel how your

This involves using the controls asymmetrically. The ability to perform these controls correctly is extremely important for handling turbulence and varying wind during launch. Also, you will be beginning to learn the proper controls for turning.

canopy is heading, sense the pressure in the controls. The mark of a good pilot is his or her ability to know what the canopy is doing without constantly looking at it. This is sensed through the forces in the control lines

Controlling the canopy on ground is actually more difficult than it is in the air. Pull the control on the side opposite to the direction in which the canopy is pulling and move towards the canopy. Always maintaining the forward momentum.

and the pull' of the harness on you – true seat of the pants flying.

Remember Steer left, step right Steer right, step left

Skill Check

Stay below the canopy

Level 1

Always keep the glider loaded using your body weight and forward motion

t d assessmen Site and win

tion yout, connec

py la Proper cano and setup

Most accidents in paragliding happen on ground (either on takeoff or landing). Thus the importance of


Pre flight ch

tion run Forward infla

ground handling should be thoroughly realized. It is


- consistenc

your glider that will give you the confidence to enjoy

y control Good canop ntrol directional co pendulum & Canopy Defl


packing, ding canopy

Understan re storage & ca

Beginner Pilot Training Manual


Summary By now you should have a real feel for the canopy and how it obeys your every command - even if your commands are incorrect! But never fear, continued practice at inflation and ground handling will soon have you making all controls automatically, timely and precisely.

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How does a paraglider fly? When inflated, the canopy of the paraglider creates an aerofoil The canopy is inflated by air entering the open cells on the leading edge, which are closed on the trailing edge This is achieved at launch in two ways: Alpine/Forward Launch and Reverse Launch Because of the shape of an aerofoil, air that passes over the top has to travel a greater distance than air which passes under. The air that passes over the top of an aerofoil creates a lower pressure than that which passes underneath The higher pressure air underneath wants to equalize the lower pressure on the top thus forcing the canopy up and creating lift The paraglider is designed to descend. It will go up only in lifting air; like in ascending air over a ridge or thermals.

Stalled wing

Developing Lift

Airflow past a wing

Basic paraglider control movements A paraglider is controlled by moving the control lines with your hands, independently or together, to alter the profile of the wing above your head and thereby alter the amount of lift and drag created by different areas of the wing The glider responds by changing its airspeed or by turning. Of the three axes of movement - pitch, roll and yaw - the pilot can normally only control pitch by moving controls together, and yaw (i.e. left or right change of heading) by moving controls differentially. In a turn, roll (banking to the left or right) develops automatically when the glider is turned.

Longitudinal Axis

Vertical Axis

Beginner Pilot Training Manual

Lateral Axis

Vertical Axis

Lateral Axis

Longitudinal Axis

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Take Off and Landing (Hops) Chord line Low angle of attack Flight Direction

Angle of attack is the

People of all ages (from very young to very old) and body types (form couch potatoes to body builders) have successfully learned to fly paragliders. Early on paragliding is about 90% physical and 10% mental effort. Soon this changes to 10% physical and 90% mental.

angle between the chord line of the wing and the direction of flight through the air. With brakes off, the

Your Objective To learn consistent, smooth take-off's including smooth transitions from ground to air and smooth landings on feet and into wind.

paraglider flies at a relatively low angle of attack

Pre Launch Check Proper air conditions, proper glider setup and proper mental preparations.

Chord line High angle of attack Flight Direction

When the brakes are pulled down, the trailing edge of the canopy is depressed,

Launch Remember to lean forward and crouch in your initial run. This posture helps pull against the backward pull of the glider, keeps your feet under you. This also allows you to maintain contact with the ground longer. Remember - Shorter steps initially and after the canopy is over head (after release) longer strides to accelerate. Do not slow down and do not sit. Keep running until your feet are no longer touching the terrain. You're flying !

which rotates the chord line upward and raises the angle of attack. As a result of the higher angle of attack, the canopy slows down. If the angle of attack is raised too high, the airflow over the top of the canopy separates, the wing stalls and the canopy collapses

Your Objective To perform a smooth, straight flight without changes in airspeed from take off and landing, then learning careful, intentional speed control. Sitting Down – Develop the habit from your first flight of remaining in launch position (legs down) until you are well clear of the terrain. Flight - Never lock your arms, but keep them loose and floating, maintain an even pressure (3-5 kg's) depending on how slow you want to fly. Never – hold the risers or even touch them. Feel the amount of force on the control lines and feel the wind on your face. All control inputs should be smooth and gentle.

Beginner Pilot Training Manual

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Common Launch mistakes and cures Slowing down the run once the glider begins lifting. Avoid this tendency by focusing on a point well ahead and visualize running to that point. Sitting down too soon. Resolve to run into the air and keep your feet under you for an imminent landing. Over-controlling. Make all controls slow and gradual. It's better to under control than over control at this point

Landing During Hops The most important rule about landing is to always land into wind. Flying into wind gives you your slowest speed over the ground, and this makes your landing easier and safer. You will need a greater and quicker application of brakes in zero or light winds, and less if there is more wind. Once you have your height judgement fully developed, the ideal “landing flare” is a smooth application from 0% brakes (or whatever your initial brake setting is) to 100 % brakes over a period of about 2 seconds, beginning when your feet are about 5 to 8 feet off the ground.

Skill Chec

k - Level 2

STRONG WINDS Remember that in strong winds, the canopy will want to inflate harder and faster, and may inflate unexpectedly. Pay attention all the time, keep a firm grasp on the “C” risers and use them to keep the canopy on the ground until you are ready to perform the inflation.

Unassisted inflation & run (pendulum & direction control) Smooth tra nsition from ground to air Direction c ontrol in th e air Ability to ju dge and m aintain hea into wind fo ding r landing

Strong Wind Emergency Procedure

Controlled touchdown on feet Into the win d

The single line save your life (and dignity) maneuver:

Canopy de

In strong winds, when handling the canopy on the ground, you may get into a situation where controls of the canopy have gotten away from you, you have been or are about to be dragged off your feet, and are trying to avoid being dragged across the ground. In this case, grab one line (whatever you can get yours hands on) and reel it in hand over hand as you run towards the canopy until you have canopy cloth in your hand. In this mode, the canopy cannot inflate and drag you.

Beginner Pilot Training Manual

flation & im

mobilizatio n

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Preparing For Your First Solo Pre - Take Off Know where you are going to land. Check the wind strength and direction at take off for consistency over ten minutes, before and then during setting up the glider.

Take Off - Remember the sequence : Inflation, Control, Speed Inflation: Once the canopy is inflated in the overhead position, some brakes should have been applied to stop the canopy from over-flying you.

Control: If something does not feel right, or the canopy is out of control – ABORT, before it is too late (be decisive) Flying the paraglider at trim speed. Raising the control handles from this position increases airspeed

Speed: Airspeed means safety, therefore, you should create a sufficient margin of airspeed before you leave the ground. Provided you have reached sufficient airspeed, the glider will begin to lift you. A touch of brakes at this stage will take you off your feet. DO NOT JUMP. Shuffle back into your harness without pulling on or letting go of the brakes.

IN THE AIR : Congratulations you are flying !! Lowering the controls handles decreases airspeed

Follow your flight plan. For the time being, all you need to worry about is speed to fly, steering (direction control), and landing

Beginner Pilot Training Manual

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Steering All steering inputs should be smooth and gradual To turn left / right, gently pull on the left / right brake and ease up gently on the right / left brake, leaning into the turn. Clear your turns and turn in time to make good your landing area. Do not delay your turns. Initiating a left turn

Initiating a right turn

Landing Only takeoffs are optional, landings are mandatory ! Keeping an eye on the wind sock and landing field, align yourself on your landing approach. If you need to lose some height, do so by making “S” turns, but not too tight. Once you are on landing approach (30 feet. approx.) you should not be turning and should not be flying with much brake – fast is safe. On final approach (10-15 feet) – apply some brakes to slow down your descent rate and forward speed. Make sure you're heading into the wind. At this time your legs should be out and you should be sitting forward on the edge of your seat. Now depending on your descent rate and forward speed (between 5-8 feet) – Pull both brakes smoothly (flare) to arrest your descent rate and forward motion to make a soft touch down.

Pulling down hard on the control handles to flare the glider for landing

Remember to always land on your feet and into wind. A perfectly timed flare will result in practically no forward motion and no significant drop but a smooth and soft landing.

Skill Chec k

Consistenc y in unassis ted and committed launch Ability to m

The Key : Stay relaxed and follow instructions Common mistakes Not landing into wind: Will cause side travel and higher landing speeds.

- Level 3

ake correc ti

ons on t/o run Ability to b e decisive and abort necessary when Ability to fl y straight, make turns align into w & ind for land ing Ability to ti me flare fo r smooth la on feet into nding wind

Early Flare: You will drop whatever remaining distance you are from the ground because your glider is no longer flying, so don't flare too high.

Proper flig ht planning and confid of flying so ent lo

Late Flare: Will result in higher descent rate and higher landing speeds.

Proper post

Beginner Pilot Training Manual

flight proce dures

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All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced in any manner without the consent of the author. Originally introduced in 2001 Revised and updated over the years Recent edition 2007

Author: Amarjit Malik (Avi) Chief Flying Instructor, Temple Pilots This training manual will be retained by the school. Please try and maintain it in good condition for usage by future student pilots

TeMple Pilots Associate Member, Indian Parachuting Foundation

Cell: 9823384654 [email protected] www.templepilots.com

Beginner Pilot Training Manual

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