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MPMI Vol. 24, No. 8, 2011, pp. 984–992. doi:10.1094 / MPMI -02-11-0028. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society

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High Levels of a Fungal Superoxide Dismutase and Increased Concentration of a PR-10 Plant Protein in Associations Between the Endophytic Fungus Neotyphodium lolii and Ryegrass Ningxin Zhang,1 Shuguang Zhang,1 Sophie Borchert,1 Kim Richardson,2 and Jan Schmid1 1 2

Institute for Molecular BioSciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4412, New Zealand; AgResearch Ltd, Grasslands Research Centre Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand

Submitted 3 February 2011. Accepted 12 April 2011.

Neotyphodium lolii is a fungal endosymbiont of the ryegrass Lolium perenne. Its growth is tightly controlled and synchronized with that of the plant. How the symbionts communicate is largely unknown but failure of the endophyte to elicit a defense response is considered crucial for successful symbiosis. In silver-stained two-dimensional gels of protein extracts from endophyte-infected ryegrass, a fungal Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was detectable, even though the fungus accounts for only