Hindawi Publishing Corporation Rehabilitation Research and Practice Volume 2016, Article ID 9689760, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9689760
Research Article Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Elderly Patients Admitted to an Inpatient Rehabilitation Unit in Tropical Singapore Jong J. Neo and Keng H. Kong Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 Correspondence should be addressed to Keng H. Kong; keng he [email protected]
Received 11 November 2015; Accepted 26 January 2016 Academic Editor: Eric Kerckhofs Copyright © 2016 J. J. Neo and K. H. Kong. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Background. Data on hypovitaminosis D in elderly patients admitted to rehabilitation units in tropical countries are scarce. Objective. To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated risk factors in elderly patients admitted to a rehabilitation unit in tropical Singapore. Methods. Prospective, cohort study of 134 subjects ≥ 65 years old admitted to a tertiary rehabilitation centre. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) was measured on rehabilitation admission. Results. Mean age was 72.0 ± 5.7 years, and stroke was the commonest rehabilitation diagnosis (49.3%). Low 25OHD3 levels were present in 115 patients (85.6%) and 59 patients (44%) were deemed to be vitamin D deficient. The mean PTH level was significantly higher in patients with low 25OHD3 levels. (𝑝 = 0.002) Age, gender, vitamin D supplementation, premorbid ambulatory status, and admission/discharge Functional Independence Measure scores were not significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency. Malays/Indians (𝑝 = 0.013) and recurrent fallers (𝑝 = 0.029) were at significantly higher risk of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusions. Despite the tropical weather, vitamin D deficiency is common in elderly subjects admitted to a rehabilitation unit in Singapore. Routine assessment of vitamin D levels is recommended especially in those with a history of recurrent falls and patients of Indian/Malay ethnicity.
1. Introduction Vitamin D is essential for overall health and well-being. It is produced by our skin upon exposure to ultraviolet B irradiation from sunlight. More than 90% of circulating vitamin D originates from cutaneous production. Its role in various medical conditions such as osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and infection has been well studied . Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with sarcopenia, muscle weakness, a reduced ability to perform activities of daily living, increased body sway, and increased risk of falls and hip fractures [1–4]. Patients who require inpatient rehabilitation stay after an acute hospitalisation possess multiple risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Frequently, these patients are older and medically complex and suffer from reduced mobility and poor nutritional status. The elderly are particularly at risk of vitamin D deficiency due to factors like decreased dermal production of vitamin D following exposure to sunlight because of atrophic skin changes , lower dietary vitamin D
content, impaired gastrointestinal absorption, and decreased renal production of 1,25OH2 D . Given this, there is a case to be made for the screening of vitamin D levels in rehabilitation inpatients, so that vitamin D supplementation can be given to patients with low vitamin D levels. Recent studies of patients admitted to rehabilitation units showed that hypovitaminosis D is common with rates ranging from 68.9% to 94% [6–9]. In a study of 315 patients with fractured neck of femur admitted to a rehabilitation hospital, Di Monaco et al. found that 75% had frank vitamin D deficiency (25OHD level less than 12 ng/mL) . Shinchuk et al. evaluated 53 patients with varying diagnoses admitted to a subacute rehabilitation facility and reported vitamin D insufficiency (25OHD level less than 30 ng/mL) and vitamin D deficiency (25OHD level less than 20 ng/mL) in 83% and 49.1% of patients, respectively . Kiebzak et al. studied 100 acute inpatient rehabilitation patients with a diagnosis of fracture, hip or knee replacement, and stroke and found 11% with vitamin D deficiency (25OHD level less than 8 ng/mL) and 94% with insufficiency (25OHD level less than 32 ng/mL)
2 . Pellicane et al. in a retrospective review of 101 patients reported that 68.9% were insufficient (25OHD level less than 30 ng/mL) and 8.1% were deficient (25OHD less than 10 ng/mL) . In 2 of these studies, vitamin D level was significantly correlated to functional status on admission to and discharge from rehabilitation [6, 8]. However, these studies were conducted in temperate countries, involving predominantly Caucasian patients, in whom it has been previously shown that vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent due to reduced cutaneous synthesis during winter months . Studies examining the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in rehabilitation inpatients in tropical countries are scarce. Singapore is a tropical, multiracial country consisting predominantly of 74.1% Chinese, 13.4% Malays, and 9.2% Indians with sunny weather throughout the year . The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a cohort of elderly patients admitted to a rehabilitation centre in Singapore and to establish demographic and clinical factors associated with vitamin D deficiency.
2. Methods 2.1. Study Design, Setting, and Population. This was a prospective study of hospitalized patients ≥65 years admitted to a 90-bedded tertiary rehabilitation facility over a 12-month period from January to December 2012. The rehabilitation centre has 4 major programmes: stroke rehabilitation, traumatic brain injury rehabilitation, spinal injury rehabilitation, and musculoskeletal rehabilitation (including polytrauma, lower extremity joint replacements, and lower limb amputation). Excluded were patients with known primary hyperparathyroidism and patients on dialysis as dialysis can affect serum vitamin D levels. 2.2. Data Collected. Data collected included patient demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index), premorbid ambulatory status using the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) , frequency of falls over the past 2 years prior to current hospitalisation, diagnosis on rehabilitation admission, medical comorbidities, vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission (defined as taking supplementation for at least 5 days a week for the past one month as reported by the patient), rehabilitation length of stay, and functional status on admission to and discharge from rehabilitation as measured on the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) . The FAC scores from 0 to 5, with 0 indicating inability to walk and 5 indicating independent ambulation. Fall history was categorized as “no falls/onceonly fallers” and “recurrent fallers,” as evidence suggests that once-only fallers are characteristically more closely related to nonfallers than recurrent fallers. Reaction time, quadriceps strength, and postural sway are worse in recurrent fallers than nonfallers and once-only fallers . FIM efficiency was calculated by dividing the admission and discharge FIM scores by the rehabilitation length of stay. Nonfasting venous blood was withdrawn for 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) level within 7 days of rehabilitation
Rehabilitation Research and Practice admission. It was measured using Roche Elecsys vitamin D3 assay (Roche Mannheim, Germany) in the hospital’s accredited laboratory. Serum calcium, phosphate, albumin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were also measured. At present, there is no consensus on the definition of vitamin D deficiency. The Institute of Medicine has defined serum vitamin D levels of 20 mg/L as adequate and less than 12 mg/L as deficient . On the other hand, Holick and the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline defined vitamin D deficiency as