Self sustainable energy harvesting system

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motor, dynamo, UPS, pendulum, gearbox, dynamo, voltage stabilizer, controller ... block diagram and fabricated electric dynamo. .... The on-battery runtime of.
Self Sustainable Energy Harvesting System Ferdous Hossain*, E.M.H.Arif, Tan Kim Geok, J.Hossen, Sharif Ahmed, Md. Armanur Rahman, Tawsif K. Faculty of Engineering Technology Multimedia University Melaka, Malaysia [email protected] prominent regard for the earth [3]. However, most sustainable energy sources are very few in the current word [4]. The procedure in which the system and environment can be reproduced to the underlying state from the last state without creating any adjustments in the thermodynamic properties of the universe is known as a sustainable procedure [5]. The sustainable procedure can be sustainable fully and there is no drawback demonstrates that the framework had undergone thermodynamic change. For the system to experience, sustainable conditions should run infinitely [6]. Amid the sustainable procedure, every part of the system should adjustments in express that happen in the system is in thermodynamic harmony with each other. In this manner, there are two imperative conditions for the sustainable procedure buildup. Firstly, the procedure should happen in invisibly little time and secondly, the majority of the underlying and last condition of the system should be in harmony with each other [7]. If in time the sustainable process the charge level of the system remains fixed, it is the sustainable system, and then the run is isentropic system [8]. The wonder of undergoing sustainable change is also called self-sustainable. In the real application, the sustainable system is very hard to implement but it has an outstanding contribution for the long run to a better world. Here, all the contents are organized as follows. First, in section two, the components are explained. Second, section three explains the calculation. Third, section four present the description of the proposed system. Four, section five, contains experimental result discussion. Finally, conclusion is drawn in section six. II. COMPONENTS The self-sustainable energy harvesting system consist motor, dynamo, UPS, pendulum, gearbox, dynamo, voltage stabilizer, controller and solar panel. The description of the devices is given below.

Abstract—Electrical energy demand is increasing massively across the world due to population growth. From literature, the number of population will be double within next 50 years because of continuous growth, so the energy demand will be triple based on the current demand. This paper presents an effective and innovative self-sustainable energy harvesting system. Here, an approach to developing a case where electrical energy can be produced is presented. The proposed energy harvesting system consists of an uninterruptible power supply, motor, voltage stabilizer, pendulum, controller, dynamo, solar panel, and gearbox. The dynamo is mainly run by motor rotation. Pendulum and gearbox work as energy booster factor. The total system dynamically monitors by smart controlled. The subsystems work together to automatically generate energy. The main aim of this research is to provide a reliable solution for energy limitations, due to the increasing demand for energy around the world. The produced energy of the system can be determined by the position of gear base on rotation of Pinium, which make the system sustainable. Keywords—dynamo; motor; pendulam; pinium; torque; voltages vtabilizer.

I. INTRODUCTION The growth of a worldwide population is stressing the current limit in electrical energy generation. The energy produced in mass at central locations and delivered over significant distances to communities. This produces electrical distribution losses in the order of 7% of the produced power in developed nations. The production of energy at any places will significantly reduce these losses equating to overall net energy saving [1], here the mentioned method for doing that also be sustainable and cheaper. At the present situation, energy has turned into the significant requirement for human life. Energy is an essential contribution to every part of any nation’s economy. Natural mining asset is diminishing because of expanding population growth [2]. Worldwide power utilize has become faster than a recent decade. Beginning at 2012, the yearly gross generation of electrical power came to roughly 22,200 TWh, of which petroleum products including coal/peat, gaseous petrol, and oil contribute around 70% of worldwide power. To keep up the power organize safe, the load adjusts has fundamentally been overseen by petroleum used power plants. To accomplish the objective of decreasing CO2 use, future power system will be more advanced with reducing dependency on non-renewable energy sources, developing utilization of sustainable energy sources and with a more

A. Motor

Fig. 1. Block diagram of motor.

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A synchronous electric motor is an AC engine recognized by an engine turning with loops passing magnets at an indistinguishable rate from the power supply recurrence and coming about pivoting attractive field which drives it. Another method for saying this is what does not depend on the sneak by regular working conditions and therefore, produces torque at synchronous speed. Synchronous motor can be stood out from an acceptance motor, which must slip keeping in mind the end goal to create torque. They work synchronously with line recurrence. Similarly, as with squirrel-confine enlistment engines, speed is controlled by the quantity of sets of shafts and the line recurrence as shown in fig. 1. Synchronous engines are accessible in sub-partial self-energized sizes to high-drive coordinate current energized mechanical sizes [9]. In the partial drive extend, most synchronous engines are utilized where exact consistent speed is required. In high-pull modern sizes, the synchronous engine gives two imperative capacities. Right off the bat, it is a profoundly productive method for changing over air conditioning vitality to work. Also, it can work at driving or solidarity control factor and along these lines give control factor redress [10].Here are two noteworthy sorts of synchronous engines: 'non-energized and coordinate current energized, which have no self-beginning ability to achieve synchronism without additional excitation implies, for example, electronic control or acceptance. This motor in system works for rotating pendulum. It receives charge from UPS as per fig. 7.

C. Dynamo In electricity production, the dynamo machine alters mechanical energy to electrical energy. A dynamo strengths electric charge (for the most part conveyed by electrons) to course through an outer electrical circuit [14]. Actually, several engines can produce mechanical energy to electricity, and very often create satisfactory generators. The fig. 2 showed the block diagram and fabricated electric dynamo. Here dynamo start by pendulum rotation. In gearbox, Pendulum and dynamo Pinium teethes are place accordingly so that one can rotated anther. It placed in the system as per fig. 7.

Fig. 2. The fabricated electric dynamo.

D. Gearbox The gearbox works as increasing factor of the automated self-sustainable energy harvesting system. Actually, it is the heart of the system. The gearbox makes interface between pendulum and dynamo. The fig. 3 represent gear box getaway. This gearbox is fully controlled by a controller. Base on the pendulum pinium rotation speeds data the controller take decision automatically to shift gear up to low. It placed in the system as per fig. 7.

B. AC drives AC motor rotation speed totally controlled by AC drives [11] slice controlled energy control the motion of an bringing on the engine by expanding an engine's slice, whichever by diminishing the voltage connected to an engine, otherwise enhancing the resistance of the rotor windings. Since it is the most part less productive than different sorts of energy, slipcontrolled drives have been lost ubiquity and also been utilized just in extraordinary circumstances. In bigger evaluations more than a couple of kilowatts, an injure rotor engine has its rotor associated with a converter system that profits vitality toward power system, changing over it starting low down slice frequency up to line frequency. Here this recovers vitality that would somehow or other remains squandered into rotor circuit resistors. This is called slip energy recovery drives and utilized on like applications as constrained sketch blowers designed, for the boiler. An electromechanical edition utilizes a rectifier, the DC engine and kramer drive is known by AC generator [12]. Adjustable-frequency drive (AFD) maintains the engine rapidity of whichever an induction engine or as the synchronous engine by changing frequency of the power provided to the engine. There is another name of AFD like variable-frequency drive (VFD). Once altering the frequency power provided to AC engine, the proportion of connected to voltage, connected frequency is largely kept up at a consistent incentive between the base and most extreme working frequencies. The process at a consistent voltage (lessened V/Hz) over an agreed frequency gives diminished torque ability and steady power capacity over that frequency [13].

Fig. 3. Block diagram of pinium box.

E. Pendulum A basic pendulum comprises of a moderately enormous question hung by a cord from a settled help. It generally hangs vertically in its harmony position. The gigantic protest is lovingly alluded to as the pendulum sway. At the point when the sway is dislodged from harmony and afterward discharged, it starts it's onward and backward vibration about its established balance point [15].The association is reliable and rehashing, a casing of intermittent movement. Pendulum movement was presented before in this lesson as we made an


endeavor to comprehend the idea of vibrating objects. Pendulum movement was examined again as we took a gander at the scientific properties of articles that are in intermittent movement. Here we will explore pendulum movement in significantly more prominent detail as we center upon how an assortment of amounts changes through the span of time. Such amounts will incorporate powers, position, speed, and vitality both active and potential vitality. The re-establishing power causes the vibrating item to back off as it moves far from the harmony position and to accelerate as it approaches the balance position. It is this re-establishing power that is in charge of the vibration. So what powers follow up on a pendulum bounce and what is the re-establishing power of a pendulum. There are two overwhelming powers following up on a pendulum sway constantly throughout its movement. There is the power of gravity that demonstrations descending upon the bounce. It comes about because of the Earth's mass drawing in the mass of the bounce. What's more, there is a pressure drive acting upward and towards the rotate purpose of the pendulum [16]. This is the main concern of this system to harvest energy. It placed in the system as per fig. 7.

Fig. 4. Graphical representation of control system

G. Voltage stabilizer It is an electrical appliance, which is designed to deliver a constant voltage to a load at its output terminals regardless of the changes in the input or incoming supply voltage. It protects the equipment or machine against over voltage, under voltage, and other voltage surges. The embedding of microprocessor chip technology and power electronic devices in the design of intelligent AC voltage stabilizers (or automatic voltage regulators (AVR)) led to producing high quality, stable electric power supply in the event of a significant and continuous deviation of mains voltage [19]. As advancement to the conventional type of voltage stabilizers, modern innovative stabilizers use high-performance digital control circuits and solid-state control circuitry that eliminates potentiometer adjustments and allows the user to set voltage requirements through a keypad, with output start and stop facility. The most common reasons for voltage fluctuations are lighting, electrical faults, faulty wiring and periodic turning off the device [20]. These fluctuations create mishap to the electrical equipment or appliances. It works in the system to provide a constant flow of charge to UPS. It placed in the system as per fig. 7.

F. Controller Sometimes, this controller element has presently two positions, which are finally close or finally open. These controller elements do not work at in the least middle of an intermediate point, incompletely open or somewhat shut position. The control framework prepared for controlling such element sets is well known as on-off controller hypothesis. Within this controller framework, when procedure variable change and cross certain specific level, the yield control device of the framework is every of a sudden finally open and give 100 % production. For the majority component in on off controller framework, the output cause amends in procedure variable. Consequently, since of blow of output, the procedure inconsistent again begin shifting yet in invert course [17]. Among this change, whilst procedure variable cross assured predetermined stage, the output regulator of the framework is promptly push to and output is all of an impulsive diminished to 0 %.As present is no output, the procedure variable all over again begins shifting in its classic course. Whilst it crosses set level, the productivity regulator of the framework is again finally open to provide 100 % output. At the point when the temperature procedure variable descends beneath a specific respect, the controller key of fan trek and fans quit providing constrained air to the transformer. Hypothetically, we expect that present is no insulating in the controller gear. That implies, in attendance is no time day for off and in the process of controller gear. Among this presumption on the off chance that we sketch arrangement of operation of a perfect on-off controller framework, we force to find the diagram given underneath in showed fig. 4. Nevertheless, in down to earth on off control, there is dependably a none zero time delay for shutting and opening activity of controller components [18].

H. Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) A UPS power contributes, furthermore UPS power source, uninterruptible power supply or battery support is an electrical-mechanical gathering that gives emergency vitality to a pile when the information control source or mains control crashes and cascade flat. A UPS contrast from a supporter or crisis control framework or reserve generator in so as to it determination provides close momentary insurance from input control intrusions, by providing vitality place missing in batteries, marvelous capacitors [21]. The on-battery runtime of mainly UPS power source is moderately short very soon a combine of minutes though adequate to initiate a reserve power basis or properly close down the ensure gear. If UPS is ordinarily used to guarantee equipment, for example, PCs, attendant farms, media transmission gear or additional electrical hardware where a sudden power break could cause fatalities, wounds, genuine business trouble or in sequence misfortune. UPS unit goes in estimate from unit intended to ensure a solitary PC with no a screen approximately 200 voltampere score to massive units fueling completely attendant farm or structures.



Calculation of Work Effort is put on energy through the distance. Energy for any reason which progressions the location, movement, bearing, either state of entity. Exertion is complete when the force beats by opposition like resistance. It is constrained that has a tendency to prevent the development of entity. On the other hand the linked constrain doesn’t cause drive and none effort is generated. Ascertain the measure effort generated, by equation (3) is implemented. W =F*D (3) Where the work or effort is W, force is F and distance means express by D.

Fig. 5. Circuit diagram of UPS

The three general module of current UPS frame is on-line, line-intuitive and reserve. An on-line UPS utilize a "twofold transformation" strategy for tolerating AC input, amend to DC for going throughout the rechargeable battery or battery string, at that point modifying reverse to 120 V/230 V AC for controlling the ensured hardware. In a supply-disconnected framework, the heap is fueled specifically by the info control and the reinforcement control hardware is just summoned when the helpfulness power comes up short. Mainly UPS underneath 1 kVA are of the line-intelligent or standby assortment which is classically more affordable. For expansive power units; Dynamic Uninterruptible Power Supplies (DUPS) are here and there utilizing. The asynchronous engine is linked to the substance by sake of a stifle. At the position when the mains control fizzles, a whirlpool current direction keeps up the power on the heap as long as the flywheel's vitality is not depleted [22]. DUPS are some of the time joined or incorporated into a diesel generator that is twisted on behind a short deferral, framing a diesel rotating uninterruptible power supply (DRUPS).It works in the system to start the motor. In this system it first time use as fully charged condition. III. CALCULATION

D. Calculation of Full-load Torque Fully used torque is the things that are generate the appraised control at full motion of the engine. The measure of torque an engine creates at evaluated energy and full rapidness by utilizing a HP to the torque transformation outline. In time utilizing the transformation graph, put a conventional edge with 2 familiar amounts and sense the obscure amount from the 3rd line. To ascertain engine full-stack torque, equation (4) is applied. T= (HP*525) / rpm (4) Were T is work, HP is horse power and rpm is rotations per minute E.

Calculation of Horsepower Electrical energy is evaluated with horsepower (HP). Here 1 unit HP energy is equivalent to 746 watts. A watt is a unit of calculate by equivalent to the energy generated by a current of 1 amp over the possible divergence of 1 volt. The watt is one of the base units of electrical energy. The engine control is appraised in pulls, as well as watts. Strength is utilized to gauge the vitality created using electric motor while doing work. To figure out the pull of an effective engine in the time of current and proficiency, and voltage are get by equation (5) is applied. HP =(V*I*Eff)/746

A. A. Calculation of Motor Speed


Where HP is horsepower, Eff. is efficiency, I current (amps) and V is voltage.

An accumulator confines enlistment motor in a steady faster apparatus. It does not work span at faster beneath those appeared above the nameplate devoid of threat of fiery out. To compute the speed of an induction engine, condition (1) is applied. Sprm = (120 * F) / P (1) Where Shrimps synchronous rotation per minute. Supply frequency is F and no. of motor twisting poles is P.

IV. PROPOSED SYSTEM The fig.6 showed the proposed system flow chart. In this system when user ON the UPS switches AC current flow from here. Then the motor will start. Here motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. With the rotation of motor attached pendulum Pinium, the dynamo attached Pinium will be also rotated. Here Pinium box works as rotation increasing factor or gear. This gear will be controlled by controller base on the rpm of pendulum Pinium. The rpms of dynamo will be higher comparing the motor rpms. For this reason, we get more ac current from dynamo than the invest energy to the motor by UPS. Here use a voltage stabilizer to make a constant flow of dynamo current to UPS charge. Some part produced current from here must be used to recharge the UPS. Another vast amount of current user can use another purpose. Without the first

B. Calculation of Braking Torque Fully used motor torque is computed for decide the necessary braking torque for an engine. To compute the value of braking torque of an engine, equation (2) is applied. (2) T= (5252*HP) / rpm Were t is full-load engine torque (in lb-ft) and 5252 which is from 33,000/ (3.14 x 2) = 5252. Horsepower and rpm is motion of device shaft.



time charging UPS, seldom use any energy in the system. So the system called Self sustainable energy harvesting system. We also set here solar plane as power backup feed for UPS charging if needed. UPS charge status will be all-time motoring by the controller. If any the status has gone below than specific threshold value then the controller will connect solar line with UPS for charging. The fig-7 showed our proposed system block diagram.

Here RF is rotation factor, which will be getting from the rotation of NTPP and NTDP. The ration factor or gear tells us how fast dynamo pinium is rotating compared to pendulum Pinium. If system dynamo (7 teeth) is rotating connected to pendulum (15 teethes) .System, rotation factor is 15/7. Rotation factor is fully controlled by gear system based on controller data. Multiplying system rotation factor by UPS supply we will get system total output. From the total output, we will use some energy to charge UPS and for system loss. Rest of the energy will be used as system output for further purpose. If unexpectedly, if UPS charge falls down then a solar panel will be used in the proposed system as the backup energy source for UPS charging.

Fig. 6. Flow chart of self-sustainable energy harvesting system

Fig. 8 (a). Gear wise energy gain

Fig. 7. Block diagram of self-sustainable energy harvesting system

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. 8 (b): Pendulum teeth wise energy gain

The rotation factor defines the relationship between pendulum and dynamo teethes. Rotation factor (RF), Total current, Energy gain are calculated using the below equations. The number of teethes in pendulum pinium express by NTPP and number of teethes in dynamo pinium express by NTDP. RF =NTPP/NTDP Total Current =RF*UPS Supply Energy Gain= (Out supply/UPS Supply)*100

(6) (7) (8)





Fig. 8 (c). Total output current wise energy gain [8].



[11]. Fig. 8 (d). Input to output wise energy gain



An energy harvesting system that produce free energy is reported. The system contains of UPS, motor, voltage stabilizer, pendulum, controller, dynamo, solar panel, and gearbox that work automatically to provide sustainable power. The output of this system is quite good and dependable. Modern civilization will be more sustainable if electric power is cheap and available for use. It could be mentioned that, everybody will be able to use it according to the demand. It is not possible to live nowadays without energy, but it is very sad to say that to produce electric power is difficult and costly still now. Most of the conventional power plants are highly thread able for the environment. It damages the green environment rapidly. There is no alternative way to make the world green without self-sustainable energy system.





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