May 5, 1980 - phoru's, to deposit a minor proportion of such elements .... used as catalysts, generally have low coke-forming ... amount of aluminum (silica to alumina mole ratio of ... hexane and 3-methylpentane over a sample of zeolite at ... zeolite with a helium dilution to give a helium to (total) .... of amine and HCl.
United States Patent [191
May 11, 1982
 SHAPE SELECTIVE REACTIONS WITH ZEOLITE CATALYSTS MODIFIED WITH GROUP IA METALS
Haag et a1. . . . . . .
. . .. .
. . . .,
. .. ... . .... ... ...
. . . ..
4,238,630 12/ 1980
Int. (:1.3 .............................................. .. C07C 2/68
585/470; 585/474; 585/475 Field Of Search ............. .. 585/467, 470, 474, 475,
Parker ............................... .. 585/467
A process for the conversion of aromatic compounds to
dialkylbenzene compounds rich in the 1,4-dia1kylben zene isomer. The reaction is carried out in the presence
alumina mole ratio of at least 12 and a constraint index
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
of about 1-12, said catalyst having been modi?ed by
Weinstein ..................... .. 260/ 671 M
treatment with metal compounds of elements from
Group IA of the Periodic Chart, and optionally phos
Butter et al.
Butter et a1. .. Butter ...... ..
4,034,053 7/1977 4,052,476 10/1977
of a particular type of zeolite catalyst having a silica to
References Cited 6/1976
Primary Examiner—Curtis R. Davis Attorney, Agent, or Firm—Charles A. Huggett; Ronald J. Cier; George W. Allen
May 5, 1980
4,158,024 6/1979 Kaeding et a1.
. . . ..
[52'] us. c1. .................................
.. . . ..
 App1.No.: 146,951
Haro et a1.
4,128,592 12/1978 Kaeding ..
Chin-Chiun Chu, North Brunswick,
 Assignee: Mobil Oil Corporation, New York,
. . . . . . . ..
. . . .. 260/671 R
4,101,597 7/1978 Breckenridge .
. . . , ..
. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
. . . . ..
.. 585/514 585/408 _ . . . ..
phoru's, to deposit a minor proportion of such elements on the zeolite.
Kaeding ct a]. .. .... .. 585/467 Morrison ........................... .. 585/475
29 Claims, No Drawings
proportionation or transalkylation of alkylbenzene SHAPE SELECTIVE REACTIONS WITH ZEOLITE CATALYSTS MODIFIED WITH GROUP IA METALS
compounds or alkylation of aromatic compounds to
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The invention disclosed herein relates to the produc
utilized herein are zeolite materials having a silica to alumina ratio of at least about 12, a constraint index
selectively produce the 1,4-dialkylbenzene isomer in excess of its normal equilibrium concentration.
The particular type of crystalline zeolite catalysts within the approximate range of l to 12 and which have been modi?ed by initial treatment with a compound
tion of dialkylbenzene compounds utilizing a modi?ed crystalline zeolite catalyst to yield a product mixture in which the 1,4-dialkylbenzene isomer is substantially in
derived from one or more of the elements of Group IA
of the Periodic Table of Elements (i.e. the alkali metals: Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) to yield a composite containing a minor proportion of an oxide of such element. In addi tion to treatment of the catalyst with the alkali metal containing compound, the zeolite may also be treated with a phosphorus-containing compound to deposit a minor proportion of an oxide of phosphorus thereon in addition to the oxide of the Group IA meta].
excess of its normal equilibrium concentration. 2. Description of the Prior Art
The disproportionation of aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of zeolite catalysts has been described by Grandio et al. in the OIL AND GAS JOURNAL, Vol.
69, Number 48(1971). US. Pat. Nos. 3,126,422; 3,413,374; 3,598,378, 3,598,879 and 3,607,961 show vapor-phase dispropor
An embodiment of the disclosed invention is a pro 20 tionation of toluene over various catalysts. cess for the alkylation of aromatic compounds, in the In these prior art processes, the dimethylbenzene presence of the herein described modi?ed zeolite cata
product produced has the equilibrium composition of approximately 24 percent of 1,4-, 54 percent of 1,3- and 22 percent of 1,2-isomer. Of the dimethyolbenzene iso mers, 1,3-dimethylbenzene is normally the least desired product, with 1,2- and 1,4-dimethylbenzene being the more useful products. 1,4-Dimethylbenzene is of partic ular value, being useful in the manufacture of tereph
lysts, with selective production of the 1,4-dialkylben zene isomer in preference of the 1,2- and 1,3- isomers 25
thereof. Especially preferred embodiments involve the selective production of 1,4-dimethylbenzene from tolu ene and methanol and 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene from
toluene and ethylene. Another embodiment contemplates the selective dis thalic acid which is an intermediate in the manufacture proportionation or transalkylation of alkylbenzene and of synthetic ?bers such as “Dacron". Mixtures of di 30 polyalkylbenzene compounds in the presence of the methylbenzene isomers, either alone or in further ad disclosed catalysts, thereby yielding 1,4-disubstituted mixture with ethylbenzene, have previously been sepa
rated by expensive superfractionation and multistage
benzenes in excess of their normal equilibrium concen
zeolite catalysts which have been treated with com
of a novel class of zeolitic materials which exhibit un
pounds of phosphorus and/or magnesium. Boron-con
usual properties. Although these zeolites have unusu ally low alumina contents, i.e. high silica to alumina
tration. For example, under appropriate conditions of refrigeration steps. Such process, as will be realized, involves high operation costs and has a limited yield. 35 temperature and pressure, toluene will disproportionate in the presence of these catalysts to produce benzene Various modi?ed zeolite catalysts has been devel and dimethylbenzenes rich in the desirable 1,4-isomer. oped to alkylate or disproportionate toluene with a greater or lesser degree of selectivity to 1,4-dimethyl DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS benzene isomer. Hence, US. Pat. Nos. 3,972,832, 4,034,053, 4,128,592 and 4,137,195 disclose particular 40 The crystalline zeolites utilized herein are members taining zeolites are shown in US. Pat. No. 4,067,920 and antimony-containing zeolites in US. Pat. No.
3,979,472. Similarly, US. Pat. Nos. 3,965,208 and 4,117,026 disclose other modi?ed zeolites useful for shape selective reactions. While the above-noted prior art is considered of in
mole ratios, they are very active even when the silica to 45
alumina mole ratio exceeds 30. The activity is surprising
since catalytic activity is generally attributed to frame work aluminum atoms and/or cations associated with these aluminum atoms. These zeolites retain their crys
terest in connection with the subject matter of the pres
tallinity for long periods in spite of the presence of
ent invention, the conversion process described herein, utilizing a crystalline zeolite catalyst of speci?ed char acteristics which has undergone the particular treat ment disclosed, has not, insofar as is known, been previ
steam at high temperature which induces irreversible collapse of the framework of other zeolites, e. g. of the X
ously described. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In accordance with the present invention, there has
and A type. Furthermore, carbonaceous deposits, when formed, may be removed by burning at higher than usual temperatures to restore activity. These zeolites, used as catalysts, generally have low coke-forming activity and therefore are conducive to long times on
stream between regenerations by burning carbonaceous
deposits with oxygen-containing gas such as air. An important characteristic of the crystal structure of the presence of a particular type of modi?ed zeolite 60 this novel class of zeolites is that it provides a selective now been discovered a novel process for conversion of
organic compounds (e.g. hydrocarbon compounds) in
catalyst. An especially advantageous element of the invention comprises the selective production of the 1,4-isomer of dialkylated benzene compounds. The pro cess involves contacting an alkylated aromatic com pound, either alone or in admixture with a suitable al kylating agent such as methanol or ethylene, with a
constrained access to and egress from the intracrystal
line free space by virtue of having an effective pore size intermediate between the small pore Linde A and the large pore Linde X, i.e. the pore windows of the struc ture are of about a size such as would be provided by
lO-membered rings of silicon atoms interconnected by
particular type of modi?ed crystalline zeolite catalyst
oxygen atoms. It is to be understood, of course, that
and under suitable conversion conditions to effect dis
these rings are those formed by the regular disposition
at 1 liquid hourly space velocity (i.e., 1 volume of liquid
of the tetrahedra making up the anionic framework of the crystalline zeolite, the oxygen atoms themselves being bonded to the silicon (or aluminum, etc.) atoms at the centers of the tetrahedra.
hydrocarbon per volume of zeolite per hour) over the zeolite with a helium dilution to give a helium to (total) hydrocarbon mole ratio of 4:1. After 20 minutes on stream, a sample of the effluent is taken and analyzed,
The silica to alumina mole ratio referred to may be
most conveniently by gas chromatography, to deter mine the fraction remaining unchanged for each of the two hydrocarbons. While the above experimental procedure will enable
determined by conventional analysis. This ratio is meant to represent, as closely as possible, the ratio in the rigid anionic framework of the zeolite crystal and to exclude aluminum in the binder or in cationic or other form within the channels. Although zeolites with silica to alumina mole ratios of at least 12 are useful, it is pre ferred in some instances to use zeolites having substan
one to achieve the desired overall conversion of 10 to
60% for most zeolite samples and represents preferred conditions, it may occasionally be necessary to use somewhat more severe conditions for samples of very
tially higher silica/alumina ratios, e.g 1600 and above. In addition, zeolites as otherwise characterized herein but which are substantially free of aluminum, that is zeolites having silica to alumina mole ratios of up to in?nity, are found to be useful and even preferable in some instances. Such “high silica” or “highly siliceous” zeolites are intended to be included within this descrip tion. Also included within this de?nition are substan 20
low activity, such as those having an exceptionally high silica to alumina mole ratio. In those instances, a tem perature of up to about 540° C. and a liquid hourly space velocity of less than one, such as 0.1 or less, can be employed in order to achieve a minimum total conver
sion of about 10%. The “Constraint Index” is calculated as follows:
tially pure silica analogs of the useful zeolites described herein, that is to say those zeolites having no measurable amount of aluminum (silica to alumina mole ratio of
Constraint Index =
in?nity) but which otherwise embody the characteris tics disclosed.
logw (fraction of hexane remaining) loglo (fraction of 3-methylpentane remaining)
The novel class of zeolites, after activation, acquire an intracrystalline sorption capacity for normal hexane which is greater than that for water, i.e. they exhibit
The Constraint Index approximates the ratio of the cracking rate constants for the two hydrocarbons. Zeo “hydrophobic” properties. This hydrophobic character lites suitable for the present invention are those having 30 a Constraint Index of 1 to 12. Constraint Index (CI) can be used to advantage in some applications. The novel class of zeolites useful herein have an ef values for some typical materials are: fective pore size such as to freely sorb normal hexane. In addition, the structure must provide constrained C.I. access to larger molecules. It is sometimes possible to ZSM-4 0.5 judge from a known crystal structure whether such ZSM-S ZSM-l 1 ZSM-lZ ZSM-23 ZSM-35 ZSM-38 ZSM-48 TMA Offretlte
constrained access exists. For example, if the only pore windows in a crystal are formed by 8-membered rings of silicon and aluminum atoms, then access by mole cules of larger cross-section than normal hexane is ex cluded and the zeolite is not of the desired type. Win dows of IO-membered rings are preferred, although in some instances excessive puckering of the rings or pore blockage may render these zeolites ineffective.
Although 12-membered rings in theory would not offer suf?cient constraint to produce advantageous conversions, it is noted that the puckered 12-ring struc
8.3 8.7 2 9.1 4.5 2 3.4 3.7
Amorphous Silica-Alumina Erionite
ture of TMA offretite does show some constrained
access. Other 12-ring structures may exist which may be operative for other reasons and, therefore, it is not the present intention to entirely judge the usefulness of a particular zeolite solely from theoretical structural con siderations. Rather than attempt to judge from crystal structure whether or not a zeolite possesses the necessary con
strained access to molecules of larger cross-section than normal paraf?ns, a simple determination of the “Con straint Index” as herein de?ned may be made by passing continuously a mixture of an equal weight of normal hexane and 3-methylpentane over a sample of zeolite at
atmospheric pressure according to the following proce dure. A sample of the zeolite, in the form of pellets or extrudate, is crushed to a particle size about that of coarse sand and mounted in a glass tube. Prior to test ing, the zeolite is treated with a stream of air at 540° C.
The above-described Constraint Index is an impor tant and even critical de?nition of those zeolites which are useful in the instant invention. The very nature of
this parameter and the recited technique by which it is determined, however, admit of the possibility that a given zeolite can be tested under somewhat different
conditions and thereby exhibit different Constraint Indi ces. Constraint Index seems to vary somewhat with
severity of operation (conversion) and the presence or absence of binders. Likewise, other variables such as
crystal size of the zeolite, the presence of occluded contaminants, etc., may affect the constraint index. Therefore, it will be appreciated that it may be possible to so select test conditions as to establish more than one
value in the range of l to 12 for the Constraint Index of a particular zeolite. Such a zeolite exhibits the con
for at least 15 minutes. The zeolite is then ?ushed with 65 strained access as herein de?ned and is to be regarded as having a Constraint Index in the range of l to 12. Also helium and the temperature is adjusted between 290° C. contemplated herein as having a Constraint Index in the and 510° C. to give an overall conversion of between range of 1 to 12 and therefore within the scope of the 10% and 60%. The mixture of hydrocarbons is passed
de?ned novel/class of highly siliceous zeolites are those zeolites which, when tested under two or more sets of
Characteristic Lines of ZSM-48
conditions within the above-speci?ed ranges of temper
ature and conversion, produce a value of the Constraint Index slightly less than 1, e.g. 0.9, or somewhat greater than 12, eg 14 or 15, with at least one other value within the range of 1 to 12. Thus, it should be under stood that the Constraint Index value as used herein is an inclusive rather than an exclusive ‘value. That is, a
11.9 10.2 7.2 5.9 4.2 3.9 3.6 2.85
crystalline zeolite when identi?ed by any combination
W-S W W W VS VS W W
of conditions within the testing de?nition set forth herein as having a Constraint Index in the range of l to
l2 is intended to be included in the instant novel zeolite
These values were determined by standard tech niques. The radiation was the K-alpha doublet of cop
de?nition whether or not the same identical zeolite,
per, and a scintillation counter spectrometer with a strip
when tested under other of the de?ned conditions, may give a Constraint Index value outside of the range of l
chart pen recorder was used. The peak heights, I, and the positions as a function of 2 times theta, where theta is the Bragg angle, were read from the spectrometer
The novel class of zeolites de?ned herein-is exempli
?ed by ZSM-S, ZSM-ll, ZSM-12, ZSM-23, ZSM-35,
ZSM-38, ZSM-48 and other similar materials. ZSM-S is described in greater detail in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,702,886 and Re 29,948. The entire descriptions con tained within those patents, particularly the X-ray dif fraction pattern of therein disclosed ZSM-S, are incor porated herein by reference.
ZSM-ll is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,709,979. That
description, and in particular the X-ray diffraction pat tern of said ZSM-ll, is incorporated herein by refer ence.
relative intensity. Other minor variations can occur
depending on the silicon to aluminum ratio of the par 30 ticular sample, as well as if it has been subjected to
thermal treatment. The ZSM-48 can be prepared from a reaction mixture containing a source of silica, water, RN, an alkali metal
ZSM-12 isdescribed in 11.5. Patent No. 3,832,449.
That description, and in particular the X-ray diffraction pattern disclosed therein, is incorporated herein by reference.
oxide (e.g. sodium) and optionally alumina. The reac tion mixture should have a composition, in terms of
ZSM-23 is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,076,842. The entire content thereof, particularly the speci?cation of the X-ray diffraction pattern of the disclosed zeolite, is incorporated herein by reference.
mole ratios of oxides, falling within the following ranges:
ZSM-35 is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,016,245. The
description of that zeolite, and particularly the X-ray diffraction pattern thereof, is incorporated herein by reference.
chart. From these, the relative intensities, 100 I/IO, where 10 is the intensity of the strongest line or peak, and d (obs), the interplanar spacing in Angstroms, cor responding to the recorded lines, were calculated. In the foregoing table the relative intensities are given in terms of the symbols W=weak, VS=very strong and W-S=weak-to-strong. Ion exchange of the sodium ion with cations reveals substantially the same pattern with some minor shifts in interplanar spacing and variation in
ZSM-38 is more particularly described in US. Pat.
No. 4,046,859. The description of that zeolite, and par 45
Al203/SiO2 Na/SiO; ‘RN/S102 0H—/SiO2 n2o/sio2 H+(added)/Si02
= = = = = =
0 m 0.01 0.1 to 1.0 0.05 to 1.0 0 w 0.1 20 to 70 0 to 0.05
0 m 0.02 0 to 2 0.01 to 2.0 0 m 0.25 10 to 100 0 to 0.2
ticularly the speci?ed X-ray diffraction pattern thereof, ‘wherein RN is a C1-C20-organic compound having
is incorporated herein by reference. ZSM-48 can be identi?ed, in terms of moles of anhy drous oxides per 100 moles of silica, as follows:
amine functional group of pKa_Z_7. The mixture is main tained at 80°-250” C. until crystals of the material are 50 formed. H+(added) is moles acid added in excess of the
moles of hydroxide added. In calculating H+(added) and OH values, the term acid (H+) includes both hy
(0-15)RN:(0—1.5)M2/,,0:(O—2)Al2O3:(100)Si02 wherein: M is at least one cation having a valence n; and
RN is a Cy-Cgg organic compound
dronium ion, whether free or coordinated, and alumi num. Thus aluminum sulfate, for example, would be 55 considered a mixture of aluminum oxide, sulfuric acid, and water. An amine hydrochloride would be a mixture
having at least one amine
of amine and HCl. In preparing the highly siliceous form of ZSM-48 no alumina is added. Thus, the only
functional group of pKa E 7.
It is recognized that, particularly when the composi
aluminum present occurs as an impurity in the reactants. .60
tion contains tetrahedral, framework aluminum, a frac tion of the amine functional groups may be protonated.
Preferably, crystallization is carried out under pres sure in an autoclave or static bomb reactor, at 80° C. to
250° C. Thereafter, the crystals are separated from the liquid and recovered. The composition can be prepared
The doubly protonated from, in conventional notation, would be (RNH)2O and is equivalent in'stoichiometry synthetic zeolite ZSM-48 has the following signi?cant
utilizing materials which supply the appropriate oxide. Such compositions include sodium silicate, silica hydro sol, silica gel, silicic acid, RN, sodium hydroxide, so dium chloride, aluminum sulfate, sodium aluminate,
aluminum oxide, or aluminum itself. RN is a C1-C3;
The characteristic X-ray diffraction pattern of the
meter. It has been found that zeolites which satisfy all
organic compound containing at least one amine func tional group of pKaZ7, .as de?ned above, and includes
three of the discussedlcriteria are most desired for sev eral reasons. When hydrocarbon products or by-pro
such compounds vas C3-C13 primary, secondary, and
ducts are catalytically formed, for example, such zeo lites tend to maximize the production of gasoline boiling
tertiary amines, cyclic amine\(such as piperidine, pyr rolidine and piperazine), and polyamines such as NHZ C,,H2,,-NH2 where n is 4-12.
range hydrocarbon products. Therefore, the preferred
The original cations can be subsequently replaced, at least in part, by calcination and/or ion exchange with another cation. Thus, the original cations are exchanged
zeolites useful with respect to this invention are those
into a hydrogen or hydrogen ion precursor form or a
12‘and a dried crystal density of not less than about 1.6
having a Constraint Index as de?ned above of about 1 to about 12, a silica to alumina mole ratio of at least about
grams per cubic centimeter. The dry density for- known structures may be calculated from the number of silicon ble. Thus, for example, it is contemplated to exchange plus aluminum atoms per 1000 cubic Angstroms, as the original cations with ammonium ions or with hydro given, e.g., on‘ Page 19 of the article vZEOLITE nium ions. ;Catalytically active formsof these would 5 STRUCTURE by W. M. Meier. This paper, the entire include, in particular, hydrogen, rare earth metals, alu contents of which are incorporated herein by reference, minum, manganese and other metals of Groups II and is included in PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFER VIII of the Periodic Table. ENCE ON MOLECULAR SIEVES, (London, April It is to be understood that by incorporating by refer 1967) published by the Society of Chemical Industry, ence the foregoing patents to describe examples of spe 20 London, 1968; ci?c members of the novel class with greater particular When the crystal structure is unknown, the crystal ity, it is intended that identi?cation of the therein dis framework density may be determined by classical pyc
form in which the original cation has been replaced by a metal of Groups II through VIII of the Periodic Ta
closed crystalline zeolites be resolved on the basis of nometer techniques. For example, it maybe determined their respective X-ray diffraction patterns. As discussed by immersing the dry hydrogen form of the zeolite in an above, the present invention contemplates utilization of 25 organic solvent which is not sorbed by the crystal. Or, ,such catalysts wherein the mole ratio of silica to alu the crystal density may be- determined.by mercury minais essentially unbounded. The incorporation of the porosirnetry, since mercury will fill the interstices be identi?ed patents should therefore not be construed as tween crystals but will not penetrate the intracrystalline
limiting the disclosed crystalline zeolites to those hav ing the speci?c silica-alumina mole ratios discussed therein, it now being known that such zeolites may be substantially aluminum-free and 'yet, having the same
It is possible that the unusual sustained activity an stability of this special class of zeolites is associated with
its high crystal anionic framework density of not less than about 1.6 grams per cubic centimeteruThis high density must necessarily be associated with a relatively small amount of free space within the crystal, which might be expected to result in more stable structures.
crystal structure as the disclosed materials, may be use ful or even preferred in some applications. It is the
crystal structure, as identi?ed by ‘the X-ray diffraction “?ngerprint”, which establishes the identity of the spe ci?c crystalline zeolite material. This free space, however‘, is important as the locus of The speci?c zeolites described, when prepared in the catalytic activity. ' , ' “presence of organic cations, are substantially catalyti Crystal framework densities of some typical zeolites, cally inactive, possibly because the intracrystalline free 1,10 including some which are not within the purview of this space is occupied by organic cations from the forming solution. They may be activated by heating in an inert atmosphere at‘ 540° C. for one hour, for example, fol Void. Framework lowed by base exchange with ammonium salts followed Volume , Density by calcination at 540° C. in air. The presence of organic 45 inventiomare:
cations in the forming solution may not be absolutely
_ essential to the formation of this type zeolite; however, the presence of these cations does appear to favor the
in air at about 540° C. for from about 15 minutes to
about 24 hours. ' Natural zeolites may sometimes be converted to zeo
lite structures of the class herein identi?ed by various 55 activation procedures and other treatments such as base
exchange, steaming, alumina extraction and calcination,
1.76 g/cc I
.34 .38 .39 .41 .40
1.77 1.65 1.69 1.57 1.55
Levynite Chabazite A Y
.47 .5 .48
Laumontite ZSM~4 (Omega) Heulandite P Offretite Erionite Gmelinite
alone or in combinations. Natural minerals which may be so treated include ferrierite, brewsterite, ‘stilbite,
The preferred crystalline zeolites for utilization herein include ZSM-5, ZSM-ll, ZSM-lZ, ZSM-23, ZSM-35, ZSM-38, and ZSM-48, with ZSM-5 being
exchangewith ammonium salts followed by calcination
formation of this special class of zeolite. More ‘gener ally, it is desirable to activate this type catalyst by base
dachiardite, epistilbite, heulandite, and clinoptilolite.
1.45 1.3 1.27
When synthesized in thealkali metal form, the zeolite is conveniently converted to the hydrogen form, gener
In a preferred aspect of this invention, the zeolites 65 ally by intermediate formation of the ammonium form as a result of ammonium ion exchange and calcination hereof are selected as those. providing among other
things a crystal framework density, in the dry hydrogen form, of not less than about 1.6 grams per cubic centi
of the ammonium form to yieldthe hydrogen form. In addition to the hydrogen form, other forms of the‘zeo
lite wherein the original alkali metal has been reduced to less than about 1.5 percent by weight may be used. Thus, the original alkali metal of the zeolite may be
choice for any particular compound will, of course, be determined by the nature of the compound and for that
replaced by ion exchange with other suitable metal cations of Groups I through VIII of the Periodic Table, including, by Way of example, nickel, copper, zinc,
haustive of all of the suitable possibilities.
reason the foregoing list should not be considered ex
Representative lithium-containing compounds in clude lithium acetate, lithium acetylsalicylate, lithium carbonate, lithium chlorate, lithium perchlorate, lithium chloride, lithium bromide, lithium ?uoride, lithium io dide, lithium iodate, lithium nitrite, lithium nitrate, lith ium oxalate, lithium palmitate, lithium salicylate, lith ium sulfate, lithium tartarate, lithium sul?de, lithium
palladium, calcium or rare earth metals.
In practicing a particularly desired chemical conver sion process, it may be useful to incorporate the above described crystalline zeolite with a matrix comprising another material resistant to the temperature and other conditions employed in the process. Such matrix mate rial is useful as a binder and imparts greater resistance to the catalyst for the severe temperature, pressure and reactant feed stream velocity conditions encountered in
thiocyanate and lithium stearate. This listing is not to be taken as encompassing all of the utilizable lithium-con
taining compounds. It is merely intended to be illustra tive of some of the representative metal compounds which those in the art will ?nd useful in practicing the disclosed invention. The knowledgeable reader will
many cracking processes. Useful matrix materials include both synthetic and naturally occurring substances, as well as inorganic
readily appreciate that there are numerous other known materials such as clay, silica and/or metal oxides. The lithium salts and complexes which would provide solu latter may be either naturally occurring or in the form 20 tions containing lithium suitable for combination with of gelatinous precipitates or gels including mixtures of the zeolite in the manner hereinafter described. silica and metal oxides. Naturally occurring clays which Reaction of the zeolite with the treating lithium com can be composited with the zeolite include those of the pound is effected by contacting the zeolite with such montmorillonite and kaolin families, which families compound. Where the treating compound is a liquid, include the sub-bentonites and the kaolins commonly 25 such compound can be in solution in a solvent at the known as Dixie, McNamee-Georgia and Florida clays time contact with the zeolite is effected. Any solvent or others in which the main mineral constituent is hal relatively inert with respect to the treating lithium com loysite, kaolinite, dickite, nacrite or anauxite. Such clays pound and the zeolite may be employed. Suitable sol can be used in the raw state as originally mined or ini vents include water and aliphatic, aromatic or alcoholic tially subjected to calcination, acid treatment or chemi liquid. The treating compound may also be used with cal modi?cation. out a solvent, i.e. may be used as a neat liquid. Where In addition to the foregoing materials, the zeolites the treating compound is in the gaseous phase, it can be employed herein may be composited with a porous used by itself or in admixture with a gaseous diluent matrix material, such as alumina, silica-alumina, silica relatively inert to the treating compound and the zeolite magnesia, silica-zirconia, silica-thoria, silica-beryllia, 35 (such as helium or nitrogen) or with an organic solvent and silica-titania, as well as ternary compositions, such such as octane or toluene. Heating of the lithium com as silica-alumina-thoria, silica-alumina-zirconia, silica pound impregnated catalyst subsequent to preparation alumina-magnesia and silica-magnesia-zirconia. The and prior to use is preferred, and such heating can, if matrix may be in the form of a cogel. The relative pro desired, be carried out in the presence of oxygen-for
portions of zeolite component and inorganic oxide gel matrix, on an anhydrous basis, may vary widely with the zeolite content ranging from between about 1 to about 99 percent by weight and more usually in the range of about 5 to about 80 percent by weight of the
dry composite. The above crystalline zeolites employed are, in ac cordance with the present invention, contacted with a
example, in air. Although heating may be carried out at a temperature of about 150° C. or more, higher tempera tures, e. g. up to about 500° C., are preferred. Heating is generally carried out for 1-5 hours but may be extended
for 24 hours or longer. While heating temperatures 45 above about 500° C. may be employed, they are gener
solution of one or more compounds of the alkali metal
ally not necessary, and at temperatures of about 1000” C. the crystal structure of the zeolite tends to deterio rate. After heating in air at elevated temperatures, and
elements of Group IA of the Periodic Chart of the Elements. The Periodic Chart referred to herein is that
without being limited by any theoretical considerations, it is contemplated that the lithium is actually present in
version of?cially approved by the United States Na
the zeolite in an oxidized state, such as LiZO. The amount of lithium oxide incorporated in the
tional Bureau of Standards (NBS) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists (IUPAC), the
alkali metal elements of Group IA being lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb) and cesium
zeolite should be at least about 0.25 percent by weight. However, it is preferred that the amount utilized be at
least about 1.0 percent by weight, particularly when the
Solutions of such compounds may be in any suitable solvent which is inert with respect to the metal-contain
zeolite is combined with a binder, e. g. 35 weight percent of alumina. The amount of lithium oxide can be as high as about 15 percent by weight or more, depending on
ing compound and the zeolite. Non-limiting examples of
the amount and type of binder present. Preferably, the
some suitable solvents include water, aliphatic and aro 60 amount of lithium oxide added to the zeolite will be
matic hydrocarbons, alcohols, organic acids (such as between about 1 and about 10 percent by weight. acetic acid, formic acid, propionic acid and so forth), The amount of lithium incorporated with the zeolite and inorganic acids (such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric by reaction with elemental lithium or lithium-contain acid and nitric acid). Other commonly available sol ing compound will depend upon several factors. One of vents such as halogenated hydrocarbons, ketones, 65 these is the reaction time, i.e., the time that the zeolite ethers, etc. may be useful to dissolve some metal com
and the lithium-containing source are maintained in
pounds or complexes. Generally, the most useful sol
contact with each other. With greater reaction times, all other factors being equal, a greater amount of metal is
vent will be found to be water. However, the solvent of
ment with compounds of the element lithium. Examples of potassium compounds which may be utilized include
dependent include reaction temperature, concentration of the treating compound in the reaction mixture, the
potassium acetate, potassium acetyl salicylate, potas sium bromide, potassium bromate, potassium chloride,
degree to which the zeolite has been dried prior to reaction with the metal-containing compound, the con ditions of drying of the zeolite after reaction with the treating compound, and the amount and type of binder incorporated with the zeolite. Oxides of sodium are also effective modifying com
potassium camphorate, potassium carbonate, potassium chloride, potassium chlorate, potassium perchlorate, potassium hypochlorite, potassium chloroiodate, potas sium citrate, potassium cyanate, potassium cyanide, 0
ponents for imparting the desirable shape selective ac tivity to the particular type of zeolites disclosed. Exam
ples of representative sodium-containing compounds suitable for deposition of that metal on the zeolite in
clude sodium acetate, sodium barbital, sodium benzoate, sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium chlorate,
sodium bromide, sodium bromate, sodium perchlorate, sodium chlorite, sodium hypochlorite, sodium cinna mate, sodium citrate, sodium cyanate, sodium cyanide, sodium ethylacetoacetate, sodium hydride, sodium hy drogen ?uoride, sodium formate, sodium glutamate,
potassium ethylsulfate, potassium hydride, potassium ?uoride, potassium hydroxide, potassium iodate, potas sium iodide, potassium lactate, potassium laurate, potas sium malate, potassium methylsulfate, potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, potassium oleate, potassium oxalate, potassium picrate, potassium phthalate, potassium pip erate, potassium sorbate, potassium stearate, potassium sulfate, potassium succinate, potassium pyrosulfate, potassium sul?de, potassium hydrogen sul?de, potas sium sulfite, potassium tartarate, potassium thiocyanate, potassium dithionate, and potassium xanthate. Again, this listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather suggestive to those of skill in the art as to the kinds of
. sodium iodide, sodium iodate, sodium periodate, sodium
hydroxide, sodium lactate, sodium methoxide, sodium ethoxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium oleate, sodium oxalate, sodium palmitate, sodium phenoxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium propio
carried out as described above with respect to the treat
incorporated with the zeolite. Other factors upon which the amount of lithium incorporated with the zeolite is
metal-containing compounds useful for treating the zeolites as herein described. 25
A further embodiment contemplates incorporation of oxides of cesium with the zeolite as the modifying com
nate, sodium salicylate, sodium stearate, sodium succi
ponent. The cesium oxide is contemplated as being
nate, sodium sulfate, sodium persulfate, sodium hydro gen sulfate, sodium hydrogen sul?de, sodium sul?de, sodium sul?te, sodium tartarate, sodium thiocyanate,
present as C520 alone or in combination with other compounds of cesium in an oxidized state. In all in
stances, regardless of the particular state of oxidation of the cesium, its content with respect to the zeolite is computed as if it were present as C520. Generally, the amount of CsZO in the composite catalyst will be be tween about 0.25 and about 35 weight percent, and
sodium thiosulfate, and sodium ammonium tartarate. As
discussed above with respect to the illustrative listing of lithium compounds, the foregoing is not to be consid
ered as an exhaustive list vof the utilizable sodium salts and complexes. There are numerous sodium compounds 35 preferably between about 1.0 and about 30 weight per
cent, based on the weight of the composite. Reaction of the zeolite with the cesium-containing compound is
which the foregoing will suggest to those skilled in the art as being suitable for providing the sodium-contain
carried out as described above with respect to the treat
ing solutions for treatment of the zeolite as hereinafter described.
ment with compounds of the element lithium. Examples of cesium compounds which may be utilized include
Reaction of the zeolite with the sodium compounds is
cesium acetate, cesium benzoate, cesium bromide, ce sium bromate,'cesium carbonate, cesium hydrogen car bonate, cesium chloride, cesium chlorate, cesium per
accomplished in substantially the same way as that re cited above with respect to the lithium-containing com
pounds. Without being limited by any theoretical con siderations, it is contemplated that the sodium is like The amount of sodium oxide incorporated in the zeolite should be at least about 0.25 percent by weight. However, it is prefered that the amount utilized com
chlorate, cesium ?uoride, cesium formate, cesium hy dride, cesium hydroxide, cesium iodide, cesium iodate, cesium periodate, cesium nitrate, cesium nitrite, cesium oxalate, cesium oxide, cesium salicylate, cesium sulfate, cesium sul?de, cesium tartarate, and cesium hydrogen
prise at least about 1.0 percent by weight, particularly
tartarate. As before, it is cautioned that this listing is
wise in an oxidized state, such as NaZO.
when the zeolite is combined with a binder, eg 35
weight percent of alumina. The amount of sodium oxide can be as high as about 15 percent by weight or more
intended as suggestive to those of skill in the art as to
the general kinds of cesium-containing compounds which they will find useful in practicing the herein
disclosed invention. depending on the amount and type of binder present. In some instances, it may be desirable to modify the Preferably, the amount of sodium oxide added to the zeolite will be between about 1.0 and about 15 percent 55 crystalline zeolites by combining therewith two or more of the speci?ed alkali metal oxides. Thus, the by weight. zeolite may be modi?ed by prior combination therewith Oxides of potassium may also be employed as a modi of oxides of lithium and sodium, oxides of lithium and fying component. The potassium oxide is contemplated potassium, lithium and rubidium, lithium and cesium, as being present as K20 alone or in combination with other compounds of potassium in an oxidized state. In 60 sodium and potassium, sodium and rubidium, sodium
and cesium, potassium and rubidium, potassium and
all instances, regardless of the particular state of oxida tion of the potassium, its content with respect to the
cesium, rubidium and cesium, or even ternary or higher
zeolite is computed as if it were present as K20. Gener
combinations. When such modi?cation technique is employed, the respective oxides may be deposited on
ally, the amount of K20 in the composite catalyst will be between about 0.25 and about 20 weight percent, and preferably between about 1.0 and about 15 weight per cent, based on the weight of the composite. Reaction of
the zeolite with the potassium-containing compound is
the zeolite either sequentially or from a solution con
taining suitable compounds of the elements, the oxides of which are to be combined with the zeolite. The amounts of oxides present in such instance are in the
same range as speci?ed above for the individual oxides,
thiophosphate, methyl acid phosphate and other al
with the overall added oxide content being between about 1 and about 40 weight percent of the composite. A further embodiment of this invention includes addi tional modi?cation of the above metal oxide-zeolite
cohol-P1O5 reaction products. Particularly preferred are ammonium phosphates,
(NH4)2HPO4, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, NH4H1P04.
composites with phosphorus, whereby from about 0.25 weight percent to about 30 weight percent of an oxide of phosphorus, calculated as P205, is combined with the zeolite. The preferred amount of phosphorus oxide will be between about 1.0 weight percent and about 25 weight percent, based on the weight of the treated zeo lite. The phosphorus-treatment of the zeolite catalyst will preferably be carried out before the previously described modi?cation with Group IA metals. Reaction of the zeolite compound with the phosphorus-contain ing compound is carried out essentially as described
Still another modifying treatment entails steaming of the zeolite by contact with an atmosphere containing from about 5 to about 100 percent steam at a tempera ture of from about 250° to about 1000° C. for a period of between about 15 minutes and about 100 hours and under pressures ranging from sub-atmospheric to sev
eral hundred atmospheres. Preferably, steam treatment is effected at a temperature of between about 400° C. and about 700° C. for a period of between about 1 and about 24 hours.
above with respect to'the metal-containing compounds
Another modifying treatment involves precoking of
and it is preferred that the total amount of oxides com
the catalyst to deposit a coating of between about 2 and bined with the zeolite, i.e. the phosphorus oxides plus about 75, and preferably between about 15 and about 75, the metal oxides, fall within the approximate range of 2 20 weight percent of coke thereon. Precoking can be ac percent to 35 percent by weight, based on the weight of complished by contacting the catalyst with a hydrocar the treated zeolite. bon charge, e. g. toluene, under high severity conditions Representative phosphorus-containing compounds or alternatively at a reduced hydrogen to hydrocarbon which may be used include derivatives of groups repre concentration, i.e. 0 to 1 mole ratio of hydrogen to sented by PX3, RPXZ, RZPX, R3P, X3PO, (XO)3PO, 25 hydrocarbon, for a sufficient time to deposit the desired amount of coke thereon. (XO)3P, R3P:O, R3P:S, RPQZ, RPSz, RP(O)(OX)2, It is also contemplated that a combination of steaming RP(S)(SX)2, R2P(0)OX, R2P(S)SX, RP(SX)2, 'ROP and precoking of the catalyst under the above condi (OX)1, RSP(SX)2, (RS)1PSP(SR)1, and '(RO)2POP (OR)2, Where R is an alkyl or aryl, such as a phenyl tions may be employed to suitably modify the crystal radical and X is hydrogen, R, or halide. These com line zeolite catalyst.
pounds include primary, RPHZ, secondary, R2PH and tertiary, R3P, phosphines such as butyl phosphine; the
Alkylation of aromatic compounds in the presence of the above-described catalyst is effected by contact of the aromatic with an alkylating agent. A particularly
tertiary phosphine oxides R3PO, such as tributylphos
phine oxide, the tertiary phosphine sul?des, R3PS, the primary, RP(O)(OX)2, and secondary, R2P(O)OX,
phosphonic acids such as benzene phosphonic acid; the corresponding sulfur derivatives such as RP(S)(SX)2
preferred embodiment involves the alkylation of tolu ene wherein the alkylating agents employed comprise methanol or other well known methylating agents or ethylene. The reaction is carried out at a temperature of
and R2P(S)SX, the esters of the phosphonic acids such
between about 250° C. and about 750° C., preferably between about 300° C. and 650° C. At higher tempera 40 tures, the zeolites of high silica/alumina ratio are pre ferred. For example, ZSM-5 having a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio nates, (RO)P(O)R2; phosphinous acids, RgPOX, such as of 30 and upwards is exceptionally stable at high tem diethylphosphinous acid, primary, (RO)P(OX)2, Sec peratures. The reaction generally takes place at atmo ondary, (ROhPOX, and tertiary, (RO)3P, phosphites; and esters thereof such as the monopropyl ester, alkyl spheric pressure, but pressures within the approximate
as diethyl phosphonate, (RO)2P(O)H, dialkyl alkyl phosphonates, (RO)2P(O)R, and alkyl dialkylphosphi
dialkylphosphinites, (RO)PR2, and dialkyl alkylphos phinite, (RO)2PR esters.- Corresponding sulfur deriva tives may also be employed including (RS)2P(S)H,
range of 105 N/m2 to 107 N/m2 (1-100 atmospheres) may be employed.
Some non-limiting examples of suitable alkylating agents would include ole?ns such as, for example, ethyl
(RS)2P($)R, (R5)P($)R2, R2PSX, (RS)P(SX)2, (RS)2PSX, (RS)3P, (RS)PR2 and (RS)2PR. Examples of
ene, propylene, butene, decene and dodecene, as well as
phosphite esters include trimethylphosphite, triethyl
formaldehyde, alkyl halides and alcohols, the alkyl por
phosphite, diisopropylphosphite, butylphosphite; and
tion thereof having from 1 to 16 carbon atoms. Numer ous other aliphatic compounds having at least one reac
pyrophosphites such as tetraethylpyrophosphite. The alkyl groups in the mentioned compounds contain from
tive alkyl radical may be utilized as alkylating agents. Aromatic compounds which may be selectively al Other suitable phosphorus-containing compounds 55 kylated as described herein would include any alkylata include the phosphorus halides such as phosphorus ble aromatic hydrocarbon such as, for example, ben
one to four carbonatoms.
trichloride, bromide, and iodide, alkyl phosphorodi
zene, ethylbenzene, toluene, dimethylbenzenes, diethyl
chloridites, (RO)PC1;, dialkyl phosphorochloridites, (ROhPCl, dialkylphosphinochloridites, RQPCI, alkyl
benzenes, methylethylbenzenes, propylbenzene, isopro
alkylphosphonochloridates, (RO)(R)P(_O)C1, dialkyl
60 any mono- or di-substituted benzenes which are alkyla
pylbenzene, isopropylmethylbenzenes, or substantially
phosphinochloridates, R2P(O)C1 and RP(O)Cl2. Appli
table in the 4-position of the aromatic ring.
The molar ratio of alkylating agent to aromatic com pound is generally between about 0.05 and about 5. For instance, when methanol is employed as the methylat ing agent and toluene is the aromatic, a suitable molar
(RS)PCl2, (RS)2PCl, (RS)(R)P(S)C1 and R2P(S)Cl. Preferred phosphorus-containing compounds include diphenyl phosphine chloride, trimethylphosphite and phosphorus trichloride, phosphoric acid, phenyl phos
phine oxychloride, trimethylphosphate, diphenyl phos
phinous acid, diphenyl phosphinic acid, diethylchloro
ratio of methanol to toluene has been found to be ap
proximately l—0.1 moles of methanol per mole of tolu ene. Reaction is suitably accomplished utilizing a feed
about 1 and about 1000, and preferably between about 1 and about 200. The reaction product, consisting pre
departing from the spirit of the disclosed invention, as those of skill in the art will ‘recognize.
dominantly of the 1,4-dialkyl isomer, e.g. 1,4-dimethyl benzene, l-ethyl-4-methylbenzene, etc., or a mixture of
the 1,4- and 1,2-isomers together with comparatively separated by any suitable means. Such means may in
clude, for example, passing the reaction product stream through a water condenser and subsequently passing
65% on alumina binder) were placed in a quartz flow reactor and heated to temperature. A feed stream of toluene and methanol, at a molar ratio of 4 to 1, was
the organic phase through a column in which chro matographic separation ‘of the aromatic isomers is ac
passed over theheated zeolite at a weight hourly space
velocity (WHSV) of . 10. The results obtained at various temperatures are shown below.
When transalkylation is to be accomplished, transalk ylating agents are alkyl or polyalkyl aromatic hydrocar bons wherein alkyl may be composed of from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, such as, for example, toluene, xylene,
trimethylbenzene, triethylbenzene, dimethylethylben
Percent para xylene
350 400 450 500
47.2 58.0 68.0 87.6
24.8 24.4 24.3 24.2
zene, ethylbenzene, diethylbenzene, ethyltoluene, and 20
[Alkylation reaction with unmodi?ed ZSM-5] Five grams of I-IZSM-S (SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio=70;
smaller amounts of 1,3-dialkylbenzene isomer, may be
as limiting the scope of the novel invention as there are many variations which may be made thereon without
weight hourly space velocity (W HSV) of between
Another aspect of this invention involves the selec tive disproportionation of alkylated aromatic com
pounds to produce dialkylbenzenes wherein the yield of 1,4-dialkyl isomer is in excess of the normal equilibrium concentration. In this context, it should be noted that 25 disproportionation is a special case of transalkylation in
which the alkylatable hydrocarbon and the transalk ylating agent are the same compound, for example, when toluene serves ‘as the donor and acceptor of a
transferred methyl group to produce benzene and xy 30 lene.
In a similar manner, toluenevwas alkylated with ethyl ene by passing toluene and ethylene at weight hourly space velocity 7.0 and 0.5, respectively, over the heated ZSM-S. The results at various temperatures are shown
The transalkylation and disproportitonation reactions are carried out by contacting the reactants with the above-described modi?ed zeolite catalyst at a tempera
ture of between about 350° C. and 750° C. at a pressure 35
of between atmospheric (105 N/mZ) and about 100 at mospheres (107 N/mz). The reactant feed WHSV will
" 76.4 76.4
normally fall within the range of about 0.1 to about 50.
Preferred alkylated aromatic compounds suitable for utilization in the disproportionation embodiment com 40
prise toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene or substan
tially any mono-substituteed alkylbenzene. These aro matic compounds are selectively converted to, respec
[Disproportionation reaction with unmodi?ed ZSM-5] Toluene was passed over 6 grams of the unmodi?ed
tively, 1,4-dimethylbenzene, 1,4-diethylbenzene, 1,4 dipropylbenzene, or other l,4-dialkylbenzene,'as appro priate, with benzene being a primary side product in each instance. The product is recovered from the reac
tor ef?uent by conventional means, such as distillation
to remove the desired products of benzene and dialkyl benzene, and any unreacted aromatic component is 50
recycled for further reaction. The hydrocarbon conversion processes described herein may be carried. out as a batch type, semi-continu ous or continuous operation utilizing a ?xed or moving
bed catalyst system. The catalyst after use in a moving 55 bed reactor is conducted to a regeneration zone wherein coke is burned from the catalyst in an oxygen
HZSM-S zeolite of Example 1 at temperatures ranging between 450° C. and 600° C. The toluene feed WHSV was maintained at 3.5-3.6. The results are summarized below.
Conversion WHSV Mole %
% Para in
% Selectivity, wt. Benzene Xylenes
containing atmosphere, e. g. air, at an elevated tempera EXAMPLE 3 the conversion zone for further contact with the charge 60 '[Preparation of Li-modi?ed zeolite] stock. In a ?xed bed reactor, regeneration is carried out To a solution of 2.0 g lithium acetate in 5.0 ml water in a conventional manner where an inert gas containing heated at 80° C. was added 2.5 g HZSM-5 with SiOz. a small amount of oxygen (OS-2%) is used to burn the /Al2O3=70. The mixture was maintained at 70°—80° C. coke in a controlled manner so as to limit the tempera 65 for 2 hours. After ?ltration and drying at about 90° C. ture to a maximum of around 500°-550° C. for 2 hours, the residue was calcined at 500° C. for an The following examples will serve to illustrate cer additional '2 hours to give 2.5 g of Li-ZSM-S. The con tain speci?c embodiments of the hereindisclosed inven tent of lithium was estimated to be 2.7%. tion. These examples should not, however, be construed
ture, after which the regenerated catalyst is recycled to
18 EXAMPLE 9B
[Alkylation reaction with Li-modi?ed zeolite]
In a similar manner, alkylation of toluene was carried
out by passing toluene (at WHSV=7) and ethylene (at Alkylation of toluene with methanol was carried out 5 WHSV=0.5) over 2.2 g of the K-ZSM-S catalyst of by passing a toluene/methanol mixture in a molar ratio Example 8 at 400° C. Conversion of toluene was 5.5% of 4/ 1 at WHSV :10 over 1.1 g of Li-ZSM-S catalyst of and selectivity to p-ethyltoluene in ethyltoluene was Example 3 heated at 400° C. Toluene conversion was 80.0%. With the unmodi?ed ZSM-S (Example 113) the
7.6% and selectivity to p-xylene in xylenes was 72.3%,
same reaction resulted in only a 29.9% selectivity to
a three-fold increase over the selectivity demonstrated
by the unmodi?ed ZSM-5 of Example 1A.
[Disproportionation reaction with K-modi?ed zeolite]
[Preparation of Na-modi?ed zeolite]
Disproportionation of toluene was carried out by passing toluene over 1.1 g of the K-ZSM-S catalyst of
Mixed 2.0 g of HZSM-S (SiO2/Al2O3=70) with an 80° C. solution of 4.0 g sodium tartarate in 10 ml of
Example 8 at WHSV: 3.5 and 500° C. Toluene conver sion was 1.5% and selectivity to p-xylene in xylene was
water. The mixture was maintained at 80°—90° C. for 2 hours and then ?ltered to recover the zeolite. After
60.8%. In contrast, the unmodi?ed zeolite (Example 2) resulted in only 24.5% selectivity to the para-isomer
drying at about 90° C. for 1 hour, followed by calcining
at 500° C. for 2 hours more, there were 2.02 g of Na 20 under the same conditions.
ZSM-5 recovered. Upon analysis, the modi?ed zeolite
was estimated to contain 5.0% sodium.
[Preparation of Cs-modi?ed zeolite]
[Alkylation reaction with Na-modi?ed zeolite]
Alkylation of toluene with methanol was carried out
One gram of cesium nitrate was dissolved in 10 ml of
water. Added 1.5 g H-ZSM-5 (S102/Al203=70) and maintained the mixture at 18° C. for 5 hours. After
by passing a toluene/methanol feed stream (molar rati recovering the zeolite by ?ltration and drying at about 0:4/1) over 1.1 g of the Na-ZSM-S zeolite prepared in 90° C. for 16 hours, it was calcined at 500° C. for an Example 5. The temperature was 600° C. and the feed 30 additional 24 hours. The resultant Cs-ZSM-S was found rate (WHSV) was 10 hr-1. Under these conditions of reaction toluene conversion was 3.0% with selectivity
to contain 12.4% cesium.
to the para-isomer in the xylene product at 62.2%. By
contrast, the unmodi?ed zeolite, in essentially the same
[Alkylation reaction with Cs-modi?ed zeolite]
reaction [Example 1A], yielded an equilibrium mixture 35 of the three isomers.
Alkylation of toluene with methanol at 600° C. was
carried out by passing a toluene/methanol (molar ratio
4/1) mixture over 1.1 g of the Cs-ZSM-S zeolite of Example 11 at WHSV of 10 hr-l. Toluene conversion [Disproportionation reaction with Na-modi?ed zeolite] was found to be 11.6% and selectivity to para-isomer in Toluene disproportionation activity of the Na-ZSM-S 40 the xylene product was 57.6%. Again, this is more than was tested by passing a stream of toluene over the cata a two-fold increase over the equilibrium mixture which lyst as WHSV of 3.5 hr*1 and a temperature of 500° C. results for use of the unmodi?ed zeolite [Example 1A]. Upon analysis of the reactor effluent it was found that EXAMPLE 12B 47.5% of the xylene produced was the para-isomer.
This is approximately twice the level of para-selectivity 45 In a similar manner, ethylation of toluene was carried found in Example 2 for the unmodi?ed zeolite. out by passing toluene (at WHSV=7 hr~1) and ethyl EXAMPLE 8
ene (at WHSV=0.5 hrrl) over 1.1 g of the Cs-ZSM-5 zeolite at 400° C. Toluene conversion was 2.7% and
[Preparation of K-modi?ed zeolite]
selectivity to para-ethyltoluene in the ethyltoluene pro
50 duced was 60.0%. The unmodi?ed ZSM-5 had only a To a solution of 4.0 g potassium acetate in 10 ml 29.9% para-selectivity under the same conditions of water at 20° C. was added 3.0 g I-IZSM-S with SiOz/A1 reaction [Example 1B]. 2O3=70. The mixture was maintained at 20° C. for 4 hours. After ?ltration and drying at about 80° C. for 16 EXAMPLE l3 hours, the residue was calcined at 500° C. for an addi 55 [Disproportionation reaction with Cs-modi?ed zeolite] tional 2 hours to give 2.7 g of K-ZSM-S. The content of potassium was found to be 15.4%. Toluene disproportionation activity was examined by contacting the Cs-ZSM-S zeolite of Example 11 with a EXAMPLE 9A toluene feed at 500° C. and WHSV of 3.5 hr— 1. Analysis of the reaction product revealed a selectivity to the [Alkylation reaction with K-modi?ed zeolite]
Alkylation of toluene with methanol was carried out
by passing a toluene/methanol mixture (molar ratio of '4/ 1) at WHSV: 10 over 1.1 g of the K-ZSM-S catalyst of Example 8 which had been heated at 500° C. Toluene conversion was 5.2% and selectivity to p-xylene in 65
para-isomer in the xylene product of 48.4%. EXAMPLE 14
[Preparation of P-modi?ed zeolite] Two hundred grams of the ammonium form of
xylenes was 66.4%. When unmodi?ed zeolite was em
ZSM-5 (65% on alumina binder) were added to a solu
ployed in the same reaction (Example 1A) there was
tion of 80 g of diammonium hydrogen phosphate in 300
only a 24.2%, selectivity to para-xylene.
ml of water. The mixture was allowed to stand at 90° C.
for 2 hours, then the zeolite was removed by ?ltration, dried and calcined for 2 hours at 500° C. The P-ZSM-S
modi?ed with phosphorus alone demonstrated only a 53.7% selectivity to para-isomer at 500° C. and 58.0% at
recovered contained 3.43 wt.% phosphorus.
600° C. (Example 15A).
[Alkylation reaction with P-modi?ed zeolite]
[Preparation of K-P-modi?'ed zeolte]
Alkylation of toluene with methanol was carried out by passing a toluene/methanol mixture in a molar ratio
To a solution of 4.0 g potassium acetate in 10 ml water maintained at room temperature was added 6.0 g
of 4/1 through 5.0 g of the P-ZSM-S zeolite of Example 14 while heating at the desired temperature. The feed
of the P-ZSM-S of Example 14. The mixture was main tained at room temperature for 6 hours. After ?ltration and drying at about 90° C., the residue was calcined at 500° C. for 4 hours to give 6.0 g K-P-ZSM-S. Analysis indicated the content of potassium to be 9.57% and that of phosphorus to be 3.27%.
WHSV was 10. The results obtained at the various temperatures are shown below. Temperature °C.
Percent Toluene Conversion
Percent para-xylene in Xylenes
400 450 500 550 600
43.6 54.4 70.4 85.2 85.2
66.6 57.7 53.7 52.0 58.0
[Alkylation reaction with K-P-modi?ed zeolite] 20
Ethylatin of toluene was carried out by passing tolu ene (at WHSV=7) and ethylene (at WHSV=0.5) over
1.1 g of the K-P-ZSM-S catalyst of Example 19 at 400° C. Conversion of toluene was 2.4% and selectivity to p-ethyltoluene in ethyltoluene was 72.8%. As seen from
In a similar manner, alkylation of toluene with ethyl ene was carried out by passing toluene and ethylene, at
comparative Example 15B, in the same reaction the zeolite which had'been modi?ed with phosphorus (but
a weight hourly space velocity at 7.0 and 0.5, respec
not with potassium) demonstrated a selectivity to the
tively, over the P~ZSM-5 at 400° C. Conversion of toluene was 74.8% and selectivity to p-ethyltoluene was
para-isomer of only 55.5%.
EXAMPLE 21 30
[Disproportionation reaction with K-P-modi?ed
[Disproportionation reaction with P-modi?ed zeolite]
Disproportionation of toluene was carried out by Disproportionation of toluene was carried out by passing toluene over 1.1 g of the K-P-ZSM-S catalyst of passing toluene over a 5.0 g of the P-ZSM-S zeolite of 35 Example 19 at WHSV:3.5 and 600° C. Toluene con Example 14 at a weight hourly space velocity of 3.5 and version was 0.5% and selectivity to p-xylene in xylene a temperature of between 475° C. and 550° C. The con was 43%. ditions and results are shown below.
EXAMPLE 22 Temperature Toluene % Selectivity, mole °C. Conversion % Benzene Xylene 475
500 525 550
27.1 37.4 44.0
[Alkylation reaction with unmodi?ed HZSM-l l]
% Para in Xylenes
53.3 56.1 60.4
45.4 42.2 37.3
35.1 32.1 30.1
400 500 600
[Preparation of Li-P-Modi?ed Zeolite] To a solution of 40 g lithium acetate in 10 ml water at
80° C. was added 6.0 g of the P-ZSM-S of Example 14, and the mixture maintained at 80°~90° C. for 2 hours. After ?ltration and drying at about 90° C., the residue ‘was calcined at 500° C. for 2 hours to give 6.2 g Li-P ZSM-5. Analysis indicated the content of phosphorus to be 3.30%. The content of lithium was estimated to be 1.7%.
Alkylation of toluene with methanol was carried out
by passing a toluene/methanol mixture (molar ratio of
Percent Toluene Conversion 67.6 90.4 157.2
Percent Para-xylene in Xylenes 23.4 24.0 22.7
[Preparation of Li-modi?ed ZSM-l 1] To a solution of 2.0 g lithium acetate in 5 ml water heated at 60° C. was added 1.5 g HZSM-ll having a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 70. The mixture was maintained at
[Alkylation reaction with Li-P-modi?ed zeolite]
A toluene/methanol feed stream, at a 4/1 molar ratio, was passed over 2.0 g of HZSM-ll zeolite (SiOZ/Al 203:70) at WHSV of 20 and at temperatures of 400°—600° C. The results are shown below.
60°—70° C. for 2 hours. After ?ltration and drying at about 90° C. for 16 hours, the residue was calcined at 500° C. for 3 hours to give 1.51 g of Li-ZSM-11. The lithium content was estimated to be 3.5%.
4/1) at WHSV: 10 over 5.0 g of the Li-P-ZSM-S cata EXAMPLE 24 lyst of Example 17 at 500° C. Toluene conversion was 65 [Alkylation reaction with Li-modi?ed ZSM-l 1] 23.6% and selectivity to p-xylene in xylenes was 68.3%. Alkylation of toluene with methanol was carried out At 600° 0, these were measured at 44.8% and 74.4%, by passing a toluene/methanol mixture (molar ratio of respectively. In contrast, the zeolite which had been
4/1) at WHSV=10 over 1.1 g of the Li-ZSM-ll cata
element phosphorus to deposit thereon at least 0.25
lyst of Example 23 at 600° C. Toluene conversion was 1.25% and selectivity to p-xylene in xylenes was 31.1%. It is to be understood that the foregoing is intended to
weight percent of phosphorus in its oxide forms.
be merely illustrative of certain speci?c embodiments of
oxide forms. 14. The process of claim 1 wherein said zeolite has
13. The process of claim 1 wherein said zeolite has
deposited thereon both phosphorus and lithium in their
the disclosed invention. As those of skill in the art will readily appreciate, there are many variations which may be made on these speci?c embodiments without
deposited thereon both phosphorus and sodium in their oxide forms. 15. The process of claim 1 wherein said zeolite has
departing from the spirit of the invention described herein and such variations are clearly to be encom
deposited thereon both phosphorus and potassium in
passed within ambit of the following claims.
their oxide forms. 16. The process of claim 1 wherein said zeolite has
What is claimed is:
deposited thereon both phosphorus and cesium in their
1. A process for conversion of organic compounds, said process comprising contacting said organic com
oxide forms. 17. The process of claim 1 wherein said zeolite is
pounds with a crystalline zeolite catalyst at a tempera ture of between about 250° C. and about 750° C. and a
admixed with a binder therefor.
18. The process of claim 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
pressure within the approximate range of l05N/m2 to 107N/m1, said zeolite being characterized by a silica to
12, 13, 14, 15, 16 or 17 wherein said conversion com prises the alkylation of an aromatic compound with an
alumina mole ratio of at least 12 and a constraint index within the approximate range of 1 to 12, said zeolite ,
alkylating agent to produce the dialkylbenzene com pounds wherein the l,4-dialkylbenzene isomer is pres
having undergone prior modi?cation by initial treat
ent in excess of its normal equilibrium concentration. 19. The process of claim 18 wherein said zeolite is
ment to replace the original cations therein with hydro gen or a hydrogen precursor and by subsequent treat ment with one or more compounds containing metal elements of Group IA to deposit on said zeolite at least
chosen from the group consisting of ZSM-5, ZSM-ll, ZSM-l2, ZSM-23, ZSM-35, ZSM-38 and ZSM-48. 20. The process of claim 18 wherein said zeolite is
0.25 weight percent of such element in the form of its ZSM-S. oxide. 21. The process of claim 18 wherein said zeolite is 2. The process of claim 1 wherein said temperature is ZSM-ll. between 300° C. and 650° C. 30 22. The process of claim 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 3. The process of claim 1 wherein said element of 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, or 17 wherein said conversion com Group IA is chosen from the group consisting of lith prises the transalkylation of aromatic compounds to
ium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium and
produce dialkylbenzene compounds wherein the 1,4
wherein said zeolite is a highly siliceous zeolite. 4. The process of claim 1 wherein said element is lithium. 5. The process of claim 4 wherein said lithium com
dialkylbenzene isomer is present in excess of its normal
equilibrium concentration. 23. The process of claim 22 wherein said zeolite is
chosen from the group consisting of ZSM-5, ZSM-ll, ZSM-l2, ZSM-23, ZSM-35, ZSM-38 and ZSM-48.
prises between 1 and 15 weight percent of the modi?ed zeolite catalyst.
24. The process of claim 22 wherein said zeolite is 6. The process of claim 1 wherein said element is 40 ZSM-5. sodium. 25. The process of claim 22 wherein said zeolite is 7. The process of claim 6 wherein said sodium com ZSM-ll.
prises between 1 and 15 weight percent of the modi?ed zeolite catalyst.
26. The process of claim 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, '7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 or 17 wherein said conversion com
8. The process of claim 1 wherein said element is 45 prises disproportionation of alkylbenzenes to produce
benzene and dialkylbenzenes in which the proportion of 1,4-dialkylbenzene isomer is in excess of its normal equi
9. The process of claim 8 wherein said potassium comprises between 1 and 25 weight percent of the mod
i?ed zeolite catalyst.
librium concentration. 27. The process of claim 26 wherein said zeolite is
10. The process of claim 1 wherein said element is cesium.
chosen from the group consisting of ZSM-5, ZSM-ll, ZSM-l2, ZSM-23, ZSM-35, ZSM-38 and ZSM-48.
11. The process of claim 10 wherein said cesium com
28. The process of claim 26 wherein said zeolite is ZSM-S. zeolite catalyst. ‘ 29. The process of claim 26 wherein said zeolite is 12. The process of claim 1 wherein said zeolite is also 55 ZSM-ll. * * I! * is modi?ed by treatment thereof with a compound of the
prises between 1 and 30 weight percent of the modi?ed